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Blame and Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Hollie Kuhlmann Last modified by: Lenovo User Created Date: 10/19/2008 7:26:00 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blame and Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11


1
Blame and Backlash Muslim Americans after 9/11
  • Lori Peek, Ph.D.
  • Department of Sociology and
  • Center for Disaster and Risk Analysis
  • Colorado State University

2
September 11, 2001
3
September 11, 2001
4
September 11, 2001
5
Response to 9/11
6
Response to 9/11
  • A desire to help

7
Response to 9/11
  • A desire to help
  • A desire to give

8
Response to 9/11
  • A desire to help
  • A desire to give
  • A surge in patriotism

9
Response to 9/11
  • A desire to help
  • A desire to give
  • A surge in patriotism
  • A need to grieve
  • A need to stand together in solidarity

10
Sadness, Strength, and Solidarity
11
Shock and Fear
12
Anger and Outrage
13
Backlash
  • 1. Any sudden or violent reaction specifically,
    a strong political or social reaction resulting
    from fear or resentment of a movement, candidate,
    ethnic group, etc.
  • 2. An excessive and adverse societal and
    governmental reaction to a political or
    ideological crisis against a group or groups.

14
Types of Backlash
15
Post-9/11 Backlash
  • Unprecedented surge in anti-Muslim bias in the
    U.S.

16
Anti-Islamic Hate Crimes (1995-2008)
Source FBI Uniform Crime Report
17
Anti-Other Ethnicity/National Origin Hate Crimes
(2000-01)
Source FBI Uniform Crime Report
18
Anti-Muslim Bias Incidents (1995-2008)
Source Council on American-Islamic Relations
19
Understanding Backlash
  • Why does backlash occur after certain crises, but
    not after others?
  • Why are only some individuals and groups singled
    out for mistreatment, while others are left
    alone?
  • What can the public and political response to
    9/11 teach us about the processes that set blame
    assignment and backlash into motion?

20
Post-9/11 Backlash
21
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Post-9/11 Backlash
22
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Post-9/11 Backlash
23
  • 2,973 dead

Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
  • Thousands injured

Magnitude of Losses Endured
  • Widespread psychological trauma
  • 80-100 billion financial losses

Post-9/11 Backlash
  • 75,000-100,000 jobs lost

24
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Post-9/11 Backlash
25
Pre-9/11 Hostile Context
  • Persistently negative media representations

26
Pre-9/11 Hostile Context
  • Persistently negative media representations

27
Pre-9/11 Hostile Context
  • Persistently negative media representations
  • Actual global increase in terrorist violence

28
Pre-9/11 Hostile Context
  • Persistently negative media representations
  • Actual global increase in terrorist violence
  • Conflict in the Middle East

29
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
Post-9/11 Backlash
30
  • 34 of Americans believe that Islam encourages
    violence
  • Nearly 60 of Americans believe that Muslims are
    prone to violent extremism

Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
  • 39 of Americans admit to feeling some
    prejudice against Muslims

Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
  • 22 of Americans would not want Muslims as
    neighbors

Post-9/11 Backlash
31
Outsiders
32
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
Identifiability of the Muslim Population
Post-9/11 Backlash
33
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34
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35
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
Identifiability of the Muslim Population
Relative Powerlessness of Muslims
Post-9/11 Backlash
36
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
Identifiability of the Muslim Population
Relative Powerlessness of Muslims
Post-9/11 Backlash
37
Intentional Acts of Mass Violence
Pre-9/11 Anti-Muslim Social and Political Context
Magnitude of Losses Endured
Muslims as Dangerous and Threatening Outsiders
Identifiability of the Muslim Population
Relative Powerlessness of Muslims
Post-9/11 Backlash
38
Backlash Inertia
  • Gallup Polls of Americans
  • who have a negative view of Islam
  • 14 (2001)
  • 34 (2002)
  • 46 (2006)
  • 53 (2009)

39
Questions? Comments? Thank you
  • Lori Peek
  • 970-491-6777
  • Lori.Peek_at_colostate.edu
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