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Readiness Matters The Impact of College Readiness on College Persistence and Degree Completion

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Title: Readiness Matters The Impact of College Readiness on College Persistence and Degree Completion


1
Readiness Matters The Impact of College
Readiness on College Persistence and Degree
Completion
  • April Hansen
  • ACT Client Relations
  • april.hansen_at_act.org

2
ACTs Unique Vantage Point
  • The ACT Assessment began in 1959 to assess what
    students have already learned and are ready to
    learn next to be college and career ready.
  • 52 of the 2012 HS graduating class took the ACT
  • 1.66 million students
  • 146,822 in Illinois
  • ACT Explore (grade 8 9), ACT Plan (grade 10),
    and the ACT (grade 11 12) form longitudinal
    assessment system that can provide academic
    interventions and shape curriculum to keep
    students on track
  • Assessments of academic behaviors, psychosocial
    factors

3
How do we define College and Career Ready?
The level of preparation a student needs to be
ready to enroll and succeed inwithout
remediationa first-year, credit-bearing course
at two- or four-year institutions or in trade or
technical schools. Adopted by the Common Core
State Standards Initiative
4
College Readiness Benchmark Attainment
  • Empirically derived minimum scores needed on an
    ACT subject-area test to indicate a 50 chance of
    obtaining a B or higher or a 75 chance of
    obtaining a C or higher in the corresponding
    first-year credit-bearing college course.

Test College Course EXPLORE Grade 8 EXPLORE Grade 9 PLAN Grade 10 ACT Compass
English English Composition 13 14 15 18 77
Math College Algebra 17 18 19 22 52
Reading Social Science 15 16 17 21 88
Science Biology 20 20 21 24 NA
5
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Students who are college/career ready when they
leave high school have a significantly higher
likelihood of Enrolling in college the fall
following high school graduation Persisting to a
second year at the same institution Earning a
grade of B or higher in first-year college
courses Earning a first-year college GPA of 3.0
or higher Not needing to take a remedial
courses Graduating within 150 of time Entering
the job market with significantly higher lifetime
earning potential.
Regardless of ethnicity and SES
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11
Pop Quiz
Whats the number of American high school
students who drop out of school, every day,
bored, frustrated, or so far behind that theyve
given up?
6,000
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15
who graduate from public high schools 76
who immediately go on to college 57 of 9th
graders who graduate from high school on time, go
directly to college, return for their 2nd year,
and graduate within 150 of program time
20 NCHEMS. (2011)
16
Research is the Foundation
  1. The strongest predictors of college persistence
    and degree completion are prior academic
    achievement and course selection (rigorous high
    school classes).
  2. Prior academic achievement and cognitive
    ability surpass all other factors in their
    influence on student performance.
  3. Non-academic factors can influence academic
    performance, retention and persistence, but
    cannot substitute for it.

17
Key Finding 1
  • Being better prepared academically for college
    improves a students chances of completing a
    college degree.
  • Benchmarks matter.

18
College Success by Number of ACT Benchmarks Met
19
College Success by ACT Score/Benchmark Attainment
  • 53 enrolled in a 4-year college
  • (80 of the students meeting all 4 CRBs enrolled
    in a
  • 4 year college)
  • 18 enrolled in a 2-year college
  • (6 of students meeting all 4 CRBs
    enrolled in a
  • 2-year college)
  • 29 did not enroll in college
  • (43 of the 0-1 group didnt go to college
    at all)

20
College Success by ACT Score/Benchmark Attainment
  • Across all outcomes,
  • College success rates increased as ACT Composite
    score increased.
  • Students who met the ACT College Readiness
    Benchmarks had higher success rates than those
    who didnt.
  • The more Benchmarks students met, the higher the
    success rates.

21
Coursework Matters
  • Core curriculum taken vs. not taken (4-3-3-3).
  • HS mathematics coursework taken
  • Less than (lt) Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II.
  • Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II.
  • More than (gt) Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II.
  • HS science coursework taken
  • Biology
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • Biology, Chemistry, Physics

22
2012 Avg. ACT Composite Scores by Type of
Coursework and Race/Ethnicity
Race/Ethnicity Number Tested Taking Minimum Core or More Average ACT Score Average ACT Score
Race/Ethnicity Number Tested Taking Minimum Core or More Minimum Core or More Less than Core
All Students 146,882 56 22.5 19.0
African American 20,978 48 18 16.5
American Indian/ Alaska Native 382 45 20.1 17.5
Caucasian/White 75,985 62 24.1 20.5
Hispanic/Latino 26,434 48 19.9 17.4
Asian 5,776 73 25.2 21.7
Native Hawaiian/ Other Pac. Isl. 377 60 21.9 19.8
Two or more races 3,973 58 22.8 19.7
No Response 12,917 43 22.1 18.4
"Core or More" results correspond to students
taking four or more years of English and three or
more years each of math, social studies, and
natural science.
23
College Enrollment/Retention Rates Math Course
Sequence
Re-enrolled in college second year
Enrolled in college first year
As the rigor of math courses increases, the
chances of college enrollment/persistence also
increase.
24
Degree Completion by HS Coursework and Benchmark
Attainment in Math
25
College Enrollment/Retention Rates Science
Course Sequence
Re-enrolled in college second year
Enrolled in college first year
As the rigor of science courses increases, the
chances of college enrollment/persistence also
increase.
26
Key Finding 2
  • Using multiple measures of college readiness
    better informs the likelihood of a student
    persisting and succeeding in college.

27
College Success by HS GPA and HS Coursework
  • Across all outcomes,
  • Students with HSGPAs 3.50 had higher success
    rates than those who had lower HSGPAs.
  • Students who took the HS core curriculum had
    slightly higher rates than those who didnt.
  • Students who took higher-level mathematics or
    science courses had higher rates than those who
    took fewer courses.

28
Degree Completion by HS GPA and ACT Scores
29
Academic Achievement and Academic Behaviors
30
6 year bachelors degree completion rates for
racial/ethnic and income groups
31
Key Finding 3
  • College readiness reduces gaps in college going
    rates, persistence and degree completion among
    racial/ethnic and family income groups.

32
College Success by Race/Ethnicity and Number of
ACT Benchmarks Met
33
College Success by Family Income and Number of
ACT Benchmarks Met
34
Reductions in Racial/Ethnic Gaps in College
Enrollment Associated with Meeting All Four ACT
College Readiness Benchmarks Enrolled in college
first year
White Underrepresented minorities
All
College ready in 4 subjects
35
Reductions in Racial/Ethnic Gaps in College
Retention Rates Associated with Meeting All Four
ACT College Readiness Benchmarks Re-enrolled in
college second year
White Underrepresented minorities
All
College ready in 4 subjects
36
Reductions in Family Income Gaps in College
Enrollment Rates Associated with Meeting All Four
ACT College Readiness Benchmarks Enrolled in
college first year
Highest family income group Lowest family income
group
All
College ready in 4 subjects
37
Reductions in Family Income Gaps in College
Retention Rates Associated with Meeting All Four
ACT College Readiness Benchmarks Re-enrolled in
college second year
Highest family income group Lowest family income
group
All
College ready in 4 subjects
38
Reductions in Racial/Ethnic Gaps in 4-Year
College Degree Completion Rates Associated with
Meeting All Four ACT College Readiness
Benchmarks Graduated from college in 4 years
White Underrepresented minorities
All
College ready in 4 subjects
39
Key Finding 4
  • Early monitoring of readiness is associated with
    increased college success.

40
Catching up to College Readiness
  • the level of academic achievement that students
    attain by eighth grade has a larger impact on
    their college and career readiness by the time
    they graduate from high school than anything that
    happens academically in high school --The
    Forgotten Middle, p.2

41
Findings of Catching Up Study
  • Few Far Off Track students catch up in middle or
    high school.
  • Even in higher performing schools, the majority
    do not get on track to college and career
    readiness in four years.
  • There are lots of Far Off Track students by this
    definition for example, 40-50 of minority
    students
  • and they have a low probability of hitting the
    Benchmark in four years.

42
College Success by Readiness Indicators in Grades
8, 10, and 11/12
  • Early readiness indicators are predictive of
    college success.
  • Early and sustained college readiness in high
    school is associated with persisting to degree
    completion.
  • Students who were on target early in grades 8 and
    10 for becoming college and career ready and then
    graduated from high school college and career
    ready had the highest college success rates.
  • Students who were not on target in grades 8, 10,
    and 11/12 had the lowest success rates.

43
College Readiness Benchmark Attainment
  • Empirically derived minimum scores needed on an
    ACT subject-area test to indicate a 50 chance of
    obtaining a B or higher or a 75 chance of
    obtaining a C or higher in the corresponding
    first-year credit-bearing college course.

Test College Course EXPLORE Grade 8 EXPLORE Grade 9 PLAN Grade 10 ACT Compass
English English Composition 13 14 15 18 77
Math College Algebra 17 18 19 22 52
Reading Social Science 15 16 17 21 88
Science Biology 20 20 21 24 NA
44
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45
College Success by Math Benchmark Attainment in
Grades 8, 10, and 11/12
46
Readiness Matters Key Findings
  • Being better prepared academically for college
    improves a students chances of completing a
    college degree.
  • Using multiple measures of college readiness
    better informs the likelihood of a student
    persisting and succeeding in college.
  • College readiness reduces gaps in persistence and
    degree completion among racial/ethnic and family
    income groups.
  • Early monitoring of readiness is associated with
    increased college success.

47
Overall Recommendations
  1. Evaluate the rigor and content of high school
    courses in English, mathematics, reading, and
    science and align the curricular content with
    college readiness standards and the skills that
    are needed to be successful in college and
    career.
  2. Monitor early and often students progress
    towards becoming ready for college and intervene
    with students who are not on target while there
    is still time for them to catch up before they
    graduate from high school

48
Overall Recommendations
  • Help students develop strong academic behaviors
    that can enhance student success
  • Provide all students with educational and career
    guidance by doing the following
  • Help them to understand how preparing well now
    academically is critical for accomplishing their
    future career goals.
  • Encourage them to explore personally-relevant
    career options based on their own skills,
    interests, and aspirations.
  • Make available useful information and resources
    about the college admissions process and
    financial aid process to them and their parents,
    and assist them with these processes

49
Questions/Comments
  • April Hansen
  • ACT Client Relations Account Executive
  • april.hansen_at_act.org
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