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The Role of Industry in Space Exploration

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Title: The Role of Industry in Space Exploration


1
The Role of Industry in Space Exploration
David Logsdon U.S. Chamber of Commerce Space
Enterprise Council November 12, 2008
2
Space Enterprise Council
  • Formed in 1999 from a forum hosted by NASA and
    the U.S. Department of Commerce
  • Original focus was solely on commercial space
  • Focus has expanded to include commercial, civil,
    and national security space

3
Space Enterprise Council Present Day
  • Six working groups
  • Space Transportation
  • Remote Sensing
  • GPS/PNT
  • Space Communications
  • Emerging Markets
  • Export Control Policy

4
Space Enterprise Councils Relationship with NASA
  • For the past two years, the SEC has worked
    closely with NASAs Exploration Systems Mission
    Directorate (ESMD)
  • In January 2008, SEC Space Transportation Working
    Group (STWG) started Interface Standards activity
    for ESMD

5
Space Enterprise Councils Relationship with NASA
  • The Space Enterprise Council agreed to work with
    NASA on Lunar Standards
  • To evaluate, prioritize, and identify lunar
    interface standards
  • Focusing on commercial standards that have long
    term applicability to the lunar architecture
  • Enabling Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) type
    solutions
  • Identifying what would be best served by US
    versus International standards
  • Identify candidate sources of those standards

6
ESMD Lunar Architecture Standards Process and
Products
Standards Assessment / Availability
Standards Assessment based on Scenarios
I/F Functional Need Score
Pressurized mech i/f
Unpressurized mech i/f
Atmosphere
Water
Power
Comm. Protocols
Diet
Reactants/Work Media
Materials
Anthropometry
I/F Functional Need Score
Pressurized mech i/f
Unpressurized mech i/f
Atmosphere
Water
Power
Comm. Protocols
Diet
Reactants/Work Media
Materials
Anthropometry
Product 1
Product 2
Using Revised Matrix
Using Revised Matrix
Repeat for Each Standards Area
7
Lunar Surface Elements vs Functions As Presented
to ESMD on 1/16/08
Note Initial matrix provided to STWG by Dallas
Bienhoff and Bill Findiesen
Initial set of lunar surface elements from NASA
architecture studies
Initial set of lunar surface functions based on
NASA architecture studies
Each X represented where the STWG members felt
the function applied to the element
8
Product 1 Standard Assessment / Availability
Matrix
9
Product 1 Standard Assessment / Availability
Matrix
Surface Suit EVA Suits and portable life support units
Living Habitat Crew living quarters. Accommodations for sleeping, washing hygiene, food preparation storage, personal space, etc.
Work Habitat Allocations for mission experiments, data storage retrieval, monitoring maintenance
Health Habitat Medical center supplies. Exercise equipment.
Power Systems Facilities and equipment for power generation, storage, distribution
Surface Transportation Handling Systems Vehicles for transport of manned unmanned loads and associated storage and maintenance equipment facilities
Communication Navigation Systems for habitat communication with Earth and outpost assets. Navigation provisions for surface vehicles, outpost sites, and EVA crew.
Logistics Resupply Outpost interface, allocation and storage systems for supply shipments
ISRU Production Systems and equipment for processing of Lunar regolith.
Emergency Egress Systems Outpost and manned vehicle contingency capabilities
Surface Construction Maintenance Hardware facilities for outpost construction, site preparation, habitat maintenance
Scientific Instruments Equipment Value items, payloads, or equipment for accomplishing mission objectives.
10
Product 1 Standards Assessment Scale
  • Depth of Decomposition
  • Degree of Maturity
  • Degree of Commonality

Element Level
Functional Level (power, comm)
Black Box Level
Greatest Depth of Detail
Arch Level
2
4
3
1
Least mature but most forward looking
Future Emerging
Current Leading Edge
Long Standing Global
3
2
1
Greatest chance for Commonality
Identical
Functionally Compatible
Interoperable
1
2
3
Highest number is best Standards at the
architecture level that are long standing and
globally recognized, and results in identical
common solutions, are most desirable.
11
Product 1 Standard Assessment / Health Habitat
Example
12
Product 1 Temporal Assessment / Health Habitat
Example
13
Product 1 Probability vs. Applicability / Health
Habitat Example
14
Product 1 Final Assessment / Health Habitat
Example
  • This assessment is produced by compiling the
    results of the following metrics
  • Return on Investment
  • Standard Assessment
  • Temporal Assessment
  • Probability versus Applicability Assessment
  • These results are most valuable to the scientific
    / engineering community

15
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation
  • During the 1-April-08 workshop, three scenario
    teams performed evaluations of Lunar standards
  • Exploration and Science (ES)
  • Emergency Scenarios (E)
  • Living and Resupply (L)

16
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation
  • Exploration and Science Scenarios identified at
    the workshop

17
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation
  • Emergency scenarios identified at the workshop

18
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation
  • Living and Resupply scenarios identified at the
    workshop

19
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation Matrix
20
Product 2 Scenario Based Evaluation / EVA Suit
Example
  • These results are most valuable to the mission
    operations community

21
Product 2 - Consolidated Results
  • The consolidated results of the Standard
    Assessment / Availability and Scenario Based
    Evaluations are shown in the matrix below

High
Medium
Low
22
Standards Teaming- A Multi Country Example
CLICK TO PLAY VIDEO
23
Functional Needs with High Rating Based on
Standards Assessment / Availability (prioritized)
  • Power
  • Water
  • Human Factors
  • Unpressurized Mechanical Interfaces
  • Communication Protocol
  • Atmosphere / Environmental
  • Materials
  • Reactants / Working Media

Relative Importance
24
Functional Needs with High Rating Based on
Scenarios Exercise (prioritized)
  • Communication Protocol
  • Power
  • Atmosphere / Environmental
  • Pressurized Mechanical Interfaces
  • Unpressurized Mechanical Interfaces
  • Human Factors
  • Reactants / Working Media
  • Materials
  • Waste Management / Recycling

Relative Importance
25
Product 3 Standard Source Identification / STWG
Contacts
  • Product 3 was envisioned as a compilation of
    existing standards from many industries and
    nations which were identified as having possible
    application for a Lunar outpost.
  • STWG member companies were each assigned an
    identified Lunar outpost functional area in which
    to research sources of existing U.S. and
    international standards. A standard source
    description form was created to capture each.

Functional Area for Standards Standards Research Contact
Power Dallas Bienhoff (Boeing)
Water Ariel Gatti (ATK)
Human Factors Adam Dissel (LM)
Unpressurized Mechanical Interfaces Randy Correll (Ball)
Communication Protocol Hal Smith (Raytheon)
Atmosphere / Environmental Kip McClung (USA)
Materials Martin Frederick (NG)
Navigation Ed Banas (Honeywell)
Reactants / Working Media William Kosmann (Orbital)
26
Product 3 Standard Source Description Form /
Water Example
Functional Area Water
  • STWG Contact Information

STWG Focal Point Ariel C. Gatti Email Ariel.gatti_at_atk.com
STWG Focal Point Ariel C. Gatti Phone (626)407-5872
Synopsis of Top Level Functional Requirements or Objectives (Based on Matrix and Scenarios)
Water quality standards exist to maintain quantifiable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water. The primary uses considered for such characterization are parameters which relate to drinking water, safety of human contact, and for health of ecosystems. Water quality standards, at least as it relates to human consumption, are as applicable on Earth as on the Moon.
  • Synopsis of Top Level Functional Requirements

Applicable Standard (Specific Document Info) Responsible Group/Agency Point of Contact (Name, email/phone)
U.S. Standards Water quality standards exist on a national level as legislated by congress and enforced through federal agencies. One agency is the Environmental Protection Agency, an agency of the federal government charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment. The EPA has formed the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The NDWAC is a 15-member board comprised of five members of the general public, five reps of state and local agencies, and five reps of private organizations and groups demonstrating an active interest in water hygiene and public water supply. NDWAC Chairman (acting) Gregg Grunenfelder Division of Environmental Health Washington State Dept. of Health Olympia ,WA (Gregg.Grunenfelder_at_DOH.WA.GOV) (360) 236-3050
International Standards The International Organization for Standardization, ISO, also maintains several standards. ISO is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. It is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. - Water quality is regulated by ISO. Standards exist for water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. Water quality regulation is covered in the section of ICS 13.060. Section of ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems. ISO members and technical committees can be contacted via ISO website. (WWW.ISO.ORG)
  • Applicable Standard
  • Responsible Group / Agency
  • Point of Contact

27
Product 3 Examples of Standards Sources
Functional Area for Standards U.S. Standards International Standards
Power (Boeing) Enmax International Space Station Program
Water (ATK) EPA, NDWAC International Standards Organization (ISO)
Human Factors (LM) Dept. of Defense (DOD), FAA ISO, International Labour Organization (ILO)
Unpressurized Mechanical Interfaces (BALL) AIAA ISO
Communication Protocol (Raytheon) Dept. of Commerce, Naval Observatory, American Inter Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) IEEE, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) European Technical Standards Institute (ETSI)
Atmosphere / Environmental (USA) NAVSEA OSHA National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Air Standardization Coordinating Committee International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) International Space University (ISU)
Navigation (Honeywell) AIAA ANSI ISO
28
Product 3 Summary of Standards Sources
  • STWG has created a standard standards evaluation
    form which contains standards sources and contact
    info for each functional area.
  • In researching standards, it was noted that each
    functional area may be decomposed into more
    specific areas each of which may have
    identifiable standards sources (e.g. Human
    Factors is composed of Anthropometry, Human
    Factors Engineering, Physiology, Human
    Environments, etc.)
  • Also noted is the need for emphasis on
    identification of standards organizations in
    addition to the standards themselves. For some
    functional areas, individual standards may evolve
    quickly (e.g. Communications) and contact with
    interested standards organizations will be
    required for proper updates.
  • Identified international standards to date are
    primarily European. Additional research should
    consider other international organizations (for
    example India, Asia, etc).
  • In discussion with NASA leadership in May 2008,
    it was determined that some method of evaluation
    should be implemented to assess the
    applicability, value, and integrity of the
    standards and sources that were being identified.
    Four metrics of evaluation have therefore been
    instituted by which to judge each standard.

29
Product 3 Standards Evaluation Metrics
  • Pervasiveness (How widespread is standard in
    current use? )
  • Applicability (Does standard apply to a space
    application?)
  • Timeliness (When does standard become needed
    based on Temporal Assessment?)
  • Spaceflight History (Has the standard been
    applied in past or current spaceflight?

Industry
National
Most Widespread Use
Specialty
Global
Direct Application is Possible
Applicable with Minor Adaptation
Significant Modification Required
Most Directly Applicable
1
2
3
Supports Late-Term Standard Need
Supports Mid-Term Standard Need
Supports Near-Term Standard Need
Nearest Term Need Based on Temporal Assessment
1
2
3
No Spaceflight History
Yes, Successful Spaceflight History
30
Product 3 Evaluation Database / Human Factors
Example
NOTIONAL
31
Product 3 Summary of Standards Evaluation
  • STWG has created a standards evaluation database
    to facilitate judgment by NASA of the value or
    appropriateness of any identified standards.
  • All STWG team collected data has been captured
    and evaluated in the database according to the
    four developed metrics. The Excel template
    facilitates additional inclusion of identified
    standards and sorting and comparison of data.
  • Evaluation provides quick look into which
    standards in a given functional area are most
    applicable and timely building on the previous
    Lunar outpost standards development work
    accomplished in Product 1 and Product 2.
  • Product 3 Development Process

32
Standards Evaluation Results - Summary
  • The STWG has demonstrated that a multi-industry
    team can work together to develop products that
    are useful to NASA
  • The STWG provides easy access to the enormous
    amount of participating companies technical
    knowledge
  • The STWG has an existing network to the
    international space community that can be
    accessed by NASA

33
Standards Evaluation Results - Summary
The SEC-STWG used a disciplined approach
resulting in valuable products to help NASA ESMD
Process Provided Desired Information
Value Assessment Availability Matrix
Scenario Centric Assessment
List of Sources Examples
34
The Role of Business in Space Exploration
  • Significant onramps need to be developed for the
    commercial industry
  • Several opportunities for the commercial industry
    to play a role in space exploration

35
The Role of Business in Space Exploration
  • Lunar Exploration (Possible Areas of Commercial
    Participation)
  • Launch services
  • Power
  • Water
  • Human Factors
  • Communication
  • Atmosphere/Environment
  • Waste Management/Recycling
  • Construction
  • Navigation

36
Contact Information
  • For more information on the Space Enterprise
    Council, please visit www.uschamber.com/space
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