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United States and World War I

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Title: United States and World War I


1
United States and World War I
  • APUSH

2
Over There By George M. Cohan
  • Verse
  • Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun,
  • Take it on the run, on the run, on the run,
  • Hear them calling you and me,
  • Ev'ry son of liberty.
  • Hurry right away, no delay, go today,
  • Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad,
  • Tell your sweetheart not to pine,
  • To be proud her boy's in line.
  • Chorus
  • Over there over there
  • Send the word, send the word over there
  • That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming,
  • The drums rum-tumming ev'rywhere
  • So prepare say a pray'r
  • Send the word, send the word to beware
  • We'll be over, we're coming over,
  • And we won't come back till it's over over there!
  • Verse
  • Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun,
  • Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun,
  • Hoist the flag and let her fly,
  • Yankee Doodle do or die.
  • Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your
    bit,
  • Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the
    tanks,
  • Make your mother proud of you
  • And the old Red White and Blue.

3
Essay Question
  • Mobilization for WWI altered the lives of
    millions of civilians. Describe the impact on
    the American society to three of the following
  • Women and the war effort (military, munitions
    manufacturing)
  • African Americans (Great Migration, push pull
    factors)
  • Critics-Curbing dissent (Civil Liberties-
    Espionage Act- Sedition Act)
  • Funding for the war (Income, Corporate, excise
    taxes, War Bonds, Loans)
  • Administration of Resources -Fuel and food (Food
    Administration, Wheat, sugar, meat)

4
  • The most colossal, murderous, mismanaged
    butchery that has ever taken place on earth.
  • Ernest Hemmingway
  • Make the world safe for democracy.
  • Woodrow Wilson

5
AP Outline
  • The First World War
  • Problems of neutrality
  • Submarines
  • Economic ties
  • Psychological and ethnic ties
  • Preparedness and pacifism
  • Mobilization
  • Fighting the war
  • Financing the war
  • War boards
  • Propaganda, public opinion, civil liberties
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Ratification fight
  • Postwar demobilization
  • Red scare
  • Labor strife

6
World War I 1914-1919
  • Secret Alliances-
  • (Triple Alliance/Triple Entente)
  • Rivalries-Empires
  • Militarism/ Arms Race
  • Revenge- Franco-Prussia War (1971)
  • Nationalist movement touches off a giant war
    (Serbia- the Black Hand Gavrillo Princip)

7
Pre World War I Map Interactive Map of War
8
Woodrow Wilson 1912-1919
  • Democrat (Progressive)
  • PHD-Professor then President of Princeton-
    Political Science
  • Governor of New Jersey
  • Want foreign policy to shape
  • morality in the World.
  • Very religious
  • Committed to Peace in the world.

9
Moral or Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson, It would be the irony of fate if my
    administration had to deal chiefly with foreign
    affairs.
  • Hoped to change relations with Latin America-
    didnt like the Big Stick diplomacy-
  • Wanted to restore Latin American Confidence in
    the US
  • American Economic Expansion with American
    Democracy, and Christianity, to civilize the
    world.
  • Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
    (Christian, Pacifist- reflected the
    Moral/Missionary vision)

10
Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson saw American influence in the world as a
    moral crusade-
  • Wanted to help create a New World Order guided
    by fair play and cooperation
  • Wanted to spread democracy and hope to less
    fortunate lands
  • Pledged, The United States would never again
    seek one additional foot of territory by
    conquest.

11
Wilson and Morality
  • Americans are meant to carry liberty and justice
    and the principles of humanity wherever convert
    them to principles of America.
  • America must use its enormous moral and
    material power to create a new order.

12
American Neutrality
  • Most Americans did not want to get involved in
    the War
  • Wilson didnt want war but didnt want Brits to
    lose
  • Anglo-Americans pro-Allies (Brits)
  • Irish Americans (4.5 million) were Anti-British
    and pro-German (1916, Easter Rising, Irish will
    use German Weapons to attack British in Dublin)
  • German Americans pro-German (8 million)
  • American Industrialists- were making millions on
    war goods

13
American Neutrality
Wilson said, A German victory would be
destructive to American ideals.
14
Economic TiesTacit Neutrality
  • U. S. Bankers
  • Immediately after the War bogged down into
    stalemate, the Allies sought to build their
    armies.  They needed money and material to do
    it.  They also needed supplies in large
    quantities.  What they couldn't produce they
    bought from the United States and they bought on
    credit from U. S. Banks.   
  • Trade with Germany 
  • 1914 169,000,000
  • 1916 1,158,000
  • 1917 27 million in credit
  • Trade with Allies
  • 1914 824,000,000
  • 1916 3,214,000,000
  • 1917 2.3 billion in credit
  • When the War looked bad for the Allies the
    bankers became worried that they might lose their
    money if the Allies lost the War and started to
    pressure the United States government to get more
    involved.

15
Sinking of the Lusitania May 1915
  • Wilson wants to maintain neutrality but also
    cited the necessity to maintain freedom of the
    seas
  • Causes Americans to become more hostile to Germans

16
Effect of Lusitania
  • Wilson protests and demands German apology,
    reparations, commitment to stop attacking
    passenger vessels
  • Germans comply for time being
  • Americans still trade with Allies and Germans
  • Wilson desires Peace and Preparedness begins to
    prepare for war with appropriations

17
Election of 1916
  • Linkhttp//www.answers.com/topic/united-states-pre
    sidential-election-1916
  • Wilson playing both sides
  • Preparedness and Peace
  • Beats the Republican Hughes
  • Very close race
  • 277-254 electoral votes
  • 9.1 mill- 8.5 mill pop votes

18
Propaganda Grows
19
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20
Zimmerman Telegram
  • January 1917
  • German diplomat suggests to Mexico
  • Alliance-
  • If US enters the war against Germany
  • Mexico declares war on US and if Germany and US
    win, Mexico will receive Texas, Arizona, and New
    Mexico
  • Telegram is leaked to papers
  • Outrages many Americans more support for
    entering war

21
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24
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • 1917 Germany is getting desperate
  • Wants to force British negotiated peace or
    victory
  • Announces new policy of Unrestricted Submarine
    Warfare All ships going to Allied countries
    possible targets.
  • Germans thought this might cause US to enter war,
    but thought war would end before they could
    mobilize.

25
  • Video of Submarine

26
Wilson Supports War
  • Wilson- Very pro-British- saw the war concerning
    the survival of democracy.
  • US Bankers and industrialists supported entrance
    into war
  • Wilson wanted to see a New World Order emerge
  • He cited the Freedom of the seas
  • The American cause was to vindicate the
    principles of peace and justiceThe world must be
    made safe for democracy.
  • Asks Congress for a Declaration of War

27
Americans want to keep out of War
  • Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in 1916 on the
    platform that
  • He Kept Us Out of War!
  • In 1917, however, Wilson sought a declaration of
    war.
  • Citing Freedom of the seas.
  • A War to Make the World Safe for Democracy

28
Congress Vote
  • April 1917
  • Senate 92-6
  • House 473-50
  • US is at war against Germany

29
Mobilization
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Huge bureaucracy
  • Manages war time economy
  • Food Administration
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Managed food supply
  • Controlling Wheat, Meat, Sugar
  • Railroad Board
  • Fuel Administration
  • Shipping Board (Merchant Ships)
  • National War Labor Board
  • Financing the War
  • Raised Income Taxes
  • Corporate Taxes
  • Loans
  • War Bonds
  • 24 Billion- cost of war
  • 11 Billion in war loans
  • War boards organize production

30
Prohibition and the war
  • War industries board WIB - huge bureaucracy
  • Food Administration- headed by Herbert Hoover
  • Wanted to limit private consumption of goods that
    could be used for the war effort such as wheat,
    grains, and sugar so that it could be used for
    the war effort
  • 18th Amendment proposed- outlaw the making of
    alcohol
  • Volstead Act- federal legislation that enforces
    the 18th amendment

31
Shaping Public Opinion
  • In order to mobilize support for the War
  • Committee Public Information
  • The American Governments propaganda arm
  • Created to produce hatred for Germans and support
    for the war effort

32
Civil Liberties
  • US has a history of limiting civil liberties,
    (liberties of free speech, suspending Habeas
    Corpus)
  • John Adams 1798- Alien Sedition Acts
  • Lincoln- Civil War- suspends Habeas Corpus
  • World War I Wilson pushes Sedition Acts (limits
    freedom of speech)
  • Web site on suspension of civil liberties
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

33
Three Act Play
  • Alien Act 1798- Adams government, deport enemy
    aliens
  • Espionage Act 1917 allows for fines and prison
    for obstruction of war effort
  • Sedition Act 1918 allows up to 20 years

34
Civil Liberties Attacked
  • A portion of the amendment to Section 3 of the
    Espionage Act of June 15, 1917.
  • SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at
    war,,
  • . . .(hinder) the recruiting or enlistment
    service of the United States, or . . .
  • shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish
    any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
    language about the form of government of the
    United States, or the Constitution of the United
    States,
  • by word or act oppose the cause of the United
    States therein, shall be punished by a fine of
    not more than 10,000 or imprisonment for not
    more than twenty years, or both....

35
Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • The Supreme court upholds the Espionage and
    Sedition acts in the Schenck vs. United States.

36
Critics of the War
  • War to Make the World Safe for Armaments and
    Munitions Manufacturers.
  • People like Emma Goldman, Eugene Debs, and Jane
    Addams vigorously criticized the decision to
    enter the war.
  • Debs will be put in prison because of his views

37
Conscription or Selective Service Act
  • Selective Service Act All males 18-45 were
    ordered to register for the draft
  • More men who served in the war were conscripted.
  • Draftees were un Unmarried, 13 black
  • 24 million registered
  • 2.8 million drafted
  • 2 million volunteered

38
African Americans During the War
  • Great Migration large numbers move North
  • Nothing here but money, and it is not hard to
    get.
  • New York/Chicago
  • Push poor conditions, floods, race oppression
  • Pull more economic opportunity, jobs, higher
    pay
  • Migration causes -?hostility among other groups-
    immigrants
  • Segregated in military-

39
Blacks in the Military
  • 260,000 enlist or are drafted
  • 50,000 were sent to France- most worked in
    service/menial tasks
  • Some Combat regiments
  • Segregated Units
  • White officers
  • Suffer racial abuse

40
American Troops Fight
  • Videos on the Web
  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) name of the US
    forces in Europe
  • Doughboys nickname for Americans in WWI
  • Black Jack Pershing- American Commanding General

41
American Significance in War
  • 1916 Russians loosing (weak, poor) sending
    troops w/out weapons to the front line 1916
    Russians pull out with treaty Brest Litovsk 1917
  • 1916 French mutiny, 300 killed for refusing to
    attack fighting
  • Trench warfare causing mass amounts of deaths
    No mans land and Machine Guns, high
    explosives, and poison gas
  • If Germany had taken Paris they would have won,
    but American reinforcements (1 million troops)
    stopped the Germans and save the Allies

42
American Battles
  • By early 1918 American troops arrive in France
  • The AEF fight in a few important engagements
  • Chateau-Thierry
  • Bellau Wood
  • The Argonne Forrest
  • St. Mihiel

43
Trench Warfare
44
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45
Women and the War
  • Women enter the military services
  • Secretaries, nurses, telephone operators
  • More opportunity for civilian work
  • 1 million women in industry munitions

46
Armistice
  • November 11, 1918
  • Germans facing invasion ask for a negotiated end
    of war based on Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • War is effectively over.

47
The Fourteen Points and Treaty of Versailles
  • Wilson attempted to see his Missionary ideals
    in the settlement of the war.
  • His New World Order
  • We entered this war because violations of right
    had occurred which touched us to the quick and
    made the life of our own people impossible unless
    they were corrected and the world secured once
    for all against their recurrence.
  • What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing
    peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be
    made fit and safe to live in and particularly
    that it be made safe for every peace-loving
    nation which, like our own, wishes to live its
    own life, determine its own institutions, be
    assured of justice and fair dealing by the other
    peoples of the world as against force and selfish
    aggression.
  • All the peoples of the world are in effect
    partners in this interest, and for our own part
    we see very clearly that unless justice be done
    to others it will not be done to us. The program
    of the world's peace, therefore, is our program
  • Do unto others

48
Fourteen Points
  • Idealist expression of Wilson
  • To correct errors that created the war and to
    support the creation of a new world order based
    on Wilsons missionary principles
  • Contained in Treaty of Versailles
  • Some of the Points
  • Self Determination independence for colonies
  • Freedom of Seas
  • Greater freedom of trade
  • No Secret Treaties
  • Reduction of armaments
  • League of Nations to solve international problems

49
Harsh Treaty Punishes Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary lose empire
  • Germany loses land, pays large war debt
  • Takes full blame for the war
  • Turkey loses empire

50
Post War Map
51
Ratification Battle
  • Republican Senator, Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Didnt like Wilson
  • Wanted to change/weaken the League of Nations
    Covenant- (Charter)
  • Was concerned about American Sovereignty
  • Immigration
  • Tariffs
  • Ability use force (limited by the league)
  • Wanted to Weaken the Democratic Party

52
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53
Wilson Commits Infanticide
  • Wilson would not compromise with the Lodge and
    the Republicans in Senate
  • He goes on a speaking tour to create public
    pressure on the Senate
  • Has a massive stroke and is incapacitated
  • The league of Nations/internationalism is dead
  • American policy and popular opinion will reflect
    the concept of Isolationism- till World War II

54
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55
Influenza Epidemic 1918
  • World War I claimed an estimated 16 million
    lives.
  • The influenza epidemic that swept the world in
    1918 killed MORE THAN 20 MILLION PEOPLE
  • an estimated 20 to 60 million people. One fifth
    of the world's population was attacked by this
    deadly virus.
  • Within months, it had killed more people than any
    other illness in recorded history.
  • Web Site 1918 Flu

56
Red Scare
57
Red Scare
  • After the Communist Revolution in Russia and
  • Establishment of the Communist International
    (Comintern)
  • Americans become frightened of Communism in the
    US
  • 1918- Anarchist mail bombing campaign
  • Mitchell Palmer, US Attorney General, was one of
    the recipients- prompts hysterical reaction
    roundups of 6000 alleged radicals 500 deported
  • J. Edgar Hoover is and assistant to Palmer, (will
    later head the FBI)

58
Red Scare Fuels Nativism and Xenophobia
  • Two victims of the Red Scare were
  • Saco and Vanzetti
  • Two anarchists accused of murder (not related to
    the bombs)
  • Executed in the electric chair
  • (invented by Edison)

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