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The Lessons of Chaos Bringing Libraries and Schools into the 21st Century

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Title: The Lessons of Chaos Bringing Libraries and Schools into the 21st Century


1
The Lessons of Chaos Bringing Libraries and
Schoolsinto the 21st Century
2
Web 2.0 Participation Survey
  • Have you written/edited a Wikipedia entry?
  • Do you watch videos on YouTube regularly?
  • Do you blog at least once a week?
  • Do you use digg, del.icio.us or another social
    bookmarking site?
  • Have you created a podcast?
  • Do you have a Second Life?
  • Have you used a mash-up?

3
Web 2.0 Participation Survey
  • Do you know something about more than one of the
    following people?
  • JessicaLee Rose
  • Perez Hilton
  • Matt Drudge
  • Seth Godin
  • Jeff Jarvis
  • Glenn Reynolds
  • Amanda Congdon
  • Robert Scoble
  • Michael Arrington
  • YouTube star
  • celebrity gossip blogger
  • news website editor
  • marketing guru
  • media critic
  • political blogger
  • video blogger
  • tech blogger
  • tech blogger

4
Web 2.0 Certifications
7 Yes
4-6 Yes
1-3 Yes
  • 0 Yes

21st Century Learner Certificate of Distinction
Digital Tourist
Participant
Maven
Old In The Way
5
Web 2.0 Elements
  • Connection
  • Distributed knowledge
  • Personal
  • Narrative-experiential

del.icio.us
YouTube
SecondLife
Podcasting
Wikis
Blogosphere
Mash-ups
digg
The web is about participation, not
publishing. Tim OReilly, What is Web 2.0
6
Learning Systems Must Change Epochal
shiftChaos is our guide
7
Epoch-Making Media
Digital/ Electronic Culture1950
Scribal Cultures4,000 BCE
Print Culture1450
Traditional Oral Cultures32,000 BCE
  • Characteristics of digital/electronic culture

Personal, sensory Feeling, appearance Narrative-experiential Non-linear organization Interconnected glocalities Individual within mass Multiple centers of information Digital/graphical communication
Taking McLuhan and Medium Theory Seriously,
by Joshua Meyrowitz (1996)
8
Wave Theory
Digital/ Electronic Culture1950
Scribal Cultures4,000 BC
Print Culture1450
Traditional Oral Cultures32,000 BC
First Wave Agriculture 4,000 BCE
Pre-Wave Hunter-Gatherer
Third Wave Information 1955
Second Wave Industry 1650
  • Characteristics of Third Wave

Personal, sensory Feeling, appearance Narrative-experiential Non-linear organization Interconnected glocalities Individual within mass Multiple centers of information Digital/graphical communication
The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980)
9
Exponential Pace of Change
4th Wave ?








Assumption Each Wave 1 Unit of Change
One mouse brain
6000 BC
2000 BC
2000 AD
10,000 BC
14,000 BC
18,000 BC
22,000 BC
The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980)
10
Industrial/Print/Modern Society
  • Power/Wealth through making/owning things
  • Linear path to truth
  • Mechanistic universe
  • Mass culture/Elite culture
  • Eurocentric
  • Hierarchical social organization
  • March towards progress

The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980) Taking
McLuhan and Medium Theory Seriously, by Joshua
Meyrowitz (1996)
11
Mechanistic Worldview
  • The Newtonian universeMargaret Wheatley,
    Leadership and the New Science (1999), p.
    10Stephanie Pace Marshall, The Power to
    Transform (2006), p. xii
  • Machine models
  • Materialistic Reality that is visible and
    tangible
  • Deterministic and predictable
  • Building blocks that make the whole

The universe presents only matter and motion
the whole offers to our contemplation nothing but
an immense, an uninterrupted succession of causes
and effects. Paul-Henri Thiry (Baron DHolbach),
18th century encyclopedist, quoted in The Third
Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980), p. 113
12
Industrial Architecture
  • Purposes
  • Standardize output
  • Measure and rate
  • Isolate and store

Prison
School
School
School
Warehouse
Factory
School
Prison
13
Industrial Schooling
  • Uniform curriculum
  • Emphasis on basic skills
  • Assurance of continuity
  • Standardized measures of student achievement
  • External motivations for learning
  • Teachers dispensing knowledge
  • Hierarchical structure

Deborah Walker, The Constructivist Leader (2002),
p. 15
Built on the factory model, schools provide a
covert curriculum of three courses one in
punctuality, one in obedience, and one in rote,
repetitive work. Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave
(1980), p. 29
14
Industrial Learning Theory
  • Behaviorism mold students through stimuli and
    responses
  • Directive teaching
  • Break knowledge into chunks for ordered delivery
  • Provide knowledge in hierarchical progression
  • Motivate student through rewards and punishments
  • Calibrate behavior to achieve learning objectives

How People Learn, by National Research Council
(2000), pp. 6-12 The Constructivist Leader, by
Linda Lambert, et al. (2002), pp. 11-14
Image BF Skinner, from Behaviorism, in The
Learning Curve - http//library.thinkquest.org/C00
5704/content_hl_behaviorism.php3 accessed
2-18-07
Image Learning Theories Behaviorism, by Detken
Scheepers - hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/2000/sche
epers_md/projects/loo/theory/behavior.html
accessed 2-18-07
15
Information/Digital Society
  • Power/Wealth through participation/creating
  • Multi-dimensional links to understanding
  • Dynamic universe
  • Glocal diverse and connected
  • Multicultural
  • Networked social organization
  • Exponential pace of change

The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980) Taking
McLuhan and Medium Theory Seriously, by Joshua
Meyrowitz (1996)
16
Flat World
  • Global competition
  • Outsourcing and Insourcing
  • Commoditization of information

Car reservation with Hertz
X-Ray in Salida
Computer repairwith Toshiba
The World Is Flat, by Thomas Friedman
(2005) Denver Post (August 2005)
17
Information Overload
In 2002
  • More than 5 exabytes of new info per year (5
    billion-billion 1018 bytes all words ever
    spoken)
  • 170 terabytes (1012 bytes) of info on surface
    Web
  • 17 times the Libr. of Cong.
  • 3 to 5 times larger than in 2000

30 increase in info per year and rate
accelerating
Source How Much Information? 2003, by Peter
Lyman Hal Varian, www.sims.berkeley.edu/research
/projects/how-much-info-2003/
Images Plus, plus.maths.org/issue23/editorial/
Rich East HS student gallery (inactive)
www.richeast.org/about/artgallery/wirehead.html
18
Information Acceleration
Image Coping With Information Overload,
Humboldt St. Univ., library.humboldt.edu/ccm/fing
ertips/overload.html accessed 2-20-07
Annual Creation of New Information








Assumption Constant Rate of Increase .3
One mouse brain
How Much Information? 2003, by Peter Lyman Hal
Varian
2006
2008
2010
2004
2002
2000
1998
19
Information as Process
  • Expertise as ability rather than quantity
  • Sharing and creating rather than storing

Information overload - a great place to hide,
by Steve Richards steves.blogharbor.com/blog/_ar
chives/2005/4/24/614860.html
Library Basics Reference Books Marshall
University Libraries www.marshall.edu/LIBRARY/in
struction/uni101/basics/refbooks.asp
  • Data mining across fields of correlations

Data Mining Home Page, Grupo de Data Mining del
Departamento de Computación Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales Universidad de Buenos Aires
www.dc.uba.ar/ people/materias/dm/ (accessed
November 2006)
20
Matrix Organizations
Image Pattern of High School Dating, from
Gallery of Network Images,by Mark Newman
www-personal.umich.edu/mejn/networks/
To
  • From
  • Unity of command
  • Line of authority
  • Specialization/Division of labor
  • Subordination of individual
  • Respect for authority
  • Centralization

Flat and Boundaryless Structures, by Les Pang
(Natl Defense University, 2005)
members.aol.com/lpang10473/ldc_flat.htm
Principles of Management, by Henry Fayol (1916)
21
Cultural Linguistics
Postmodern Digital Culture
  • Modern Print Culture
  • Assembly line
  • Line of thought
  • Objective
  • Hierarchy
  • Standards
  • Chain reaction
  • Cause-effect
  • Formula

Network
Paradigm
Narrative
Tipping Point
Cascade
Parameters
Algorithm
Workgroup
Taking McLuhan and Medium Theory Seriously,
by Joshua Meyrowitz (1996)
Image Map of a Website,from Gallery of Network
Images,by Mark Newman www-personal.umich.edu/m
ejn/networks/
22
A Dynamic Universe
  • Systems theory
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Ecosystems
  • Chaos
  • Information theory

The natural world is now understood as an
interdependent, relational, and living web of
connections. Stephanie Pace Marshall, The Power
to Transform (2006), p. xii
Network of Interdisciplinary Projects
Image Gallery of Network Images,by Mark Newman
www-personal.umich.edu/mejn/networks/
23
Systems Theory
  • Focus on the whole rather than the parts
  • Inputs/Outputs
  • Negative feedback dampening change
  • Positive feedback amplifying change
  • Environmental influences

The laws of strict causality appear to us
todaynearly as caricatures of the description of
change The science of complexityleads to a
completely different view. Ilya Prigogine, Nobel
Prize-winner in Chemistry, quoted in The Third
Wave, p.309
Leadership and the New Science, by Margaret
Wheatley (1999), pp 11-13 The Third Wave, by
Alvin Toffler (1980), pp. 301-309
24
Chaos
  • Systems unpredictable, but orderly
  • Boundaries and patterns
  • Simple variables, infinitely acting
  • Instability essential to change and more
    complex structure

Order and chaos aremirror images. Without
the partnering of these two great forces, no
change or progress is possible. Margaret
Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science, p.13
Leadership and the New Science, by Margaret
Wheatley (1999), pp 11-13
25
Information Theory
  • Dynamic, changing field of energy
  • Understood by behavior character
  • Essential for organizing life
  • Generated in chaotic circumstances

We need to have information coursing through our
systems, disturbing the peace, imbuing everything
it touches with the possibility of new
life. Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New
Science, p.96
Leadership and the New Science, by Margaret
Wheatley (1999), pp 94-104
26
Information Schools Libraries
  • Purposes
  • Lifelong learning
  • Knowledge creation
  • Information citizens
  • What would we learn?
  • How would we learn?
  • Where would we learn?

27
What Skills, Process, Habits
  • Path-based
  • Focus on how and why
  • Learn by doing
  • Proficiency standards

Image Your Path to the Future, by Diane Fenster,
www.dianefenster.com/uc2.html
Image Health Management Technology, February
2005 www.healthmgttech.com/archives/0205/0205the_p
ath.htm
28
How Work of Learning
  • Lifelong
  • Real
  • Inquiry-based
  • Flow-based
  • Social connections

Intelligence is a potential to process
information that can be activated in a cultural
setting to solve problems or create
products... Howard Gardner, quoted in The Power
to Transform, p.51
www.civ3.com/
Learning is a natural process of pursuing
personally meaningful goals, a process of
discovering and constructing meaning from
information and experience. American
Psychological Association, quoted in The Power to
Transform, p.39
www.nps2005.org/
29
Where Learning Communities
  • Dynamic
  • Information-fed
  • Mutually participatory

Communitiesare based on the principles of
ecology. embedded in reciprocal, equitable
relationships... Linda Lambert, The
Constructivist Leader, p. xvi
30
Living Systems
Natural living systems are energy flow
systemsin a state of continuous dynamic balance.
Autonomous Boundary
Energy and Matter Flow
IntricateFeedback Loops
Natural Emergence
Adaptive Structures
Networked Patterns
  • To think about creating sustainable learning
    communities understandan ecosystem.
  • Complex
  • Infinitely diverse
  • Generative
  • Dynamic relationships

Self-Organizing Processes
The Power to Transform (2006), by Stephanie Pace
Marshall, pp. 24-29
31
Generative Human Systems
People need to be connected to the fundamental
identity of the organization or community to new
information to relationships with people
anywhere in the system. Margaret Wheatley,
Leadership and the New Science, p.146
Identity (Purpose, Meaning)
Information (Energy)
Relationships (Trust)
Natural Emergence
Structures(Adaptable)
Patterns(Diversity, Intricacy)
Social and biological systems share certain
principles. Interdependence, sustainability,
cycles, partnerships, flexibility, diversity,
energy flow, and coevolution are constructivist
in nature. Linda Lambert, The Constructivist
Leader, p. xvi
Processes(Order, Creativity)
The Power to Transform (2006), by Stephanie Pace
Marshall, p. 32
32
Embrace the Chaos
  • The decisive struggle today is between those who
    try to prop up and preserve industrial society
    and those who are ready to advance beyond it.
  • Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, p. 438
  • Change is a journey, not a blueprint.
  • Michael Fullan, quoted in Learning Guide for
    Leadership and Change, by Kris Mayer and Jenny
    Edwards (2000)
  • Our culture is presently journeying through
    chaos. We must engage each otheras explorers
    and discoverers.
  • Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New
    Science, p.173

33
Recommended Reading
  • The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999), by Ray
    Kurzweil
  • As the Future Catches You (2001), by Juan
    Enriquez
  • Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web
    Tools for Classrooms (2006), by Will Richardson
  • Capturing the Value of Generation Tech
    Employees, by Marc Prensky, in
    strategybusiness enews (6/30/04),
    www.strategy-business.com/press/enewsarticle/enews
    063004?pg0
  • The Constructivist Leader (2002), by Linda
    Lambert, et al.
  • The Fifth Discipline The Art Practice of the
    Learning Organization (1990), by Peter Senge
  • Leadership and the New Science (1999), by
    Margaret Wheatley
  • Learning for the 21st Century (2003), by
    Partnership for 21st Century Skills,
    www.21stcenturyskills.org/images/stories/otherdocs
    /P21_Report.pdf
  • The Lives of a Cell (1974), by Lewis Thomas
  • The Power to Transform (2006), by Stephanie Pace
    Marshall
  • Preparing Students for Work in a Computer-Filled
    Economy, by Frank Levy Richard Murnane, in
    Education Week (9/1/04), www.edweek.org/ew/index.h
    tml
  • Social Impact Games Entertaining Games with
    Non-Entertainment Goals, www.socialimpactgames.com
  • Taking McLuhan and Medium Theory Seriously
    Technological Change and the Evolution of
    Education, by Joshua Meyrowitz (in Technology
    and the Future of Schooling, 1996, Stephen Kerr,
    ed.)
  • Teaching and Learning in the Educational
    Communities of the Future, by Margaret Riel (in
    Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and
    Curriculum Development, 1998, Chris Dede, ed.)
  • The Third Wave (1980), by Alvin Toffler
  • What is Web 2.0 Design Patterns and Business
    Models for the Next Generation of Software
    (9/30/05), by Tim OReilly, www.oreillynet.com/pub
    /a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html

34
Wikipedia
  • Collaborative encyclopedia written by volunteers
  • 6 million articles (1.6 million in English)
    since 2001
  • Among 12 most visited sites in the world
  • But can you trust the information?
  • Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy have been
    questioned.4 The site has also been criticized
    for its susceptibility to vandalism,5 uneven
    quality, systemic bias and inconsistencies,6
    and for favouring consensus over credentials in
    its editorial process.7 Wikipedia's content
    policies8 and sub-projectsseek to address
    these concerns.9 Scholarly studies have
    concluded that vandalism is generally
    short-lived,10 and that Wikipedia is roughly as
    accurate as other online encyclopedias.11

Wikipedia, in Wikipedia,en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W
ikipedia(accessed 2-18-07)
35
YouTube
36
Social Bookmarking
  • store, classify, share and search links through
    folksonomy
  • digg
  • del.icio.us

Social Bookmarking, in Wikipedia,
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_bookmarking
(accessed 2-14-07)
37
Second Life
  • 3D online digital world, imagined, created, and
    owned by its 3.7 million residents

38
Mash-ups
  • Overlay of two databases to create new
    information
  • Term from hip-hop re-mixing websites
  • Examples
  • Chicago crime stats www.chicagocrime.org
  • Personalized search engines www.rollyo.com
  • Index of mash-ups www.webmashup.com

Sampling the Webs Best Mash-Ups, Business Week
Online (7-25-05)
39
Growth of Computing Power
1040
1035
1030
1025
1020
1015
1010
105
10
10-5
1,000 of computing buys
Calculations per second
Quantum
Molecular
All human brains
One human brain
Parallel
One mouse brain
One insect brain
Chip
Transistor
Moores Law
Tube
Mechanical
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000
2020
2040
2060
2080
2100
The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999), by Ray
Kurzweil
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