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Chapter 5: Ancient Greece

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Title: Chapter 5: Ancient Greece Author: Jeffrey Weinell Last modified by: apalm Created Date: 7/14/2005 3:23:37 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: Ancient Greece


1
Chapter 5 Ancient Greece
  • Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age

2
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • Summary
  • The Minoans and the Mycenaeans were the first
    Greek civilizations

3
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4
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • Around 1750 B.C., the Minoans built the first
    Greek civilization on the island of Crete in the
    eastern Mediterranean sea

5
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • The Minoans were sea traders who traveled to
    Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Through trade they learned new ideas and
    technology
  • The Minoans adapted these new ideas to their own
    culture

6
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • The Mycenaeans conquered Crete around 1400 B.C.
    and built a new civilization
  • The Mycenaeans were also sea traders
  • They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and
    Mesopotamia

7
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • The Mycenaeans learned many skills, including
    writing, from the Minoans
  • They also learned from the Egyptians and
    Mesopotamians
  • They passed on these influences to later Greeks

8
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
  • The Mycenaeans are best remembered for the Trojan
    War, which took place around 1250 B.C.
  • In this war, the Mycenaeans defeated the trading
    city of Troy

9
  • Much of what we know about this period comes from
    reading the epic poems of Homer
  • An epic is a long poem that tells the story of a
    hero or heroes

10
  • The Iliad and the Odyssey give us clues about the
    lives of ancient Greeks
  • The poems have influenced writers and artists for
    almost 3,000 years

11
  • Around 1200 B.C., sea raiders attacked the
    Mycenaeans
  • For the next 300 years, Greek civilization slowly
    declined

12
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13
Section 1 Early People of the Aegean
1100 B.C.-800 B.C. People leave cities, trade
declines, and people forget skills such as writing
1250 B.C. Trojan War takes place
B.C.
1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900
1750 B.C.-1500 B.C. Minoan Civilization is at its
height
1400 B.C. Minoan Civilization vanishes
Mycenaeans conquer Greek mainland Crete
1200 B.C. Mycenaean Civilization crumbles
14
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Summary
  • Two powerful city-states, Athens and Sparta,
    arose in Greece

15
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16
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Greece is made up of many isolated valleys and
    small islands
  • This geography prevented the Greeks from building
    a large empire like that of the Egyptians or
    Mesopotamians

17
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Instead, the Greeks built small city-states
  • These city-states frequently fought one another

18
  • Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greek
    city-states tried different types of government
  • At first, city-states were ruled by kings
  • This type of government is called a monarchy

19
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • The land owning nobles won power as time passed
  • They created an aristocracy, or government ruled
    by the landholding elite

20
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • In some city-states, a middle class of merchants,
    farmers, and artisans came to power
  • This form of government is called an oligarchy

21
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • The two most powerful city-states were Athens and
    Sparta
  • They developed very different ways of life

22
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Sparta was a monarchy ruled by two kings (Dual
    Monarchy)
  • The Spartans created a military society
  • Spartan boys trained to be soldiers
  • Spartan girls trained to be mothers of soldiers

23
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
  • Athens on the other hand developed a limited
    democracy, or government by the people
  • However, only male citizens could vote in the
    assembly
  • Women could not participate
  • Unlike Sparta, Athens encouraged the arts, trade,
    and education

24
Section 2 The Rise of the Greek City-States
Athens
Sparta
-Monarchy -Military society -Trade travel not
allowed -Military training for boys -Girls
trained to be mothers of soldiers
-Limited democracy -Laws made by assembly -Only
male citizens in the assembly -Traded with other
city-states
-Common language -Shared heroes -Olympic
Games -Same gods and religious beliefs
25
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Summary
  • Competition among Greek city-states led to
    conflict

26
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • In 490 B.C., the Persians attacked the Greek
    city-state of Athens
  • Other city-states joined Athens to fight the
    Persian Wars

27
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • After years of fighting, the Greeks defeated
    Persia
  • Athens emerged from the fighting as the most
    powerful city-state in Greece

28
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • The years after the Persian Wars were a Golden
    Age for Athens
  • A wise leader named Pericles ruled the city-state
  • This period is often called the Age of Pericles

29
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Athens had a direct democracy under Pericles
  • This meant that male citizens helped to run the
    government
  • Pericles pointed out that citizens had a special
    responsibility to participate

30
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Athens prospered in the Age of Pericles and
    became the cultural center of Greece
  • Many thinkers, writers, and artists came to
    Athens to take part in the growth of culture

31
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Sparta and it allies, or partners, resented
    Athenian wealth and power
  • They formed a league to promote oligarchy
  • Athens and its allies supported democracy

32
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • The Peloponnesian War broke out between the two
    sides in 431 B.C.
  • After 27 years of fighting, Sparta defeated
    Athens
  • Soon after, Sparta fell to Thebes, another Greek
    city-state

33
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
  • Athenian democracy suffered, and the city
    declined
  • Fighting continued among the Greek city-states
    for almost another 50 years

34
Section 3 Victory Defeat in the Greek World
Persian Wars 490 B.C.-479 B.C.
Athens fight Persia other Greek city-states
fight on Athenian side
Persians burn city of Athens
Greeks defeat Persians
Greeks believe gods protect them Athens becomes
most powerful city-state
35
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Summary
  • Greek thinkers artists and writers explored the
    nature of the universe and the place of people in
    it

36
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Greek thinkers tried to understand the reasons
    why things happened
  • The Greek called these thinkers philosophers
  • Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were important
    Greek philosophers

37
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Socrates taught that people should examine their
    own beliefs and ideas

38
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Plato, a student of Socrates, believed in reason
  • He taught that people could learn to organize an
    ideal society through the use of reason
  • Plato wanted a republic ruled by the best men and
    women

39
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Aristotle felt that people should try to live
    balanced lives
  • These ideas have influenced people since ancient
    times

40
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • The Greeks believed in beauty, balance, and order
    in the universe
  • Greek art and architecture reflected those ideas

41
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Greek paintings and statues were lifelike but
    also idealistic, meaning that they showed
    individuals in their most perfect form

42
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • The most famous Greek building was the Parthenon
  • Architects today still use ancient Greek ideas in
    their buildings

43
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Greek literature began with the epics of Homer
  • Greek poets wrote about joy and sorrow

44
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Plays had their roots in religious festivals
  • Actors performed outdoors with few props and
    little scenery
  • The characters wore masks that showed that the
    story was sad or happy

45
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
  • Aeschylus, Sophicles, and Euripides wrote
    tragedies, or plays that told the story of human
    conflict
  • Others created comedies
  • The Greeks were also concerned about accurate
    history

46
Section 4 The Glory that was Greece
Socrates Plato Aristotle
-Developed Socratic Method learning about beliefs and ideas by asking questions Believed government should control the lives of people Believed one strong and good leader should rule
Government puts him to death Divided society into 3 classes workers, philosophers, and soldiers Believed people should try to live balanced lives
47
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Summary
  • Alexander the Great created a large empire and
    spread Greek culture throughout the region

48
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Macedonia was a mountain kingdom in the north of
    Greece
  • In 338 B. C., King Philip of Macedonia dominated
    all city-states to the south
  • His son, Alexander the Great, conquered the
    Persian empire and parts of India

49
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Alexander spread Greek culture to many parts of
    the world
  • The conquered peoples learned Greek ways
  • The Greeks also learned the ways of the people
    they conquered
  • A new Hellenistic culture arose

50
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Hellenistic culture blended parts of Greek,
    Persian, Egyptian, and Indian life

51
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Alexanders empire fell apart soon after his
    death
  • However, Greek culture had a lasting impact on
    the regions it had ruled

52
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • The city of Alexandria, Egypt, was at the heart
    of Hellenistic civilization
  • Its location made it a major marketplace of the
    empire
  • People from many nations met there

53
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Alexandria was also a center of learning, with a
    museum, libraries, and a zoo
  • Its 440-foot-tall lighthouse was one of the
    wonders of the world

54
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • Hellenistic thinkers made great advances in the
    sciences and in mathematics
  • Pythagoras developed a formula designed to
    measure the sides of a right triangle

55
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
  • The astronomer Aristarchus discovered that the
    Earth moved around the sun
  • Archimedes explored the physical principles of
    the lever and the pulley

56
Section 5 Alexander the Hellenistic Age
Persian Culture
Greek Culture
Hellenistic Civilization
Egyptian Culture
Indian Culture
57
Appendix
58
Appendix
59
Appendix
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