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CSCI-690 Computer Networks: Shrinking the globe one click at a time Lecture 1


Title: CSCI-370/EENG-480 Computer Networks Lecture 1 Author. Last modified by: Khurram Kazi Created Date: 8/29/2008 8:53:53 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CSCI-690 Computer Networks: Shrinking the globe one click at a time Lecture 1

CSCI-690Computer NetworksShrinking the globe
one click at a timeLecture 1
  • Khurram Kazi

Major sources of the slides for this lecture
  • Some of the Slides used in this lecture are from
    Tanenbaums and William Stallings websites
  • K. Kazi Optical Networking Standards A
    Comprehensive Guide for Professionals
  • Larry L. Peterson Bruce S. Davie, Computer
    Networks A Systems Approach

Course Outline
  • This course provides an introduction to the
    fundamentals and the applications of data
    communications networks. Network architectures,
    topology, protocols, network services and models
    will be discussed. Some of the protocols the
    course will cover are
  • Protocols based on Internet Protocol (IP) (Layer
    3 and above)
  • Routing fundamentals and protocols within IP
    Network (Layer 3 and above)
  • Ethernet (10/100 Mb/s, 1/10/100(??) Gb/s
    Ethernet) (LAN, Metro and Wide Area Networks)
  • Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET) (Wide Area
  • Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) (Wide Area
  • MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) (Layer 2.5)
  • Switching and routing architectures will be
    presented (Hardware/Software implementation
  • Time permitting we will cover some aspects of
    Cellular Networking and Next Generation Network
    Architecture (NGN) (Time permitting)
  • Services provided by various networks (Time
  • Network Security (Time permitting)
  • OPNET (a premier network simulator) maybe be used
    in simulating various aspects of networking

Grading Policy
  • Assignments short quizzes 30
  • 1 Midterm Test 30
  • Final Project 40
  • Final Projects will be in any topic of interest
    within the Data Networking field
  • There will be an Oral presentation of the project
    along with a written report
  • Class participation can sway the grade (so highly
    encouraged, dont be shy to ASK questions)
  • NYITs Academic Integrity policy will be strictly
    enforced. Any student found to be cheating (in
    the assignments, quizzes, Midterm etc.) will get
    a straight F

Dos and Donts for the Final Project
  • DO NOT use any report / design from the net. I
    will know if you did!!
  • Properly referenced work that is not plagiarized
    is acceptable
  • Most of it should be your work!!
  • Select the topic that interests you. Be creative
    in it! Designing some aspect in software or
    hardware will be highly encouraged as opposed to
    doing an overview/report on some networking
  • By mid semester have a good idea of your project
  • Team of 2 students working on the same project is
  • Each team members task within the project should
    be explicitly defined.

Intended Results at the Culmination of the Course
  • You should have a good understanding of
    networking technologies
  • Ability to implement (in software) varied
    networking protocols
  • Should be able to architecturally design various
    components of the diverse networks
  • Design of a router/switching Network Element
  • Protocol Handling/protocol stacks
  • Line Cards
  • Switch Fabrics
  • Have a good understanding of various WAN/MAN/LAN
  • Ability to figure out which aspect is implemented
    in hardware and what is designed in the software

Recommended Books
  • 1)    The Internet and Its Protocols A
    Comparative Approach, Adrian Farrel, Morgan
    Kaufmann Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1-55860-913-X
  • 2)    Computer Networking A Top-Down Approach,
    Kurose, Ross, 5th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2010,
    ISBN 978-0-13-607967-5
  • 3)    Computer Networks A Systems Approach,
    Larry L. Peterson Bruce S. Davie, 4th Edition,
    Morgan Kaufman, 2007, ISBN 978-0-12-370548-8
  • 4)    Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 4th
    Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003, ISBN 0-13-066102-3
  • 5)    Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles,
    Protocols, and Architectures, 4th Edition, Volume
    1, Prentice Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-13-018380-6
  • 6)    Optical Networking Standards A
    Comprehensive Guide for Professionals, edited by
    Khurram Kazi, Springer, 2006, ISBN 0-387-24062-4

Useful websites
  • Tanenbaums website at Prentice Hall
  • http//
  • William Stallings (Another good text book on
    data and computer networks) Website
  • http//
  • Excellent site for the latest trends in
  • Standards Organizations and Industry Forums
  • Internet Engineering Task Force
  • http//
  • MetroEthernet Forum
  • http//
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU) The
    leading United Nations agency for information and
    communication technologies
  • http//
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers) LAN/MAN Standards Committee
  • http//
  • OPNET (Network simulator that we will be using)

Standards Organizations ITU
  • Main sectors
  • Radiocommunications
  • Telecommunications Standardization
  • Development
  • Classes of Members
  • National governments
  • Sector members
  • Associate members
  • Regulatory agencies

Standards Organizations IETF
  • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a
    large open international community of network
    designers, operators, vendors, and researchers
    concerned with the evolution of the Internet
    architecture and the smooth operation of the
    Internet. It is open to any interested
    individual. The IETF Mission Statement is
    documented in RFC3935.

Standards Organizations IEEE 802 Standards
  • The 802 working groups. The important ones are
    marked with . The ones marked with ? are
    hibernating. The one marked with gave up.

Implication of the Designs we work on keep few
things in mind!
  • During the design process we always make
  • Trade-offs can be based on time to market, cost
    implications, complexity, environmental
    considerations etc.
  • Ethics Keep in mind the implications of what you
    are designing, how it impacts the society!!
  • Privacy vs. Security is a big issue in networking
  • Network designs inherently deal with
  • Implementing of standardized solutions based on
    regional or global standards developed by
    industry forums or international standards
  • Power consumption considerations Making the
    Designs Green Environmental friendly!!
    Especially true for Data Centers, cell sites and
    cellular networking infrastructure etc.
  • IEEE 802.3AZ working group has defined Energy
    Efficient Ethernet PHY specification
  • Cost/performance trade-offs

Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to
Conserve Energy
Methods to Save Energy
  • Reduce Link Rate
  • Can (and does) save energy
  • Some NICs drop link rate when a laptop is battery
  • Or, when a PC goes into sleep state
  • Turns-off PHY if no signal on link
  • Match the link rate to utilization
  • High utilization high link rate
  • Low utilization low link rate
  • Currently implemented using auto-negotiation
  • Set the Technology ability bits/message codes and
    then reset the link
  • Takes about 1000 milliseconds (a loooooooong

Methods to Save Energy
  • Need for fast transitions Need for fast
  • Can extend the benefits of link data rate
  • By making the data rate transition faster
  • Need a faster way than auto-negotiation
  • When I need high data rate, I need it now
  • Cant advertise the desire to change to a higher
  • Need a mechanism that is transparent to upper
  • Need a standard mechanism to rapidly transition
  • From low to high data rate
  • From high to low data rate
  • Within the capabilities established by Auto
  • IEEE Working Group 802.3AZ has developed the
    Energy Efficient Ethernet PHY specification

Uses of Computer Networks
  • Business Applications
  • Home Applications
  • Mobile Users
  • Social Issues
  • Vehicular networks
  • Industrial/manufacturing networks

Business Applications of Networks
Business Applications of Networks (2)
  • The client-server model involves requests and

Home Network Applications
  • Access to remote information
  • Person-to-person communication
  • Interactive entertainment
  • Electronic commerce

Home Network Applications (2)
  • In peer-to-peer system there are no fixed
    clients and servers.

Network Applications
  • Some forms of e-commerce.

Types of Network
  • Metropolitan Area Networks
  • Local Area Networks
  • Wide Area Networks
  • Cellular Networks
  • Wireless Networks (could be Broadband Networks or
  • Home Networks
  • Inter-networks

Network classification based on distances
  • Classification of interconnected processors by

Fuzzy Networking Demarcation Points
Communications Tasks
Transmission system utilization Addressing
Interfacing Routing
Signal generation Recovery
Synchronization Message formatting
Exchange management Security
Error detection and correction Network management
Flow control
A Communications Model
or cable/DSL modem
or cable/DSL modem
or cable network
Data Communications Model
Transmission Medium
  • Selection is a basic choice
  • internal use entirely up to business
  • long-distance links made by carrier
  • Rapid technology advances change/mix various
    transmission medium
  • fiber optic
  • Copper Cable (still alive and widely used)
  • Wireless (microwaves, satellite, light waves,
    cellular etc.)
  • Transmission costs still high (but decreasing as
    time progresses)
  • Hence interest in efficiency improvements (never
    ending so to speak!)

Some of the Drivers for Innovative Networking
  • Growth of number power of computers is driving
    need for interconnection
  • also seeing rapid integration of voice, data,
    image video technologies
  • Voice over IP
  • IPTV
  • Traditional net connectivity for data
  • Gaming industry
  • Interactive gaming services enabling multiple
    players across diverse geographical locations

Types of Networks Wide Area Networks
  • Span a large geographical area
  • Cross public rights of way
  • Rely in part on common carrier circuits
  • Technologies used include
  • circuit switching
  • packet switching (IP or MPLS based)
  • Ethernet based transport
  • Legacy Technologies
  • frame relay
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Types of NetworksWide Area Network
Types of NetworksWide Area Network
  • Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.

Types of NetworksWide Area Network
  • A stream of packets from sender to receiver.

Circuit Switching
  • Uses a dedicated communications path established
    for duration of conversation
  • Comprising a sequence of physical links with a
    dedicated logical channel
  • e.g. telephone network

Packet Switching
  • Data sent out of sequence over diverse paths
  • Small chunks (packets) of data at a time
  • Packets passed from node to node between source
    and destination
  • Used for terminal to computer and computer to
    computer communications

Types of NetworksMetro Area Network
  • MAN
  • Middle ground between LAN and WAN
  • Private or public network
  • High speed
  • Large area

Types of NetworksMetro Area Network
Types of NetworksMetro Area Network
  • A metropolitan area network based on
    cable/Satellite service providers.

Types of NetworksLocal Area Networks
  • Smaller scope
  • Building or small campus
  • Usually owned by same organization as attached
  • Data rates much higher
  • Switched LANs, e.g. Ethernet
  • Wireless LANs

Types of NetworksLocal Area Networks
  • Two broadcast networks
  • (a) Bus
  • (b) Ring

Types of NetworksWireless Networks
  • Categories of wireless networks
  • System interconnection
  • Wireless LANs
  • Wireless WANs

Types of NetworksWireless Networks
  • (a) Bluetooth configuration
  • (b) Wireless LAN

Types of NetworksWireless Networks
  • (a) Individual mobile computers
  • (b) A flying LAN (several airlines offer internet
    connectivity during flights)

Types of NetworksHome Networking
  • Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals
  • Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3)
  • Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax)
  • Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace,
    air-conditioning etc.)
  • Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam).

Home NetworkingDigital Living Room
  • Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA)
  • http//

The Internet
  • Internet evolved from ARPANET
  • first operational packet network
  • applied to tactical radio satellite nets also
  • had a need for interoperability
  • led to standardized TCP/IP protocols

Internet Elements
SONET/OTH (MPLS based routing)
Internet Architecture
Example Configuration