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Vehicle Emissions Programs in Mexico

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Vehicle Emissions Programs in Mexico Seminar Objectives the role of the private sector in I/M how to minimize corruption and false passes lessons learned in Mexico ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vehicle Emissions Programs in Mexico


1
Vehicle Emissions Programs in Mexico
2
Seminar Objectives
  • the role of the private sector in I/M
  • how to minimize corruption and false passes
  • lessons learned in Mexico
  • pitfalls in exhaust measurements and how to
    overcome them

3
Grupo Trafalgar
  • Emissions Standards Development
  • Vehicle Inspection Programs
  • Gas Audits
  • Software Development and Certification
  • Statistical Analyses

4
Vehicle Mortality Modeling
  • Official figures overstate the population by 40 -
    60
  • Impossible to use official figures to developing
    an intelligent vehicle emissions control strategy
  • We use statistical techniques coupled with fleet
    and owner interviews to develop mortality models
  • WB Mexico City study 1999 - 2000

5
Verification Program Development
  • Improve and refine the technical and
    administrative aspects
  • Improve the quality of emissions measurements
  • Reduce measurement uncertainties

6
Measurement uncertainties
7
Technical and Administrative aspects
  • Reduce the impact of the test technician in the
    final vehicle pass/fail decision
  • Data entry validation
  • Blind Tests
  • Master Reference Table
  • Fresh data for inspection and audit purposes

8
Mexico City Metropolitan Area
  • 20 million inhabitants
  • 3 million vehicles
  • 2 Autonomous Federal Entities
  • Ozone
  • Particulates (PM)

9
Mexican Automotive Fleet
10
Carburated Vehicles 1999
11
Mexico City Program
  • Objective Reduce air pollution emissions from
    vehicles by ensuring that those vehicles with
    high emission levels are correctly repaired
  • 2 checks per year
  • Gasoline and Diesel Programs

12
Gasoline Program
  • Hydrocarbons (HC),
  • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Cut-points established on technical feasibility
    by statistical means

13
Mexico Citys Verification Program
History 1982 Voluntary Inspection program
1988 Obligatory annual emissions inspection
for 1982 and earlier model years
1992 Obligatory Test for all vehicles 1993 Multi
-lane Macro-centers are opened. Dynamometer
test introduced for intensive-usage
vehicles. 1996 Test Repair centers
closed. New Verificenters authorized
14
Test Repair Advantages
  • By far the most convenient for vehicle owners
  • Good for Equipment Sales
  • Static Tests Only

15
Test-only Advantages
  • Better government supervision
  • Better technical and administrative control
  • Easier adoption of new technology
  • More uniform results between centers

16
Test Repair Problems
  • 50 percent of vehicles obtained their approval
    certificate fraudulently.
  • Public Opinion was of a highly faulted emissions
    control program
  • Led to all the Test Repair Centers being
    withdrawn from program

17
Dynamic Testing
Dynamometer road load testing gives
  • improved consistency and repeatability
  • reduced false passes and false failures
  • BUT at low load
  • Late and Lean is still a major problem
  • Clean for a day brigade

18
Centralized Operation
  • Allows "blind" tests to be performed
  • Centralized databases collect the data required
    for supervision and for statistical analysis
  • Allows remote auditing
  • Electronic security added to restrict tampering
    of the databases

19
Gas calibration audits
  • Every 30 days
  • Performed by independent accredited materials
    standard laboratories
  • EPA protocol 1 certified gas traceable to NIST
  • Ensure that the test equipment is correctly
    maintained
  • Eliminate the problem of different test results
    in different centers

20
Technical and Administrative audits
  • Permanent government inspectors
  • Independent certification authorities and
    ecological groups
  • Video cameras with real-time remote audits
  • Vehicle monitoring systems
  • Rigid recording and reporting rules
  • ISO 9000 certification

21
False Passes
1997 Results
  • 73 of vehicles obtained their certificates
    correctly.
  • 8 false approval due to incorrect practices
    in the Verificenter
  • 19 obtained certificate through incorrect
    practices by the garage

22
Test Capacity vs Profitability.
Quality Of Service
Center Profitability
Best Balance in Mexico 35 Installed Capacity
23
Missing Vehicles
  • Remove Traffic Police from the equation
  • Add Flexibility of where to Test
  • Result
  • 500,000 vehicles went missing

24
Missing Vehicles
25
Technical Improvements
  • Acceleration Simulation Mode test (known as CAM
    97)
  • Generate more repeatable test results
  • Reduce the measurement uncertainties
  • Permit the use of stricter test limits and
  • Reduce False Approvals.

26
Loaded Mode Constant Speed Testing
  • Accessible in both investment and cost.
  • Over 30 million tests performed in Mexico
  • Generates repeatable measurements
  • Acceptable measurement errors
  • Easy to Perform
  • Does not require high skill levels

27
Test Repair Investment
  • Static Test Equipment 11 - 15,000
  • Dynamometer 12 - 16,000
  • Total 25 -
    35,000
  • Capacity (_at_35) 4500 tests/year
  • Investment for Static 2.90 per test
  • Investment for Dynamic 6.70 per test

28
Test Only Investment
  • Lane Test Equipment 35 - 50,000
  • Centralized 7 - 10,000
  • Video Vehicle monitoring 40,000
  • Total per lane (5) 45 -
    60,000
  • Capacity (_at_35) 10,000 tests/year
  • Investment for Dynamic 5.30 per test

29
Controlling Corruption
  • Local authorities
  • Multiple Equipment Suppliers
  • Multiple Test Centers
  • Technicians

30
Private Sector Operators
  • Use multi-lane test-only centers
  • Contract large industrial groups
  • Ensure high profitability for the centers
  • Do not install too much capacity
  • Legal framework

31
Private Sector Operators
  • Invest in remote, computer-based auditing
  • Go for real-time data transmission
  • Video surveillance
  • Vehicle monitoring systems
  • Help Centers validate personnel
  • Minimize technicians impact on the test results

32
Equipment Suppliers
  • Implementing software changes
  • Local authority should develop or contract its
    own centralized software package
  • Invite equipment suppliers to provide lane
    equipment and software

33
Diesel Program
  • Heavy-duty trucks and buses
  • Small population but considerable fuel
    consumption
  • contribution to PM pollution is probably far more
    important than the number of vehicles indicate
  • Free acceleration (Snap) smoke tests
  • US EPA does not require diesel smoke tests

34
Free acceleration smoke tests
  • Consistent with international practices
  • Easy cheap
  • Tests are difficult to repeat
  • Depend on the test technician
  • Easy to falsify
  • Tendency to Loaded-mode testing

35
Next Steps
  • Despite shortcomings and pitfalls the inspection
    program in Mexico has had an important impact on
    air quality improvement
  • Program is still actively in development
  • Real-time data collection
  • Computer based audits

36
Thank you
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