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Health, Safety and Nutrition

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Title: Health, Safety and Nutrition


1
Health, Safety and Nutrition
  • Module 1 A Healthy Environment

2
What does Health mean to you?
3
Characteristics of a healthy environment that
promote good health practices include
  • clean work and play areas.
  • proper Hygiene practices.
  • implementation and routine practice of a written
    health policy.

4
Key Point
  • Establishing and following a written policy is an
    effective way of maintaining a safe and healthy
    child care program.

5
Key Point
  • The three As of a healthy child are Appetite,
    Appearance and Activity.

6
Appetite
  • Can eat a substantial amount of food at times
  • Will consume a variety of foods
  • Is interested in eating
  • Appears content after meals and snacks

7
Appearance
  • Has clear, bright eyes
  • Has clear skin
  • Has well-developed muscles
  • Gains steadily in height and body weight

8
Activity
  • Has plenty of energy
  • Is alert
  • Sleeps soundly
  • Has few aches and pains

9
The following are also taken into consideration
when evaluating a childs health
  • Emotional health-reflect happy, cheerful feelings
  • Social health-friendly most of the time,
    interacts w/other children, enjoys quiet
    activities that require concentration
  • Mental health-is interested in new experiences
    is usually confident adaptable

10
Daily Health Checks
  • Daily health checks are a good way of
    preventing, identifying, and controlling illness
    in a child care environment.

11
Daily Health Checks
  • Other signs
  • fever
  • vomiting
  • bowel movement changes
  • pain
  • skin marks
  • Behavior
  • Face and Body

12
  • It is important to remember that childrens
    health records are confidential.

13
How Can I Tell if a Child is Sick?
  • Identify possible signs check for fever (sense
    of touch)
  • Recommended way of taking temperature digital
    thermometer with a disposable sheath.
  • Fever 100 degrees Fahrenheit under the arm or
    101 degrees Fahrenheit orally.

14
  • If You Could Just Help
  • Me Out This Once
  • (story read by teacher)

15
  • Knowing the signs of illness in children is
    very important, but responding quickly to these
    signs is equally important. Depending upon the
    type and severity of the symptom, a caregiver may
    do one or more of these things
  • 1. Call the parents, and if necessary, suggest to
    the parents that the child needs medical
    attention.
  • 2. Call 911.
  • 3. Isolate the child until parents and/or
    paramedics arrive.
  • 4. Watch the child closely notify and be ready
    to discuss your observations with parents and/or
    paramedics.

16
Dehydration
  • It is very important to watch for signs of
    dehydration when a child in your care suffers
    from fever, diarrhea, or vomiting.
  • Watch for the following signs
  • Dry to very dry mouth
  • Little to no tears when crying
  • Less active than usual, or very fussy
  • Infant will wet less than 6 diapers a day, a
    child will make fewer trips to the restroom than
    he normally does

17
Dehydration
  • If dehydration is severe, the following will
    occur
  • Eyes are sunken
  • Hands and feet are cool and blotchy
  • Pulse may seem weak and fast
  • Child will not urinate for hours

18
Dehydration
  • The steps to prevent dehydration are dependent
    on the childs symptoms, and can include
  • For mild diarrhea, do not give milk it has a
    high concentration of minerals and salt which
    could be dangerous to a child with diarrhea.
  • For vomiting, stop giving solid food, and give
    water at 30 to 60 minute intervals.
  • For both diarrhea and vomiting, stop the childs
    normal diet and give electrolytes.
  • Do not give a child sports drinks or any other
    similar drink made for adults.

19
Heat Exhaustion
  • Occurs when someone who is not used to very hot
    weather does not get enough liquid and salt. The
    condition is caused by excessive sweating. The
    persons skin becomes pale and clammy, and the
    person feels sick, dizzy, and/or faint. Pulse
    rate and breathing become rapid, and a headache
    or muscle cramps may develop. Take action!
  • 1. Lay the person down in a cool, quiet place,
    with feet raised a little.
  • 2. Loosen any tight clothing and supply water to
    drink.
  • 3. Add 1 teaspoon of salt to each quart of water.

20
Heat Stroke
  • Occurs because of prolonged exposure to very hot
    conditions. The mechanism in the brain that
    regulates body temperature stops functioning, and
    the bodys temperature rapidly rises to 104
    degrees Fahrenheit. The person becomes flushed,
    with hot, dry skin and a strong, rapid pulse.
    He/she quickly becomes confused or unconscious.
  • Heres what to do if you observe these
    conditions
  • 1. Anyone who has heat stroke should receive
    medical attention. If you suspect heatstroke,
    call 911.
  • While waiting for emergency Medical Services
    (EMS) to arrive
  • 2. Remove clothing and wrap the person in a cold
    wet sheet, or sponge with cold or tepid water.
  • 3. Fan the person by hand, with an electric fan,
    or with a hairdryer set to cold.
  • 4. When his or her temperature drops to 101
    degrees Fahrenheit, place the person in the
    recovery position.
  • 5. Cover the person with a dry sheet and continue
    to fan. If his or her temperature rises again,
    repeat the cooling procedure.
  • A caregiver should know the signs of
    illness in children and be prepared to
    take appropriate action.

21
Key Point
  • It is important to recognize and respond
    appropriately to signs of illness in the children
    in your care, both for their well-being and for
    the prevention of illness and disease within your
    program

22
What is a Communicable Disease?
  • A communicable disease is one that can be spread
    from one person to another.
  • This usually results from the interaction between
    people, the environment, and germs

23
  • There are 4 types of germs
  • - bacteria
  • - virus
  • - fungi
  • - parasites

24
Bacteria
  • Small organisms seen with an ordinary microscope
  • Can cause strep throat, impetigo, pinkeye, and
    some pneumonia
  • Antibiotics help stop growth

25
Virus
  • Smaller than bacteria
  • Grow only in living cells
  • Can cause colds, chicken pox, measles, German
    measles, mumps
  • Antibiotics have NO effect
  • Rest is the best action body fights better when
    rested
  • Vaccines against common ones are available

26
Fungi
  • Grow best in warm, moist places
  • Can cause athletes foot and ringworm
  • Effective medication available
  • Medications work best when conditions that are
    favorable to fungal growth are removed

27
Parasites
  • Organisms that live on or in animals and people
  • Common examples include pinworms, roundworms,
    head lice
  • Effective medications are available for most

28
Ways Illnesses/Diseases are Transmitted
  • Respiratory- through nasal/throat discharges
    (common cold, flu, strep, chicken pox)
  • Fecal/Oral- through bowel movement, soiled hands
    or objects in mouth (salmonella, Hepatitis A)
  • Direct Contact- contact with infected area or
    infested body area (impetigo, ringworm, lice,
    scabies)
  • Blood borne- through blood contact (HIV/AIDS,
    Hepatitis B and C)

29
Serious Communicable Diseases
  • Haemophilus Influenzae B (HIB)
  • Hepatitis B/C
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

30
Haemophilus Influenzae B (HIB)
  • Is an infection that can lead to other conditions
    which can cause secondary infections in many
    areas of the body, including meningitis,
    pneumonia, epiglottis infection.
  • Does not cause the flu
  • Is caused by a germ that spreads through coughing
    sneezing common in children who are in close
    contact with one another.
  • Since medical treatment for HIB is difficult,
    vaccination is important.
  • 1 in 4 children who develop meningitis due to HIB
    suffer from mental retardation, permanent hearing
    damage or death.
  • Epiglottis due to HIB occurs most often in
    children 2 to 4 years of age.

31
Hepatitis B
  • Is an infection of the liver
  • It is vaccine-preventable with 3 doses of
    Hepatitis vaccines usually given during the first
    3 months of life.
  • Is most commonly spread from mother to infant at
    birth or by transmission include IV drug use
    using contaminated needles sexual intercourse
    exposure of open wounds or mucous membranes to
    contaminated blood.
  • Symptoms fatigue, loss of appetite, jaundice,
    dark urine, light stools, nausea, vomiting,
    abdominal pain.
  • A serious infection in which premature death from
    liver cancer occurs in 15-25 of persons with
    chronic infection.
  • A person who has no symptoms is still infectious
    to others.
  • Hepatitis C
  • Disease of the liver
  • No vaccine available
  • Spread from infected mother to baby during birth
    IV drug use blood transfusion
  • -Same symptoms as above.

32
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Virus that causes an increasing loss of immune
    function that results in the body becoming unable
    to fight off infections.
  • Most commonly spread by sharing contaminated
    needles for IV drug use, sexual intercourse,
    exposure to infected blood through blood
    transfusion, and from pregnant woman to fetus.
  • Symptoms in children failure to grow gain
    weight constant diarrhea without cause enlarged
    liver spleen swollen lymph glands constant
    thrush and Candida pneumonia other bacterial,
    viral, fungal parasitic infections.
  • Late stage of HIV is called Acquired
    Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Many children are infected with HIV for years
    without developing symptoms.
  • Once infected, a person becomes potentially
    infectious to others
  • for life.

33
Most Common Childhood Illnesses
  • Chicken pox
  • Common cold
  • Flu
  • Diarrhea related diseases
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Giardiasis
  • Allergic reactions/anaphylaxis
  • RSV (Respiratory Synctial Virus)
  • Lice

34
Chicken Pox
  • Slight fever
  • Fine blisters, first on scalp, then on face and
    body

35
Chicken Pox
36
Common Cold
  • Runny nose
  • Watery eyes
  • Chills
  • Malaise (ill feeling)
  • Usually no fever
  • Lethargic (sluggish)

37
Common Cold
38
Flu
  • (Review the information on the Center for Disease
    Control (CDC) website (www.cdc.org) regarding flu
    pandemic in child care, frequently.)
  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle pain
  • Sneezing
  • Can develop chest pain and cough

39
Diarrhea-Related Disease
  • Loose or watery stools
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomachache
  • Headache
  • Fever

40
Conjunctivitis
  • (Eye Infection Pink eye)
  • Red eye or eyes
  • Discharge from one or both eyes
  • Crusted lid or lids

41
Pink Eye
42
Giardiasis
  • Parasite found in the stools
  • Diarrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps
  • Weight loss and weakness

43
Allergic Reactions/Anaphylaxis
  • Rashes
  • Swelling of Throat
  • Difficulty breathing

44
RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
  • Wheezing and cough
  • Blue color around lips
  • Rapid breathing

45
Lice
  • Itchy scalp
  • Nits (eggs)
  • Small, red bumps or sores from scratching

46
Head Lice
47
Ringworm
  • Flat, spreading scaly, ring-shaped spots
  • Reddish in color and elevated
  • Fungi that grows easily on moist, warm surfaces

48
Ringworm
49
Key Point
  • Responding in a correct and timely manner when a
    child displays a symptom or symptoms of a
    communicable disease is an excellent way of
    preventing communicable diseases in a child care
    program.

50
  • Preventing Communicable Disease
  • There are 3 main points to follow

51
1. Isolate a child if the child has
  • Severe coughing
  • Difficult or rapid breathing
  • Stiff neck
  • Diarrhea
  • Temperature 101 degrees Fahrenheit or over
  • Conjunctivitis (Red eyelids or eyeballs and
    drainage)
  • Exposed or open skin lesions
  • Unusually dark urine
  • Gray or white stool
  • Yellowish skin or eyes
  • It is important to note that this is not a
    complete list. Be sure to consult the written
    policies of your child care
  • program. It is also important to note that
    even though a
  • child is isolated, they must be directly
    supervised.

52
2. Immunizations
  • Essential factor in preventing spread of disease
  • There are religious exemptions.

53
3. Universal Precautions (Key Point)
  • Strategy which requires caregivers to treat blood
    or any bodily fluid of all persons as potential
    sources of infection.
  • Its core principle is that proper hygiene
    sanitary conditions are critical in communicable
    disease control

54
Universal Precautions
  • Use Universal Precautions when handling bodily
    fluids of any kind.
  • Wear gloves.
  • Throw disposable gloves away after one use.
  • Do not get any bodily fluid in your eyes, nose,
    mouth, or near an open sore.
  • Clean and disinfect any surfaces and mops that
    come into contact with a bodily fluid (a common
    and inexpensive disinfectant is 1/4 cup of bleach
    to 1 gallon of water).
  • Discard fluid and fluid-contaminated materials in
    a tightly secured bag.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after cleaning up
    bodily fluids.
  • Change diapers on non-porous/impermeable surfaces
    (usually plastic).
  • Do not share personal hygiene items such as
    toothbrushes.
  • Use disposable sheaths on thermometers.
  • Wash linens and clothing that have become
    contaminated separately from other laundry. Use
    1/4 cup of bleach in the wash load. Place
    contaminated clothes in a tightly sealed bag to
    be taken home and washed.
  • Do not allow babies and toddlers to
    share teething toys. Sanitize these after use.
  • Teach children not to pick off scabs.
  • Cover open wounds on both children
    and caregivers.

55
The most effective way of preventing the spread
of disease germs is Proper Personal Hygiene
  • Wear gloves
  • Proper diapering techniques
  • Proper hand washing
  • (see appendix pages 272-274)

56
Key Point
  • Proper personal hygiene is the most effective way
    of preventing the spread of germs and diseases in
    a child care setting.

57
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • During small group time, you notice Charles is
    having difficulty breathing and is wheezing. What
    do you do?

58
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • During small group time, you notice Charles is
    having difficulty breathing and is wheezing. What
    do you do?
  • Assume this could be life-threatening.
  • Call Charles parents and 911.

59
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • At the dramatic play center, you notice Chelsea
    scratching the back of her head vigorously. What
    do you do?

60
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • At the dramatic play center, you notice Chelsea
    scratching the back of her head vigorously. What
    do you do?
  • Check for lice, scabies, and/or rash.
  • If there are lice, send Chelsea home with
    information. Sanitize dress-up clothes, carpet

61
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • While at the sensory table, Chancie sneezes into
    the water. What do you do?

62
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • While at the sensory table, Chancie sneezes into
    the water. What do you do?
  • Ask Chancie to blow her nose and wash her hands.
    Change the water at the sensory table and
    sanitize it. Make sure all children wash their
    hands before and after using the sensory table.

63
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Later in the day, the snack center is set up as a
    green grocery. Children come with a little straw
    basket to select crunchy vegetables for snack
    time. Chancie is shopping. He nibbles a few
    vegetables, but then complains of a stomach ache.
    What do you do?

64
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Later in the day, the snack center is set up as a
    green grocery. Children come with a little straw
    basket to select crunchy vegetables for snack
    time. Chancie is shopping. He nibbles a few
    vegetables, but then complains of a stomach ache.
    What do you do?
  • Monitor Chancie closely. He may be sick, or he
    may dislike the raw vegetables, and this
    mornings sneeze was only coincidental.

65
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • In the free-art center, Chu-lin is helping a
    teaching assistant mix dry tempra powder.
    Suddenly, her face becomes red and she begins to
    cough. What should you do?

66
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • In the free-art center, Chu-lin is helping a
    teaching assistant mix dry tempra powder.
    Suddenly, her face becomes red and she begins to
    cough. What should you do?
  • This was a trick question. Do not mix dry
    tempra paint or dry paper mache in the presence
    of young children. Ask the class to discuss other
    hazards that may occur during art projects, such
    as accidental ingestion, allergic reactions, and
    accidents such as slips, falls, cuts, etc.

67
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • After playing in an outdoor learning center, you
    notice blister-like sores on Chakas arm. What
    should you do?

68
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • After playing in an outdoor learning center, you
    notice blister-like sores on Chakas arm. What
    should you do?
  • Understand that this might be the sign of a
    communicable illness or disease. Call the parents
    and suggest they seek prompt medical attention.
    Isolate the child until he is seen by a doctor.

69
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Charlotte ate very little at lunch today and now
    she has her head on a table, complaining of a
    stomachache. What should you do?

70
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Charlotte ate very little at lunch today and now
    she has her head on a table, complaining of a
    stomachache. What should you do?
  • Watch her closely and be ready to react to
    further signs of illness. Notify and discuss the
    signs with parents.

71
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Chico is difficult to awaken after a long nap. He
    is warm to the touch, and then vomits as you lead
    him to the bathroom. What should you do?

72
Your Response to Signs of Illness in Children
  • Chico is difficult to awaken after a long nap. He
    is warm to the touch, and then vomits as you lead
    him to the bathroom. What should you do?
  • Understand that this might be the sign of a
    communicable illness or disease. Call the parents
    and suggest they seek prompt medical attention.
    Isolate the child until he is seen by a doctor.

73
Role of Sanitation In Preventing Illness
  • In addition to practicing encouraging children
    to practice good personal hygiene, it is just as
    important to clean disinfect the child care
    environment.
  • ¼ cup bleach in 1 gallon water replace daily
    (appendix p 275-276)

74
Role of Proper Food Handling In Preventing
Illness
  • Clean utensils equipment
  • Wholesome food
  • Correct storage cooking temperatures
  • Clean healthy workers
  • Safe food handling procedures
  • Cross contamination
  • Proper defrosting

75
Key Point
  • Safe and sanitary food practices help keep a
    child care program free of germs and disease and
    include using clean utensils and equipment
    serving clean, wholesome food applying correct
    storage and cooking techniques employing clean,
    healthy workers and practicing safe
    food-handling procedures.

76
Key Point
  • The administration of medication in a child care
    program is governed by Chapter 65C-20 and Chapter
    65C-22, Florida Administrative Code, and must
    conform to other statutes, regulations and
    procedures.

77
Role of Administering Medication
  • Accepting medications
  • Storing medications
  • Administering medications
  • Documenting medications

78
The Role of Administering Medicine in Preventing
Illness
  • What should caregivers pay attention to while
    administering medication?

79
The Role of Administering Medicine in Preventing
Illness
  • What should caregivers pay attention to while
    administering medication?
  • Name of recipient, dose, route, time and date of
    last dose according to the childs medication
    log, whether or not the medicine is in its
    original package, permission slip from parent
    with signature, and what person(s) in the program
    are authorized to administer medication.

80
The Role of Administering Medicine in Preventing
Illness
  • Why is it important to ensure that caregivers
    administer medication properly? What might the
    results of improperly administered medications
    be?

81
The Role of Administering Medicine in Preventing
Illness
  • Why is it important to ensure that caregivers
    administer medication properly? What might the
    results of improperly administered medications
    be?
  • Over- or under-dose, hindrance to treatment of
    condition complications to illness.
  • (appendix 277-278)

82
Health, Safety and Nutrition
  • Module 2 A Safe Environment

83
Why is a Safe environment important?
  • A safe environment is important to assure
    children can move around a hazard free area where
    the potential for injuries is minimum.

84
Key Point
In a safe environment, hazards are kept to a
minimum.
  • The characteristics of a safe child care
    environment are potential hazards are at a
    minimum the surroundings are neat and orderly
    the children are constantly supervised
    caregivers have knowledge of and practice safety
    policies and procedures and having knowledge of
    the stages of childrens development.

85
  • Safety Hazard Hunt
  • Find the Hazards

86
First Aid Kits
  • Soap
  • Adhesive bandage strips or equivalent
  • Disposable non-porous gloves
  • Cotton balls or applicators
  • Sterile gauze pads and rolls
  • Adhesive tape
  • Thermometer
  • Tweezers
  • Pre-moistened wipes
  • Scissors
  • Current guide on First Aid and CPR
  • (appendix 279)

87
Emergency Telephone Numbers
  • 911
  • Poison Control Center 1-800-222-1222 (local)
  • Child Abuse Hotline 1-800-96-ABUSE
  • County Health Dept 527-0068
  • (appendix 280)

88
Poisoning
  • Any substance that can cause harmful effects if
    used improperly is a potential poison.
  • This includes plants and the venom of certain
    insects and animals.
  • No one is immune to poisoning, and small children
    are especially at risk.

89
Key Point
  • To prevent poisoning, keep chemicals out of
    childrens reach, follow safe food-handling
    procedures, obey directions found on medicine
    labels, and teach children not to place
    unfamiliar items (plants, liquids, objects etc.)
    in or near their mouths.

90
Poison Hazards by Seasons
  • Spring Summer insecticides and garden
    chemicals snakes spiders plants/bulbs/seeds
    leaves/berries/ flowers wild mushrooms
    gasoline cleaning products picnic food etc
  • Fall Winter antifreeze leaves/ berries/bulbs
    cold/flu medication improperly handled food
    holiday items (holly, mistletoe, poinsettias,
    tinsel) etc

91
Look Alikes
  • Medicine can look like candy.
  • Powdered Cleanser can look like powdered sugar.
  • Lamp oil or rubbing alcohol like bottled water.
  • Pine cleaner can look like apple juice.
  • Motor oil can look like honey.
  • Shaving cream can look like whipped cream.
  • Alcoholic beverages and mouth wash can look like
    juice drinks.
  • Dishwashing liquids can look like sports drinks.
  • Hazardous sprays such as pesticides can be
    mistaken for hairspray.

92
In the event of an accident or poisoning, it is
important to document the accident or incident in
full detail.
93
Accidents Injuries
  • What sorts of accidents/injuries are common in a
    child care setting? Falls, bumps collisions,
    bites from other children, injuries on the
    playground, etc.
  • Sometimes, the physical environment the
    childrens behavior play major roles in the
    occurrence of an accident or injury.
  • Sometimes, an accident/injury may have been
    prevented. By using good safety practices with
    toys, equipment, cribs, etc.

94
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • While we are studying crib safety, it is a good
    time to talk about SIDS, or Sudden Infant Death
    Syndrome. SIDS is not a cause of death, but
    rather a classification for a manner of death.
  • Does anyone know the memory aid that helps us to
    remember how to place a baby in a sleeping
    position?

95
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(appendix 282)
96
Key Point
  • A childs response to an injury or accidents
    depends on the adults and others around him.

97
Support for Injured Children
  • Always be honest, but positive. Using positive
    words and non-verbal behaviors will help the
    child remain calm. Do not tell the child that
    something will not hurt if it will or if you do
    not know if it will or not.
  • Remain calm. Being prepared for emergencies will
    help you achieve this. After the incident is
    over, and you are out of the childs sight, you
    may (or may not) fall apart. Allow yourself to
    have a natural reaction to what you have just
    witnessed.
  • Treat the child as a person. Do not ignore the
    injury or the childs feelings.

98
Support for Injured Children
  • Encourage the child to express his or her
    feelings. It is normal to cry when frightened or
    injured. Do not tell him not to cry or shame him
    for doing so.
  • Allow the child to have as much control as
    possible. For example, ask, Do you want to look
    at it? and Would you like me to stay here with
    you? Let the child hold a brown cloth over an
    area that is bleeding. (A brown cloth will not
    show blood.)

99
Support for Injured Children
  • Encourage the child to talk or think about
    something pleasant. Talk about a favorite pet or
    activity, sing songs, or tell stories.
  • Explain unfamiliar procedures and equipment
    step-by-step. Children react better when they
    understand what is going on. (Adults do too!) Do
    not ignore the presence of scary people or
    things. Do not say, That? Oh, thats nothing.
    Ignore it.

100
Support for Injured Children
  • Determine the advantages and disadvantages of
    your presence during treatment. Often, medical
    staff can do a quicker and more thorough job if
    you leave the room. Ask the child what her
    preference is, and ask staff if you can
    accommodate that wish. If you leave the room, do
    not take all of your belongings, so the child
    will know youre coming back. Tell the child
    where you will wait. Console her right after
    treatment.
  • Bring a favorite toy or blanket to the emergency
    room.

101
Support for Injured Children
  • Tell them that the doctors and nurses help people
    and take care of them when they are sick or
    hurt.
  • Take an emergency bag with you to the hospital
    that contains paper, crayons, story books, small
    toys, and similar items.
  • Watch your language! Be alert to what you say and
    how you say it. If you say, We are going to sew
    up the cut on your arm, the child may imagine
    the sewing machine he sees at home. Instead, say,
    The doctor is going to fix your cut and you are
    going to feel better after he does that. Avoid
    all medical terms. Say, Let me help you to hold
    still, not We are going to hold you down.

102
Support for Injured Children
  • Talk to the child at eye level. Children are
    empowered when they look at and talk to adults on
    an eye-to-eye level. Dont stand over an injured
    child to talk to him.
  • After treatment, the child may have a possible
    regression in behavior. He may be suddenly
    sucking his thumb and wetting his bed she may
    develop a fear of strangers or become aggressive.
    Recommend a psychological service if the behavior
    is hurting himself or other people, or if it is
    prolonged.

103
Support for Injured Children
  • After treatment, encourage the child to
    role-play and talk about how he feels. This will
    bring about closure and help the caregiver become
    aware of any issues the child might have.
    Consider using the experience in a learning
    center activity so that any children who
    witnessed the accident or injury can have closure
    as well.

104
Preventing Injury Accidents
  • Systematic way of recognizing hazardous
    situations taking preventative measures a
    checklist (see chart in appendix 283-288)
  • How to make it safer? (playground, electrical
    outlets, restroom,etc)

105
Key Point
  • The caregiver has important roles in injury
    prevention, and it is their responsibility to
    secure a safe environment for the children in
    their care.

106
Safe Talk
  • To encourage safe behavior with children use the
    words safe and safety around them as much as
    possible.
  • Examples walk slowly and safely in the
    classroom

107
Emergency Procedures
  • Should have written plans
  • Evacuation (teacher to escort children follow
    escape route gather at designated meeting place
    call roll of children staff)
  • Fires
  • Weather emergencies
  • Lockdown procedures
  • Shelter-in-place procedures
  • Should have drills (appendix 289)

108
Key Point
  • Caregivers should familiarize themselves with
    their child care programs emergency procedures
    and evacuation drills.

109
Key Point
Child-restraint Seats, Safety Belts and the Law
  • Transportation safety requirements state that
    children 3 and under must be secured in a
    federally approved child-restraint seat. Children
    4 through 5 must be secured by either a federally
    approved child-restraint seat or seat belt.
    Violation of these requirements can result in
    fines and points on a drivers record.

110
Child-restraint Seats, Seat Belts the Law
  • Fl Law has 3 main provisions
  • All drivers front-seat passengers must use seat
    belts at all times. All passengers under 18
    sitting in rear seat must wear a seat belt at all
    times.
  • Children 0-3 yrs must ride in a properly
    installed, Federally-approved child-restraint
    seat.
  • Children 4 5 yrs must use a properly installed,
    Federally-approved child-restraint
  • seat or seat belt.

111
Child-restraint Seats, Seat Belts the Law
  • Fines Points for failing to observe the law
    which vary county to county.
  • Each community has trained car seat installers
    contact your local Health Department for a
    resource in your
  • area.

112
Child-Restraint Seats
  • 4 Key Points to Installing
  • Location (where in the vehicle seat is placed)
  • Direction (way the car seat is facing inside the
    vehicle)
  • Seat Belt Path (the way the belts are threaded
    through the seats slots)
  • Tightness (how firmly the seat is held in place)

113
Health, Safety and Nutrition
  • Module 3 Children and Nutrition

114
Physical Development and Nutrition
  • Nutrition is the process of nourishing or being
    nourished by the foods we eat and how our bodies
    use them. The food needs of infants, babies and
    children are essential for their growth and
    development.
  • Food experiences also have an impact on
  • Social skills or behaviors during meal times
  • Motor skills or dexterity in handling utensils
    and foods
  • And more, as we will see in this module.

115
Key Point
  • Each age group has specific nutritional needs
    that supply essential resources their bodies must
    have to grow and develop.

116
Consider Childrens Developmental Skills Related
to Eating
  • Mouth patterns
  • Hand body skills
  • Feeding skills abilities
  • Refer to Chart in note packet (p244)

117
  • NEVER
  • Prop A Bottle.
  • Why?

118
Caregivers Role in Breastfeeding
  • Must support mothers decision to breastfeed.
  • Working together, results are well worth the
    effort.
  • (see page 245)

119
Benefits of Breastfeeding
  • AAP recommends that mothers breastfeed their
    babies for at least 1 yr.
  • The optimal food for any infant is its own
    mothers milk it is the only food an infant
    needs in the first 4 to 6 months of life.
  • Helps develop a secure, nurturing loving
    relationship between a mother her child.
  • Is ready-to-feed and needs no additives.
  • Does not cost anything.
  • Breast-fed infants do not get as sick as often as
    formula-fed infants.
  • Breast-fed infants do not have constipation or
    diarrhea as often as formula-fed infants.

120
Facts about Breast Milk
  • Milk should be slightly bluish in color should
    look thinner that cows milk.
  • Breast milk is more easily digested than cows
    milk, so the infant should be fed more often,
    usually every 1-1/2 to 3 hours. Caregivers should
    ask each mother how often their child needs to be
    fed document.
  • Refrigerate containers of breast milk. Mature
    milk (not colostrum, which is the milk that first
    arrives for newborns) can be kept up to 8 days in
    the refrigerator, up to 2 weeks in the freezer.
    Label with dates use the oldest milk first.
  • To begin feeding, hold container of milk under
    warm running water for a few minutes until it is
    lukewarm to the touch. NEVER heat breast milk on
    the stove or microwave, this destroys the
    nutrients.
  • Very gently shake the container.
  • Ask the childs mother to give you small
    containers of milk (2 -3 oz) since left-over milk
    should be thrown away.

121
Good Nutrition
  • Based on good eating habits, and these should be
    established during infancy
  • Different guidelines for the different ages.
  • Many guidelines are also licensing requirements
  • See pg 290-291 (appendix)

122
Key Point
  • When the right foods are introduced at the right
    time, nutritional needs are met, and skills
    develop properly.

123
Videotape Nutrition for Infants and Children
  • Lets take a closer look at the nutritional
    needs of children by watching Nutrition of
    Infants and Children.
  • As we watch the video, look for these key words
    and phrases
  • 5 a day
  • Allergies
  • Vegetarianism
  • Balanced diets
  • Obesity

124
Video Notes
125
MyPlate
www.choosemyplate.gov
126
MyPlate
  • USDA wants you to know about eating healthy
  • -make half of your plate fruits vegetables.
  • -make at least half of your grains whole grains.
  • -select a variety of protein foods to improve
    nutrient intake health benefits.
  • -switch to fat-free or low-fat milk.

127
MyPlate
  • Tips for planning a healthy diet at a child care
    program
  • -offer different foods from day to day
  • -serve food in small portions at scheduled meals
    snacks
  • -choose healthy snacks
  • -make smart beverage choices
  • -put a daily food plan into action with meal and
    snack ideas

128
  • The USDA provides guidance on daily requirements
    for each food group that is based on age, gender,
    physical, and activity levels. But these
    requirements need to be translated into a daily
    food plan that includes foods that children will
    eat.

129
The MyPlate Food Guide
  • What are the major food groups in the MyPlate
    Food Guide?

130
The MyPlate Food Guide
  • What are the major food groups in the MyPlate
    Food Guide?
  • Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Dairy, and
    Protein.

131
(No Transcript)
132
(No Transcript)
133
Key Point
  • Nutritional snacks and meals should be planned
    around guidelines established by the U.S.
    Department of Agriculture.

134
Roles of the Adult Child at Mealtime
  • Adult ensure mealtimes are enjoyable,
    stress-free occasions during which children can
    learn practice important social skills etc
  • Child learn about nutrition, learn practice
    social skills know when they are full etc
  • See p303 appendix

135
  • After meals, reinforce tooth brushing as a way to
    prevent tooth decay and other problems with the
    mouth, teeth, and gums.
  • Cavities are prevented by practicing
  • Healthy eating habits
  • Healthy drinking habits
  • Proper cleaning of the teeth

136
Inappropriate Foods
  • Ways to Avoid Choking
  • 1. Monitor and supervise meals and snack times
  • Make sure children eat slowly.
  • Provide a calm, relaxed eating environment.
  • Encourage them to sit quietly in their places.
  • Remind them to chew food well before swallowing
    and to eat small bites.
  • Teach them not to talk with their mouth full,
    because they could inhale it into their airway
    that way.

137
Inappropriate Foods
  • 2. Fix foods so they are easy to swallow
  • Grind up tough foods.
  • Cut food into small pieces or thin strips.
  • Cut round foods, such as hot dogs, into strips
    rather than slice them into round pieces.
  • Remove all bones from fish, chicken, and meat.
  • Cook food until it is soft.
  • Take out seeds and pits from fruits.

138
  • 3. Do Not serve foods you suspect will be a
    choking hazard.
  • What foods are
  • 1-firm, smooth, and/or slippery?
  • 2-small, dry and hard?
  • 3-sticky or tough?

139
  • 1- hot dogs, hard candy, peanuts, grapes
  • 2-popcorn, corn chips, nuts, seeds, small pieces
    of raw carrot
  • 3-peanut butter, meat, raisins, dried fruit, some
    kinds of candy

140
Choking
  • Occurs when food is inhaled directly in the
    airway
  • Occurs most often in infants and young children
    because the airway is not always blocked off
    properly when swallowing. This allows food to
    enter the airway and prevents breathing.

141
Key Point
  • When helping a choking child, it is as important
    to know what not to do as it is to know what to
    do.

142
How to Help a Choking Child
  • If child is coughing, allow him to cough, but
    watch closely
  • If not coughing, unable to speak or cry turning
    blue, Call 911!
  • If trained, use the Heimlich Maneuver
  • Never leave choking child alone

143
What NOT to do
  • Dont hit childs back
  • Dont attempt First Aid or Heimlich Maneuver
    unless you are trained to perform it
  • Dont finger-sweep mouth-you can push object
    further inside mouth
  • Dont shake child or have child put their head
    between their knees
  • Dont panic in front of child
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