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Fluid Friction in Pipes

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CHAPTER 3 Fluid Friction in Pipes In Chemical engineering process operations , fluids are typically conveyed through pipelines, in which viscous action. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fluid Friction in Pipes


1
Fluid Friction in Pipes
  • CHAPTER 3

2
  • In Chemical engineering process operations ,
    fluids are typically conveyed through pipelines,
    in which viscous action.
  • Such friction is normally overcome either by
    means of the pressure generated by a pump or by
    the fluid falling under gravity from a higher to
    a lower elevation.
  • In both cases it is necessary to know what flow
    rate or velocity can be expected for given
    driving force.
  • For a given flow rate, repetition of the
    experimental for different lengths demonstrates
    that the pressure drop( P1-P2) IS DIRECTLY
    PROPORTIONAL to L.
  • There are three different flow regimes in the
    resulting graph

3
  • For flow rates that are low, the pressure
    gradient is directly proportional to the flow
    rate( LAMINAR).
  • For intermediate flow rate, the results are
    irreproducible, and alternate randomly between
    extension of regimes 1 and 3( TRANSITION )
  • For the high flow rate, the pressure gradient is
    closely proportional to square of the flow rate(
    TURBULENT )

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3.2 Laminar Flow
  • In laminar flow the fluid is moving at low flow
    rate. In order to avoid additional complication
    of gravity, consider flow in horizintal cylinder
    pipe of radius a as shown in figure below.
    Consider a fluid moving in cylinder with radius r
    and length L. because of the retarding action of
    the pipe wall, there will be shear stress ?
    between the fluid and pipe wall

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