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The Correctional Environment and its Impact on the Health of Communities

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Title: Environmental Health Author: Ellen R. Murray Last modified by: Ellen R. Murray Created Date: 7/15/2009 12:39:16 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Correctional Environment and its Impact on the Health of Communities


1
The Correctional Environment and its Impact on
the Health of Communities
  • Ellen R. Murray-Clouse, PhD Student
  • Walden University, PUBH-8165-3
  • Instructor Dr. Jeff Wu
  • Summer term, 2009

2
Purpose
  • The overall goal of this program is to enhance
    the learners knowledge of correctional
    facilities and their involvement in communities
    where inmates are released.

3
Expected Learning Outcomes
  • At the end of this presentation, participants
    will
  • Develop a greater understanding of correctional
    facilities as they exist in communities
  • Understand the increasing need for better
    healthcare and education in correctional
    facilities
  • Correlate correctional health with community
    health
  • Associate recidivism rates with an awareness of
    the need for increased education and health
    programs in correctional facilities

4
Outline
  • Background Statistics
  • Releases to the community
  • Environment of Correctional Facilities
  • Disease Prevalence
  • Recidivism
  • Cost of Correctional Health
  • Cost to the Community
  • Early Release or Reentry Programs
  • Community public health and corrections
    partnerships

5
Background - Incarceration Statistics
Source U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of
Justice Statistics
6
Background Risk Factors of Inmates
Slide courtesy of Dr. Mark Lobato, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2005
7
Background The U.S. is the Worlds Leader in
Incarceration
8
And the World is Becoming a Very Small Place
Picture courtesy of ClipArt
9
Releases to the Community
  • March, 2002, a report to Congress by the National
    Commission on Correctional Healthcare reported
    that
  • Each year the Nations prisons and jails
    release more than 11.5 million inmates.
  • The potential that ex-offenders may be
    contributing to the spread of infectious disease
    in the community became of increasing concern.

10
Environment of Correctional Facilities
  • Affects all levels
  • Inmates
  • Staff
  • Community

Picture Source Southeastern National TB Center
archive
11
Infectious Diseases in Corrections
  • HIV estimates
  • 2003 - 1.9 - 2.8 of HIV
  • Approximately 4 of U.S. AIDS burden
  • Tuberculosis diagnosed in correctional facilities
  • 2007 3.8 of all TB cases diagnosed in the U.S.
  • Hepatitis C
  • 2003 - 16 - 41 of all inmates have
    sero-prevalence
  • Flu and other infectious diseases

12
Chronic Diseases in Corrections
  • Hypertension
  • 18 of all inmates
  • Diabetes
  • 5 of all inmates
  • Mental Illness
  • 50 - 65 of all inmates have some form of mental
    illness

13
Recidivism (Re-arrest)
Re-arrest within 3 years Re-arrest within 3 years Re-arrest within 3 years Re-arrest within 3 years
Category of Offense 1983 () 1994 () Change ()

All 62.5 67.5 8
Property 68.1 73.8 8
Drug 50.4 66.7 32
Public Order 54.6 62.2 14
Violent Offenders 59.6 61.7 4
14
Cost of Correctional Health
  • Routine care of inmates
  • 2008 - 20,108 per prison inmate per year
  • Medical contracts differ per institution
  • Cost effectiveness and Cost Saving

Infectious Diseases Chronic Diseases
Prevention of future cases Universal screening and testing
Counseling, testing and treatment No cost saving for corrections
Source Florida Department of Corrections
Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
15
Cost to Community
  • Assess each community individually
  • Cost savings to corrections
  • Ultimately cost savings to communities that fund
    correctional facilities
  • Need for discharge planning in corrections
  • Continuity of care essential for controlling
    diseases in community

16
Indirect Benefit of Corrections to the Community
  • Staff
  • Correctional staff
  • Medical staff
  • Volunteer staff
  • Impact on services in the community
  • Increase in contracts for
  • Food services
  • Laundry services
  • Other programs

17
  • If there is any one secret of success, it lies
    in the ability to get the other person's point of
    view and see things from that person's angle as
    well as from your own.
  • Henry Ford

Pictures courtesy of ClipArt
18
Early Release or Reentry Programs Do they work?
  • Project Greenlight
  • Looked at Reentry programs and designs
  • Applied evidence-based principles in design
  • Several areas of concern
  • Flaws in design
  • Lack of evaluation components
  • Found early release or reentry programs may not
    solve recidivism but may even increase it

Source http//www.urban.org/ UploadedPDF/1001016_
reentry_programs.pdf
19
Partnerships
  • Public Health
  • Corrections
  • Community Leaders
  • The ability to promote positive change in
    communities begins with partnership.
  • Together we can bring about positive change for
    all!

Picture courtesy of ClipArt
20
Thank You!
  • You must be the change you wish to see in the
    world.        
  • Mahatma Gandhi

On the ashram precincts, Segaon, January
1938 Source http//www.mkgandhi.org/gphotgallery/
1933-1948/pages/d99.htm
21
Questions?
  • Contact
  • Ellen Murray-Clouse, RN, BSN
  • Home email TBLdy56_at_windstream.net
  • School email ellen.murray-clouse_at_waldenu.edu
  • A complete list of references can be seen on the
    accompanying word document entitled
  • The Correctional Environment and Its Impact on
    the Health of Communities

22
Resources
  • ACA American Correctional Association
  • www.aca.org
  • AJA The American Jail Association
  • www.corrections.com/aja/
  • APHA American Public Health Association
  • www.apha.org/
  • BOJ Bureau of Justice
  • www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
  • CDC Centers for Disease Control Prevention
  • - Corrections Webpage
  • www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth
  • NCCHC National Commission on Correctional
    HealthCare
  • www.ncchc.org
  • NSA National Sheriffs Association
  • www.sheriffs.org
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