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Protocol on Transport, Communications and Meteorology (PTCM)


General objective establish TCM systems which provide efficient, cost-effective and fully integrated infrastructure and operations to meet the needs of customers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protocol on Transport, Communications and Meteorology (PTCM)

Protocol on Transport, Communications and
Meteorology (PTCM)
  • General objective establish TCM systems which
    provide efficient, cost-effective and fully
    integrated infrastructure and operations to meet
    the needs of customers and promote economic and
    social development while being environmentally
    and economically sustainable.
  • Strategic goals
  • the elimination or reduction of hindrances and
    impediments to the movement of persons, goods,
    equipment and services
  • the integration of regional networks through the
    implementation of compatible policies and
  • greater diversity of services and the promotion
    of competition between service providers through
    transparent, flexible, predictable and
    streamlined regulatory frameworks
  • the achievement of economies of scale between
    SADC service providers of varying size,
    increasing their global and regional
  • broad-based investment to develop, preserve and
    improve strategic PTCM infrastructure within an
    investor-friendly environment which facilitates
    commercial activity
  • restructured state enterprises and public
    utilities which are financially independent and
    commercially viable
  • Principal focus integration of regional systems
    through compatible policies and legislation, but
    also contains some commitments pertaining to

PTCM in Transport
  • Scope of application is the whole of the
    national and regional sectors (public and
  • Expressly requires State Parties to treat
    equally the national freight and passenger
    service providers of State Parties with regard to
    the provision, access and use of infrastructure
    and immigration and clearance procedures.

Civil Aviation
  • PTCM recognises the need for co-operation in the
    region in order to overcome the constraints of
    small national markets, market restrictions and
    the small size of some SADC airlines and further
    to ensure the competitiveness of regional air
    services in a global context.
  • This indicates a need to open up markets.
  • In order to achieve these objectives, Member
    States agreed to develop a harmonised regional
    civil aviation policy for the gradual
    liberalisation of intra-regional air transport
    markets for the SADC airlines.

Civil Aviation Cont.
  • The most significant progress towards
    liberalisation appears to be the adoption of the
    Yamoussoukro Decision Concerning the
    Liberalisation of Access to Air Transport Markets
    in Africa which came into effect in August 2000.
  • Aim establish arrangements for the gradual
    liberalisation of scheduled and non-scheduled
    intra-Africa air transport services. It purports
    to have precedence over any incompatible
    multilateral or bilateral agreements on air
    services between State Parties.
  • Implementation of the framework (especially
    safety requirements) has apparently been poor to
  • Most Member States have not implemented their
    commitments under the Yamoussoukro Decision but
    maintain policies endorsing its implementation.

  • Passenger transportation
  • Freight transportation
  • Rental of aircraft with crew
  • Maintenance and repair of aircraft
  • Supporting services for air transport
  • Services auxiliary to all modes
  • Cargo-handling services
  • Storage and warehouse services
  • Freight transport agency services
  • Other

Yamoussoukro Declaration
  • 1988 new African air transport policy.
  • Focused primarily on airline cooperation and
  • Driven more by need for pan-African cooperation
    than by objective of creating more competitive
    market environment.
  • Nevertheless, foresaw the gradual elimination of
    traffic restrictions, specifically the granting
    of fifth freedom rights to African airlines.
  • Enforced the notion that air transport sector in
    Africa needed to be liberalised.

Yamoussoukro Decision (YD)
  • 1999 agreement to liberalise pan-African air
  • Formally adopted 2000.
  • Objective gradual liberalisation of scheduled
    and non-scheduled intra-African air transport
    services. Granting free exercise of first,
    second, third, fourth, and fifth freedom rights
    on scheduled and non-scheduled passenger and
    freight air services.
  • Liberalises only international air services.
  • Frequencies and capacity offered on air services
    linking any city pair combination shall not be
    limited by either of the state parties concerned.
    No state party shall unilaterally limit volume of
    traffic, type of aircraft to be operated, or
    number of flights per week.
  • However, for environmental, safety, technical, or
    other special considerations, states may limit
    traffic. Other special considerations are
    primarily of a technical nature. These
    considerations should not be driven by commercial
    considerations in favour of any particular

Yamoussoukro Decision (YD) Cont.
  • Each state party can designate in writing at
    least one airline to operate intra-African air
    transport services. No limitation to the number
    of carriers a state party can designate, as long
    as they meet the eligibility criteria (designated
    airline meets minimum standards with regard to
    legal and physical establishment, licensing,
    operating capacity, insurance coverage, capacity
    to maintain international standards be legally
    established in accordance with the regulations
    applicable in the relevant state party have its
    headquarters, central administration, and
    principal place of business physically located in
    that same country be effectively controlled by
    the nationals of one, or in the case of
    multinational airlines, several state parties).
  • Strong focus on safety and security.
  • Recognise air operating certificates,
    certificates of airworthiness, certificates of
    competency, and personnel licences issued or
    validated by other state parties.

  • World Bank Report of 2010 identified four groups
    of countries (updated)
  • (i), (iii) and (iv) should be willing to apply
    the Yamoussoukro Decision.
  • (ii) maintaining heavily subsidised air carrier
    or procrastinating in the opening of air
    transport markets.
  • World Bank Report
  • None of the SADC Member States had liberalised in
    spirit of Yamoussoukro Decision.
  • Attributed South African domination of the market
    as prime reason for fifth freedoms being
    extremely limited.
  • PTCM and PTIS have not been implemented by Member

(i) Dominating state-owned carrier South Africa
(ii) Weak or small state-owned carrier Angola, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.
(iii) Private operators only Botswana, DRC, Zambia
(iv) No local operators Lesotho, Swaziland
Key Key
  Dominating state-owned carriers
  Weak/small state-owned carriers
  Private operators only
  No local operators
  • Lesotho and Swaziland rely entirely on foreign
    operators, markets liberalised.
  • Botswana, DR Congo and Zambia rely on private
    or foreign carriers, markets substantially
  • Levels of competition vary but in general the
    sector is relatively competitive. In some
    countries, stated policy is one of
    liberalisation, but cautiously applied with
    protection of the national carrier uppermost in
    governments mind.
  • Model is for state or state agency to own and
    operate airports.
  • Ancillary services such as cargo handling at
    airports usually concessioned, or offered by mix
    of state and private operators. Freight
    forwarding, logistics, etc., in the hands of
    private sector.
  • Regulatory authorities not independent from
    policymakers and not accountable to operators.
    Nonetheless, relatively little evidence of
    anti-competitive behaviour. Very few countries
    have a Competition Commission instead, sector is
    regulated either by government or state agency.
  • Prices on airlines are mainly market-determined.
  • Cabotage rights not granted.
  • Generally few restrictions on foreign investment
    or the formation of joint ventures/ partnerships
    with locals, except for stipulations on minimum
    ownership by locals in (Angola, South Africa,
  • Work permits usually required for foreign
  • In Botswana, ground services specifically
    reserved for locals.

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Inland Waterway Transport
  • In addition to developing a harmonised maritime
    and inland waterway transport policy, State
    Parties undertook to develop common understanding
    on specific matters such as the encouragement of
    joint ventures and alliances between shipowners
    to promote economies of scale.
  • Parties to the PTCM
  • in principle committed not to restrict cabotage
    (i.e., shipping between ports in the same
    country) by ships registered in another party to
    the PTCM.
  • agreed to adopt measures to promote competition
    in the provision of port and related services.
  • specific undertaking to adopt measures for
    harmonised tariff structures and regulation of
    charges so as to avoid monopolistic exploitation.
  • essentially agreed to extend MFN treatment to
    other parties to the PTCM with regard to the
    provision of or access to any port services
    including the freedom to establish facilities.

  • Passenger transportation
  • Freight transportation
  • Rental of vessels with crew
  • Maintenance and repair of vessels
  • Pushing and towing services
  • Supporting services for internal
    waterway transport
  • Services auxiliary to all modes
  • Cargo-handling services
  • Storage and warehouse services
  • Freight transport agency services
  • Other

  • Only four Member States have inland waterways of
    any significance.
  • Malawi and Tanzania little information.
  • Mode appears to have been substantially
    liberalised in Zambia (which considers that it
    has met its regional commitments) and, de facto
    if not de jure, in DRC.
  • Malawis attempt at concessioning lake services
    did not endure. Although officially committed to
    deregulation and privatisation, Tanzania and
    Mozambique do not appear to have implemented the
  • In Mozambique lake transport is underdeveloped,
    and consequently cabotage rights have been
    granted to the Malawi state operator.
  • Ports owned and run by state concessioning by
    Zambia in ports sector also did not endure.
  • At port of Kinshasa private firms are involved
    (possibly by default) in provision of their own
    equipment and cargo handling.
  • State-owned and state-operated ferries but a wide
    variety of private craft on lakes and, in DRC and
    Zambia, on rivers. In DRC push tugs are owned and
    operated both by state entities and private
    sector. A number of Chinese firms in DRC also
    operate their own vessels and cargo handling.
  • Zambia no lake service and relies on vessels
    from Tanzania, DRC and Burundi.
  • Bilateral agreements for cross-lake transport
    common allow for reciprocal ferry services and
    recognise partner countries licences,
    certificates and training.

Timber barge on Congo River
Fuel barges on Congo River
Supermarket barge on Congo River
MV Liemba Lake Tanganyika
MV Ilala -Malawi
  • Transportation of fuels
  • Transportation of other goods
  • Services auxiliary to all modes
  • Cargo-handling services
  • Storage and warehouse services
  • Freight transport agency services
  • Other

  • PTCM does not refer to pipelines. A significant
    mode in the eastern maritime states (Mozambique,
    Tanzania and South Africa). Also serve landlocked
    countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe.
  • Construction entails high capital outlays and
    requires complex land expropriation procedures,
    therefore construction and operation typically in
    the hands of the state. Little or no competition.
  • Mozambique pipeline to Zimbabwe managed by
    local parastatal for the fuel industry. Gas
    pipeline a joint venture between governments of
    Mozambique and South Africa.
  • Tanzania sector controlled by government
    although the pipeline is privately owned.
  • South Africa network in the hands of
    parastatal. Controlled by industry regulator
    which issues licences and deals with annual
    applications for tariff increases. Competition
    Commission has full jurisdiction over the sector
    in South Africa.
  • Private foreign firm has been contracted by the
    Malawi government to build and operate a gas
    pipeline from Beira to Malawi.
  • Joint South Africa/Mozambique company has been
    granted a licence to build and operate a
    cross-border gas pipeline.

Transnet pipeline
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Transnet Durban-Gauteng Pipeline
Songas Tanzania