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"A stench from its inky surface putrescent with the oxidizing processes to which the shadows of the overreaching trees add stygian blackness and the suggestion of some mythological river of death. With this burden of filth the purifying agencies of the

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Title: "A stench from its inky surface putrescent with the oxidizing processes to which the shadows of the overreaching trees add stygian blackness and the suggestion of some mythological river of death. With this burden of filth the purifying agencies of the


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"A stench from its inky surface putrescent with
the oxidizing processes to which the shadows of
the overreaching trees add stygian blackness and
the suggestion of some mythological river of
death. With this burden of filth the purifying
agencies of the stream are prostrated it lodges
against obstruction in the stream and rots,
becoming hatcheries for mosquitoes and malaria.
A thing of beauty is thus transformed into one of
hideous danger."
Texas Department of Health
1925"There are three kinds of lies. Lies,
damned lies, and statistics!"
Mark TwainUnder
carefully controlled laboratory conditions an
organism does what it damn well pleases.
Harvard
Law"What's the use of their having names", the
gnat said, "if they won't answer to them?""No
use to them," said Alice "but it's useful the
people who name them, I suppose. Through the
Looking Glass Lewis Carroll
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Poikilotherm having a body temperature that
varies with the environment, cold blooded as are
amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects Homiotherm
having a constant body temperature,
warm-blooded as are mammals and birds Q10 law
or VanHofts Law which states that a doubling of
temperature between 10 and 20 ºC increases the
metabolic rate by 2 fold. Inverse metabolic rate
law the smaller the organism the greater the
metabolic rate on a per gram basis. Therefore, it
takes more energy to support 10, 1 gram
organisms than it does 1, 10 gram organism. If a
rhinoceros had the metabolic rate of a mouse
it would have to endure boiling temperature at
its surface in order to dissipate heat generated
as a result of metabolic processes. Physoclist,
physostome, no gas bladder Diurnal Diel Nocturnal

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Very Early Stages of Development Embryo (0 hours
old)
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Embryo 3 Hours
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Embryo 5 Hours Old
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Embryo 8 Hours
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Embryo 11.5 Hours
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Embryo 13.5 Hours
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Embryo 14 Hours
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Embryo 14.5 Hours
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Embryo 16.5 Hours
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Embryo 17.5 Hours
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Young C. dubia In Last Embryonic Membranes
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First Antennae of Female Ceriodaphnia dubia
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First Antennae of Male Ceriodaphnia dubia
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First Antennae of Male Ceriodaphnia dubia
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Female With Fertilized Egg In Brood Pouch
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Female With Fertilized Egg In Brood Pouch
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Ephippium With Resting Egg
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Ephippia
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Sampling Devices Ekman Dredge Ponar
Dredge Surber Sampler Kick Net ½ meter net
macrozooplankton Microzooplankton closing
net Artificial Substrates Diatometer
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Distributions
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Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation and Confidence
Limits Data Set 1 Data Set 2 10
5 10 80 10 0
10 1 10 0
10 0 10 0
10 7 10 3 10
4 Total 100 100
n 10 10 Ave 10
10 Variance 0 611 St. Dev
0 24.7 C.I. 10/-0
10/-17.7 Variance ?(xi2) - ?(xi)2/n
Standard Deviation (St. Dev) square root of the
variance Confidence Interval (CI) Mean ? tvalue
(St. Dev.) The t value is chosen based on
sample size and ? or probability level t value
for 95 Confidence Interval and n10 is 2.262
n-1
?n
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1-?/2 n-1 d.f. If ? 0.05
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Data Set 3 10 12 14 17 28 2 6 21 10 15
Calculate the mean, variance standard deviation
and 95 Confidence limits for Data Set 3
Mean 13.5 Variance (s2) 55.17 Standard
deviation 7.43 Mean ? 5.3 (13.5 ? 5.3)
If you have an n of more than one you can
calculate a mean and confidence intervals about
the mean
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Failing to reject the null hypothesis does not
mean that there is not a difference!!!!
Ho There is no difference in the mean number of
benthic organisms above and below the outall. Ha
There is a difference in the mean number of
benthic organisms above and below the outfall.
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In fact, the condition factor was significantly
correlated with DNA damage (R -0.413, P0.045)
and MT levels (R -0.622, P0.03).
At a probability level of 0.05, any value of P
less than this would be statistically
significantly different.
Significance in these cases means that the slope
is statistically significantly different from 0.
-0.413 17 -0.622 39
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Passer domesticus
The English sparrow entered the US as a gesture
of friendship. As the steamship Europa steamed up
the Hudson River the birds were a gesture of
friendship to the U.S. In reality the English
sparrow was introduced numerous times before it
finally took hold. Native to the Old World,
the bird was first introduced into the United
States about 1850 to combat cankerworms, and it
rapidly became widespread. Aggressive as well as
prolific, it has largely replaced many native
birds in urban areas.
In 1912 The English Sparrow As a Pest? Farmers
Bulletin 493, by USDA noted they eat more than ½
their own weight in grain or other food a day. It
contained recipe for house sparrows.
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  • By 1887, some states had already initiated
    efforts to eradicate HOSPs. States such as
    Illinois (1891-1895) and Michigan (1887-1895)
    established bounty programs. According to Keith
    Kridler, since the bounty on "English" Sparrows
    was only a few cents per bird in many states,
    young children killed these birds to earn money
    for "hard candy." The children quickly learned to
    wait for the eggs to hatch and thus quadruple
    their bounty. County clerks often felt sorry for
    these children, and paid out the bounty on any
    species of sparrow. A 3/16/1892 article in an
    Indiana PA paper stated "The different county
    treasurers of Illinois have paid out in round
    figures 8,000 as bounty money under a law
    allowing 2 cents for the head of each sparrow
    killed during December, January and February in
    that State. This shows that about 450,000
    sparrows were killed, but the frisky bird seems
    more numerous than ever."
  • On 09/06/1888, The Cartersville Courant-American
    newspaper noted "The English Sparrow, with its
    grown and growing progeny, is a conspicuous
    nuisance. Can they be no way devised to abate
    him, if not totally, at least partially?"
  • An 1883 article in The Messenger (Indiana, PA,
    06/27/83) said "The little sparrow has been
    declared an outlaw by legislative enactment and
    they can be killed at any time. They were
    imported into this country from Europe some years
    ago as a destroyer of insects, but it has been
    found they are not insectivorous. Besides they
    drive away all our native song birds and give no
    equivalent. Let them all be killed."
  • In 1903, W.L. Dawson wrote "Without question the
    most deplorable event in the history of American
    ornithology was the introduction of the English
    Sparrow." (The Birds of Ohio, 1903)

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Professor Ettiene Leopold Trouvelot Professor
Trouvelot wanted a hardy caterpillar which would
feed on oak leaves and spin a cocoon of silk. He
thought such a useful creature might be produced
by crossing the American Silk Moth, Bombyx mori,
which feeds on mulberry and produces a large
cocoon, with the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar,
which feeds on oak leaves. He was apparently
culturing the gypsy moths on trees in his
backyard when some of them escaped. Trouvelot
understood the potential magnitude of this
accident and notified local entomologists, but no
action was taken. After the accident, outbreaks
began to occur in Trouvelots neighborhood and in
1890 the State and Federal Government began their
attempts to eradicate the gypsy moth. Trouvelot
apparently lost interest in entomology and became
interested in astronomy. About 10 years after the
accident He became famous for his illustrations
of astronomical details of Venus and was
eventually given a position at Harvard University
in Astronomy. A crater on the moon was named in
honor of Trouvelot and he won the French
Academys Valz prize for his astronomical
research. The gypsy moth is now one of North
Americas most devastating pests. In one of their
record breaking years they defoliated almost 13
million acres in 1993, they devoured a mere 1.8
million acres. This species originally evolved in
Europe and Asia where it has existed for
thousands of years. Each year about 1 million
acres of forest are sprayed aerially with
pesticides in order to suppress outbreaks of
gypsy moth populations.
40
Though some areas are treated by private
companies under contract with private land
owners, most areas are sprayed under joint
programs of the state and USDA Forest Service.
Millions of dollars of tax money have been spent
trying to eradicate and/or control the gypsy
moth. More recently, the Asian gypsy
mothtraveled as stowaways on boats from Russia
to the West Coast in 1991 and from Germany to
North Carolina in 1993. The Asian moths eat more
voraciously than the Europeans and, because the
females can fly, may spread four to five times
faster. This gypsy moth is known to feed on the
foliage of hundreds of species of plants in North
America but its common hosts are oak and aspen.
Gypsy moth hosts are located throughout most of
the conterminous US but the highest
concentrations are in southern Appalachian
Mountains, the Ozark Mountains, and the Northern
Lake States. Every year isolated populations of
are discovered beyond the contiguous range of the
gypsy moth. Most die out but it is inevitable
that the gypsy moth will continue to expand in
the future. New studies suggest that Dimilin,
one of the most effective pesticides against the
gypsy moth, does more damage to the environment
than previously thought. Dimilin, also destroys
insects vital to the health of the forest
ecosystem. Dimilin is the cheapest and most
efficacious way to kill gypsy moths but the
chemical has also become the bad boy of
pesticides because of its non-target effects.
Studies indicate that of all the arthropods in
the tree canopy, the macro-Lepidoptera larvae
which includes the butterflies and big moths
suffer the greatest loss. These arthropods, and
others dont seem to recover for longer than a
year after spraying, play a critical role in the
forest ecosystem as food for bats and birds.
Dimilin is also incredibly toxic to aquatic
invertebrates compared with alternatives.
41
Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) the
risk of chemicals to human health and the
environment are supposed to be evaluated before a
chemical is allowed into commerce. Many of the
100,000 chemicals in commerce have never been
evaluated because they were already in commerce
when the TSCA was passed in 1976. Approximately
2,000 new chemicals come into commerce in the US
each year. The ecological risk assessment is
done by calculating the ratio between the
Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) and
the Predicted No Effects Concentration (PNEC).
For fish medicines- based on acute data the
ratio of these two parameters is lt1 the
environmental effects are considered low are
non-existent. If the ratio is greater than 1 or
the log Kow is gt3 or the DT50 in water is greater
than 4 days further studies including chronic
toxicity are carried out. the various factors
DT, Kow, organisms tested vary depending on the
environmental compartment into which the chemical
might go (air, water, soil, etc.)
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The use of dimilin (diflubenzuron) is expected
to cause adverse acute and chronic effects to
both freshwater and estuarine/marine
invertebrates, including endangered species. To
lessen the environmental risks posed by
diflubenzuron, EPA is requiring the following
risk mitigation measures Row crops and orchard
uses must include a 150 foot buffer zone for
aerial applications and a 25 foot vegetative
buffer strip to decrease runoff in all cases
(buffer strip will also serve as a buffer zone
for spray drift from ground applications) Aerial
applications must include the most current spray
drift language and All products must CONTAIN a
hazards statement warning about possible adverse
effects to aquatic organisms.
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White Pine Blister Rust Cronartium
ribicola Introduced into the US from timber
shipments from Europe. It is a heteroecious
(requires two hosts) parasite. The two hosts are
the white pine tree which is commercially
valuable and wild currant and gooseberries of the
Genus Ribes. One spore is found associated with
the white pine tree and this spore must be
transmitted to the intermediate host, the wild
currant or gooseberry before the spores
infectious to the white pine tree, are formed.
The spores that infect the white pine trees may
travel long distances however, the spores that
carry the infection from the wild currants and
gooseberries to the white pine trees seldom
travel more than 1000 feet. The control strategy
for this disease was to eradicate the wild
currant and gooseberry bushes within 1000 feet of
white pine trees. We used 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
acetic acid and 2,4-Dichlorphenoxy acetic acid.

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin
Agent Orange has been linked to cancers and
other diseases in several epidemiological
studies. The Agent Orange cancers and diseases
include prostate cancer, respiratory cancers,
(lung, trachea/bronchus, larynx), soft-tissue
sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease,
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and multiple
myeloma.
Unlike PCBs dioxins have no uses they are
contaminants of manufacturing
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Fire Ants Seven species of fire ants (Solenopsis)
are distributed throughout the warm temperate
regions of the Americas. Shortly after World War
I a dark form S. saevissima from Argentina became
established in Mobile, Alabama and slowly spread
to surrounding regions. In the 1930s a smaller
reddish form of Solenopsis appeared in the same
region, apparently representing a second major
introduction. The latter form aggressively made
its way beyond the States borders swamping out
by interbreeding and internecine warfare (violent
death marked by slaughter) the established black
phase. At present the North American populations
are chiefly the red phase, tending to replace
native forms as well as the dark phase. In 1957
the U.S. Department of Agriculture requested
congressional approval for control of the fire
ant. The request was granted and a 2.4 million
dollar allocation was approved with the
stipulation that matching funds be made
available. Most states and many individuals did
respond with matching funds, but very often
control programs went ahead without them. A
massive operation was set up with great speed.
The first spraying using 2 pounds of dieldrin
(chlorinated hydrocarbon, on the POPs list) or
heptachlor (chlorinated hydrocarbon on the POPs
list) per acre began in November 1957. Over two
and one-half million acres were aerially treated.
Not until the operation was well underway were
wildlife and health authorities notified.
Immediate opposition to the program
resulted-opposition was to grow to a national
controversy. Fish, wildlife, livestock, and
poultry suffered losses, the destruction of
wildlife bordered on the catastrophic. The insect
was not considered more than a nuisance in any of
the southern states it did not destroy crops,
wildlife, and livestock.
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However, chemicals did eliminate vertebrates from
some areas, it did cause residue problems, it did
contribute to insect outbreaks themselves
requiring control. It did not eradicate the fire
ant the ants re-infested most of the treated
areas. The Plant Pest Control Division of the
Dept. of Agriculture had clearly made a massive
mistake the operation was a failure from its
inception. Between 1962-1978 Mirex was used as a
bait to kill fire ant colonies. Mirex was banned
for use (it is on the POPs list) by EPA because
it was shown to pose serious human health
hazards. Mirex is converted to Kepone by
photolysis. The imported fire ant now infests
more than 230 million acres in Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North and South
Carolina, and Texas. Somewhere in the
neighborhood of 175 to 200 million federal
dollars have been spent trying to first to
eradicate and now control this pest.
Economic-When soybean combines cut through fire
ant mounds their blades and rollers must be
replaced two or three times a season compared to
once every four years under good conditions.
Farmers have been known to leave valuable crops
in the field to protect their machinery. Citrus
growers in Florida are spending about
110/acre/year to replant some varieties of young
trees that die because they are girdled by fire
ants. Studies by two U of Florida researchers
found that infestations of fire ants actually
increased on insecticide treated plots that
originally had low infestation levels. The amount
of increase on treated plots was somewhere
between 200 and 3000 percent. Because the
imported fire ants colonize better than other
ants you inadvertently select for imported ants
when you eradicate all other ants.
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Home control can be achieved by using boiling
water on the mounds. Tends to kill the grass
around the mounds. Farmland and Rangeland
controls using synthetic growth hormones like
Pro-Drone that prevents the larvae from
developing into normal workers. Large areas of
Texas have been treated. Some researchers believe
that the Pro-Drone will act like the broad
spectrum pesticides and actually increase the
infestation. Researchers are looking for
predators, fungi, or bacteria in native Brazil
for control mechanisms. In Brazil the fire ant is
not a significant problem. Clearly something in
Brazil is controlling the density of fire ants.
Our native fire ant species is a minor nuisance
at home, but a major pest in India where it was
inadvertently introduced. Former Texas
Agriculture Commissioner Regan Brown told a
national fire ant symposium that, This is not an
infestation it is an invasion. This is the same
guy who, on national TV, stuck his fist into a
fire ant mound and then spent the rest of the
interview trying to get the dam things off of
him.
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The researchers recommend that action should be
taken now to cryogenically preserve gametes or
fertilized eggs of
native riverine mussels or to move adults into
hatcheries where they can be maintained and
perhaps propagated.
Native mussels might be stocked in the future if
the zebra mussel populations ever crash.
Sometimes we introduce new species in an attempt
to solve problems created by previous
introductions but end up
making the situation worse. In Hawaii and
several Caribbean Islands for instance, mongooses
were imported to help
control rats that had escaped from ships and were
destroying indigenous birds. Since the mongooses
were diurnal,
however, while the rats were nocturnal, they
tended to ignore one another. Instead the
mongooses also killed native
birds and further threatened endangered species.
Our lessons from this and similar introductions
have a new technological twist. Some of the
ethical questions
currently surrounding the release of genetically
engineered organisms are based on concerns that
they are novel
organisms, and we might not be able to predict
how they will interact with other species in
natural ecosystems--let
alone how they might respond to natural selective
forces. We can't predict either their behavior
or their evolution, it
is argued.
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Polyploid an individual or species whose
chromosome number is a multiple other than two of
the haploid number of chromosomes. Polyploidy a
condition in which an individual posses one or
more sets of homologous chrmosomes in excess of
the normal diploid sets as, triploidy,
tetraploidy, hexaploidy, octaploidy, and 16, 32,
64 etc. ploidy. Colchicine Heterosis hybrid
vigor, increased size, faster growth rates,
resistance to disease, etc. Homologous
chromosomes a pair of chromosomes which have
identical genes or their alleles
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DATA 26,000 acre lake (surface acres)
"Weed" in the lake is Hydrilla verticillata, an
import native to the Old World tropics (Africa).
Weed is spreading at a rate of 15 per year
Home owners around the lake have collected money
and tried
mowing machines
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A triploid grass carp permit is in effect on this
lake. If a grass carp is caught, it must be
immediately returned to the water unharmed.
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There have been repeated instances over time
where organisms, organisms, for a variety of
reasons, have been imported into the U.S. In some
cases the organisms were brought in on a whim
(starlings), in the name of science (gypsy moth),
to attack a specific problem (English sparrow) or
as an accident. The current epidemic of the
spread of bird flu is an example of how quickly
things can spread do to both natural conditions
as well as our ability to travel almost anywhere
in the world. The zebra mussel entered the US in
the ballast of a ship as have many other
hitchhikers, the reverse movement from the US to
other countries is also possible. One underlying
problem associated with almost all of these
introductions is that at home they are
generally well behaved (their populations are
controlled by many forces they have evolved with)
when introduced into a foreign area without the
control mechanisms the populations almost always
explode.
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