From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Winston Churchill (March 1946) Not only in China but also in the world without exception, one either leans - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Winston Churchill (March 1946) Not only in China but also in the world without exception, one either leans


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Title: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Winston Churchill (March 1946) Not only in China but also in the world without exception, one either leans

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent.
Winston Churchill (March 1946) Not only in
China but also in the world without exception,
one either leans to the side of imperialism or to
the side of socialism. Neutrality is mere
camouflage and a third road does not exist.
Mao Zedong (July
IDEA Causation in History An IDEA causing an
event Creation of the Iron Curtain following
World War II An IDEA resulting from an event
The Chinese Revolution and a Communist victory
A Divided Europe
The War of Ideas Comes Alive 20th Century Cold
War to a War on Terror American Institute for
History Education Dr. Steven C. McNeel
grant school district
date version 2007-01
Flash Groupswhat are they and how might we use
Flash Groups model how you might help your
students WORK in small groups,
sharing responsibility FOCUS to develop detailed
knowledge of a particular topic SHARE their
findings with the whole class through oral and
visual presentation UNDERSTAND the relationship
between the several topics (jig sawing) that are
being studied
Source Documents as the CONTENT
Using Sources Simply studying lessons out of a
book is only another kind of listening it marks
the dependency of one mind upon another.
Dewey (1899)
What can source materials do to help students
better understand history? Relate to their
multiple senses seeing, reading hearing,
touching, tasting, smelling, and acting
upon What sources?
Provide active involvement create an active
dynamic for learning United States History,
rather than a merely passive posture toward the
content What sources and activities?
Help trigger personal relevance students
working with personal or family artifacts that
present images of the history that is being
studied What specific assignments or
Permit students more easily to relate the
history to their lives and interests seeing
historical actors, and their lives, as more
similar to us than different and What
activities or assignments?
Encourage students to think reflectively
about the United States History that they are
studying using source materials as the
groundwork for writing historical fiction,
conducting historical re-enactment, etc. How
many of you take teaching with sources this far?
Specifically, Things that Sources Can
Do DOCUMENT events that historical actors
create or that affect them COMMUNICATE ideas
historical actors originate or that influence
their thinking DESCRIBE the experiences that
people in history have had, what led up to them,
and what happened next
EXPLAIN the significance of events or ideas in
the lives of historical actors or PERSUADE
someone, at the time or at a later date, of the
value of an idea or action taken.
Flash Group Exercise 1 Get into your Flash
Groups and discuss sources in your classroom
with an unlimited budget, what would teaching
with sources look like in your classroom? Be
ready to share.
Critical Thinking as a METHOD
Flash Group Exercise 2 As we consider each
step in critical thinking, concerning the Cold
War, discuss each one of the questions that is
posed. Contribute actively to discussion.
Six Steps in Critical Thinking for Studying
United States History   Comprehension
identifying, describing, categorizing, ordering,
and explaining the people, ideas, events, and
underlying institutions of history.
Two large powersi.e., the United States and the
Soviet Unionare trying to become friends
and take over control of the whole world. How
can we Communist China approve of such a
Mao Zedong (July
1964) Growing tension between Russia and
Communist Chinawhat is being identified,
described, categorized, ordered, or explained?
Knowledge acquiring background information and
developing basic skills in order to study history.
The French through their follyhave left us with
two ghastly courses of action 1. To wash our
hands of the country Vietnam and allow the
communists to overrun it 2. To continue to pour
treasure (and perhaps eventually lives) into a
hopeless cause.
Charlton Ogburn Jr. (August 1950) Considering
the potential of a French withdrawal from French
Indo China on the horizonwhat background
information might your students need to
understand the significance of this quotation?
Application discussing specific, factual
relationships between people, ideas, events, and
the institutions being studied.
If we cannot now end our differences, at least we
can help make the world safe for diversity. For,
in the final analysis, our most basic common link
is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all
breathe the same air. We all cherish our
childrens future. And we ar all mortal.
F. Kennedy (June 1963) Amidst the events of
the Cuban Missile Crisiswhat are some specific,
factual relationships that are suggested in this
Analysis understanding the moral and ethical
values that guide people and society currently
under study.
We firmly stand by the belief that there are no
disputed or outstanding issues today which cannot
be settled peacefully by mutual agreement between
the parties concerned. Thisrelates to disputed
issues between the United States of America and
the Soviet Union. We stand, as we have always
stood, for the peaceful coexistence of the two
systems. George Malenkov (August
1953) Peaceful coexistence between the United
States and the Soviet Unionwhat moral and
ethical values might your students perceive here?
Synthesis interpreting the degrees of
cooperation and conflict that characterize
personal or public events being studied in
Now, with the atomic bomb, the number of troops
on each side makes practically no difference
tothe outcome of a war. The more troops on a
side, the more bomb fodder.
Nikita Khrushchev (August
1958) Both the United States and Soviet
Union with the bombwhat cooperative approaches
might world leaders at this time pursue to avoid
Evaluation promoting imaginative or reflective
thinking to achieve a flexible and comprehensive
understanding of United States History.
How can it be that we suffered defeat, when
revolutionary Cuba exists and is growing
stronger? Who really retreated and who won in
this conflict?
Nikita Khrushchev (January 1963) In
the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis, how
might your students answer Khrushchevs questions?
United States History as IDEAS will result in
  • I believe that it must be the policy of the
    United States to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures.
  • Truman Doctrine (March
  • IDEAS creating events.

How do you teach about the United States as the
history of IDEAS? IDEAS that were generated by
people attempting to deal with their physical or
social environment
  • Marxists have more than once pointed out that the
    capitalist world economic system contains
  • in itself the seeds of a general crisis
  • and of warlike clashes.
  • Joseph Stalin
    (February 1946)

IDEAS from the past that influence people and
their behavior
  • Our policy is directed not against any country or
    doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation
    and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of
    a working economy in the world so as to permit
    the emergence of political and socil conditions
    in which free institutions can exist.
  • General George Marshall (June 1947)

IDEAS that were modified by people for their own
  • If we lose the war to communism in Asia the fall
    of Europe is inevitablewe must win. There is no
    substitute for victory.
  • Douglas MacArthur
    (March 1951)
  • You do not like our social system and we do not
    like yours. No treaties can overcome the
    concrete contradictions between the two social
  • Nikita Khrushchev
    (August 1963)

Domino Theory You have a row of dominoes set up,
you knock over the first one, and what will
happen to the last one is the certainty that it
will go over very quickly. So you could have a
beginning of a disintegration that would have the
most profound influences.
Dwight David Eisenhower
(April 1754) IDEAS to explain and perhaps, to
IDEAS that were created by people to change their
  • Communismmust be viewed not merely as a
    political creed but as a religious dogma and
    faith which can inspire such fanaticism and
    self-sacrifice as we associate with the early
    Christians and the rise of Islam.
  • Christopher
    Warner, British
  • Foreign Office
    (April 1946)

For the next two days Bring a favorite
quotation related to the Cold War (either in a
book or loose leaf) to which you can apply at
least two of the critical thinking
steps comprehension knowledge application analys
is synthesis evaluation
Welcome Back
The quotations that you broughtwhat topics have
you provided?
As we consider the history, working in your Flash
Groups, please apply the six steps in critical
thinking to the quotations provided and your own
quotations, but remember the categories are not
set in stone one persons APPLICATION might be
another persons ANALYSIS
United States in the Cold War Policy of
Containment Capitalism versus Communism
Containment out in the World It is clear that
the main element of any United States policy
toward the Soviet Union must be that of a
long-term, patient but firm and vigilant
containment of Russian expansive tendencies.
Kennan (July 1947) APPLICATION What
relationships between the United States and the
Soviet Union might be emphasized for your
students to understand this quotation?
Containment at Home I didnt know that a Negro
could register and vote.When they asked for
those to raise their hands whod go down to the
courthouse the next day, I raised mine.I guess
if Id had any sense Id a-been a little scared,
but what was the point of being scared? The only
thing they could do to me was kill me and it
seemed like theyd been trying to do that a
little bit at a time ever since I could
Fannie Lou Hamer (1962) KNOWLEDGE What
background information might it be helpful for
your students to know to help them understand
Fannies thinking?
Cold War Around the World
Need to Fill a Void It is with deep grief that I
watch the clattering down of the British Empire
with all its glories and all the services it has
rendered to mankind.
Winston Churchill (March
1947) SYNTHESIS What examples (specific
events) of conflict and cooperation might be
helpful to understand the full impact of this
Economic Nationalism At this moment as I talk to
you, some of your Egyptian brethren are
proceeding to administer the Suez canal company
and to run its affairs. They are taking over the
canal company at this very momentthe Egyptian
canal company, not the foreign canal company.
Nasser (July 1956) EVALUATION What assignment
or activity might you have your students do to
draw them into this historical moment?
Third World Nationalism Africa for the
Call for Action in South Africa (post WW II) Any
attempt to retard by artificial delays the
progress of Colonial peoples towards independence
would produce disastrous results.
British Government Report
(January 1954) We ourselves are the first colony
in modern times to have won independence. We
have a natural sympathy with those who would
follow our example.
John Foster Dulles (June 1954) What
type of assignment might link these quotations

Trouble in Southeast Asia All men are created
equal they are endowed by their creator with
certain inalienable rights among these are Life,
Liberty and the pursuit of happiness. This
immortal statement was made in the Declaration of
Independence of the United States of America in
1776. In a broader sense, this means All the
peoples on the earth are equal from birth, all
the peoples have a right to live, to be happy and
free. Ho Chi
Minh (September 1945) SYNTHESIS How would you
help your students interpret the potential
cooperation and conflict that might result from
Ho Chi Minhs words?
A Change in United States Values Revolution,
which was once a word spoken with pride by every
American who had the right to claim it, has
become a word spoken with timidity and doubt and
even loathing.
Archibald MacLeish (August 1949) ANALYSIS How
would you help your students understand the
apparent change in moral and ethical values, from
pro to anti-revolution, by Americans suggested by
Mr. MacLeish?
The Russian Bear Rears The Soviet Unioncalls
upon the United Nations to raise its voice in
defence sic of the just liberation of the
colonies and to take immediate steps toward the
complete abolition of the colonial system of
Nikita Khrushchev (September
1960) APPLICATION What specific, factual
relationships might be taught to help your
students apply Mr. Khrushchevs words to the
situation being studied?
Who Blinked in Europe? Soviet troops are
assisting the Hungarian people to retain their
independence from imperialism.
London Daily Worker (November
1756) Discharging their internationalist duty
toward the fraternal peoples of Czechoslovakia
and defending their own socialist gains, the USSR
and the other socialist states had to act
decisively and they did act against the
antisocialist forces in Czechoslovakia.
Pravda (September
1968) What type of assignment or activity might
help add meaning to these quotations?
Who Lost China? Three Chinese boys in long white
gowns served cocktails, followed by a meal
consisting of roast beef and Yorkshire pudding
and rhubarb pie. Not more than a hundred yards
away a full orchestra of rifles and machine-guns
was making so much noise that speech was
frequently impossible. David Middleditch (May
1949) The British maintain relations as Chinese
Communists take over Shanghai COMPREHENSION
How would you go about explaining the apparent
irony in the picture presented by this quotation?
Interests and Conflict in the Middle
East Importance of Oil Our oil interests in the
Middle East were indeed important, but our
ability to defend them could only be impaired if
we insisted on remaining in Egypt against the
will of the Egyptian people and so worsened our
relations with the remainder of the Arab world.
Clement Attlee
(June 1946) EVALUATION How might you help
students relate this moment in history to our
current situation in the Middle East?
United States and Radical Zionism Every time you
blow up a British arsenal, or wreck a British
jail, or send a British railroad train sky high,
or rob a British bank, or let go with our guns
and bombs at the British betrayers and invaders
of your homeland, the Jews in America make a
little holiday in their hearts.
American playwright Ben Hecht (May
1947) SYNTHESIS Having provided some
background information on the historical
situation under study, how might you elevate
class discussion to the topic of, violent
resistance, good or not so good? (perhaps
relating to our current situation in Iraq)
Radical Islam The entire Iranian nation which is
proud to live under the holy banner of Islam,
expresses its hatred of any yielding or recourse
to foreigners regardless of the bloc or group to
which they belong.
Ayatollah Kashani (July 1951) SYNTHESIS and
EVALUATION This quotation opens a wide door for
relevant interpretationwhat would you do?
IDEAS to teach United States History
Teaching History as Ideas I
Individuals D Describing E
Evaluating A And S Synthesizing
For each quotation, consider Who are the
individuals involved or referenced? What are
they describing? How are they evaluating the
situation? and What are they synthesizing, with
what results?
Cold War at Home
Fear of Communists In effect it makes service
in the Government subject to the risk that some
malevolent or crazy person may accuse you of
being leftist.In practical effect, the usual
role that men are presumed innocent until proved
guilty is in reverse.
David Lilienthal, Head of the United States
Atomic Energy
Commission (March 1947) President Trumans
Loyal Order refused Federal employment if there
were reasonable grounds for belief that the
person involved was disloyal to the Government of
the United States.
Abusive Government on a Roll When public men
indulge themselves in abuse, when they deny
others a fair trial, when they resort in innuendo
and insinuation, to libel, scandal and suspicion,
then our democratic society is outraged, and
democracy is baffled.
William Fulbright (February 1954)
Fear of Change I draw the line in the dust and
toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and
I say, Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow!
Segregation forever!
George Wallace (May 1963)
From Cold War to a War on Terror
i ndividuals (who) d escribing (what) e
valuating (how) a nd s ynthesizing (what)
A Middle East Vortex
Creating the State of Israel The Government has
been informed that a Jewish state has been
proclaimed in Palestine, and recognition has been
requested by the provisional government thereof.
The United States recognizes the provisional
government of the de facto authority of the new
state of Israel.
President Truman (May 14, 1948) A few
years later, Egypt was receiving economic
assistance from the Soviet Unionone more
platform for the Cold War
Reaction from Arab States Hundreds of thousands
of Arabs who will be evicted from Palestine, even
if they are to blame, and left hanging in
mid-air, will grow to hate us. Aharon Zisling,
Agriculture Minister (June 1948) Set the stage
using IDEAS and then dig deeper with SYNTHESIS
what cooperation or conflict?
Underlying Cultural Conflict The danger lies in
Islamic psychology, which cannot integrate itself
into the world of efficiency and progress, that
lives in a world of illusion, perturbed by
attacks of inferiority complexes and megalomania,
lost in dreams of the holy sword.They are all
emotional, unbalanced, instantaneous,
senseless. Dr.
A. Carlebach, an Israeli (October
Reaction to outside influences EVALUATING
Their ability to deal with change SYNTHESIZING
They cannot do it well
Oil Always an Issue In view of the increase of
American military aid to Israel, the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia has decided to halt all oil exports
to the United States of America for taking such a
Statement by Saudi Arabia (October
1973) However The Bible Belt is Israels
safety belt.
Jerry Falwell (1980s)
Containment in the Middle East In our view the
future of the West Bank and Gaza lies in close
association with Jordan andan independent
Palestinian state harboring irredentist feeling
in this truncated territory would not be a
realistic or durable solution.
United States Assistant
Secretary of State
Harold H. Saunders (June 12 1978)
Revolution in Iran America, Superdevil of the
twentieth century, has for so many years exerted
intense effort to expand its hegemony and impose
its policies worldwide. Pigheadedly, she
continues her seditious campaigns to exploit,
tyrannize, intimidate, spy, assassinate.
Statement (November 1979)
The Middle East Erupts into Broader
Terror America was targeted for attack because
were the brightest beacon for freedom and
opportunity in the world.
George W. Bush (September
2001) If inciting people to do that is
terrorism, and if killing those who kill our sons
is terrorism, then let history be witness that we
are terrorists.
Osama bin Laden (October 2001) How do you
teach two totally opposing ideas?
War on Terror is Declared States like these, and
their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of
evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.
By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these
regimes pose a grave and growing danger. They
could provide these arms to terrorists, giving
them the means to match their hatred. They could
attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the
United States. In any of these cases, the price
of indifference could be catastrophic.
George W. Bush (January
Living with Globalization
i ndividuals (who) d escribing (what) e
valuating (how) a nd s ynthesizing (what)
Globalization in the 1990s Globalization is on
everybodys lips.For some, globalization is
what we are bound to do if we wish to be happy
for others, globalization is the cause of our
unhappiness. For everybody, though,
globalization is the intractable fate of the
world, an irreversible process.
Zygmunt Bauman,
Globalization The Human
Consequence (1998)
The Global Village The electro-magnetic
discoveries have recreated the simultaneous
field in all human affairs so that the human
family now exists under conditions of a global
Sociologist Marshall McLuhan (1962) In what
ways can you help your students relate to the
idea of a global village in studying
history? How does it reinforce what has been
The Internet Its what Ive always wantedto be
in touch with a community of ideas like
this.Theres something thrilling about the
Internet. British Rock
Musician Brian Eno (October 1993)
Buying on E-Bay Corporate executives dream of a
global market made up of people with homogenized
tastes and needs.
Richard J. Barnet and John Cavanagh
(1994) Transnational corporations are the
economic giants that roam the earth in search of
profit. These huge companies are the main
players in the globalization game, intent on
dominating the world economy.
Tibbett (2002)
Globalization at the Earths Peril The history
of life on earth has been a history of
interaction between living things and their
surroundings.Only within the moment of time
represented by the present century has one
species acquired significant power to alter the
nature of the world.
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (1962) How might
you teach this idea to your students?
Interconnectedness We must learn to think and
act from our hearts, to recognize the
interconnectedness of all living creatures, and
to respect the value of each thread in the vast
web of life. This is a spiritual perspective,
and it is the foundation of all Green politics.

Environmentalist Petra Kelly,
Thinking Green (1994) Can this
theme be taught in a history class? If so, give
Welcome Back
Flash Group Exercise 3 Read the instructions
for your activity, ask any questions you might
have, and then do the activity. Work through
the session.
Instructions for Flash Group Exercise
3 1. Each group member read their quotation,
in total of the significant parts 2. As each
is read, other members take notes on what they
hear 3. When all quotations have been read,
the group will seek out ways of connecting them
all with Things Sources Can Do Steps in
Critical Thinking IDEAS to teach United
States History
A parting comment In order to free-up your
students thinking, you must free-up your own
thinking first.