MICHELLE XU, WENDY LI, ERIKA CHAN, MEGAN YUAN, SHARON CHOI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MICHELLE XU, WENDY LI, ERIKA CHAN, MEGAN YUAN, SHARON CHOI

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Title: MICHELLE XU, WENDY LI, ERIKA CHAN, MEGAN YUAN, SHARON CHOI


1
INDIA
  • MICHELLE XU, WENDY LI, ERIKA CHAN, MEGAN YUAN,
    SHARON CHOI

2
8000 BCE - 600
3
Indus River Valley
  • Harappan Society
  • Agricultural society (water source from river
    flooding)
  • Surplus?population increase?citiesHarappa and
    Mohenjo Daro
  • Sophisticated planned cities grid like streets,
    uniformly constructed buildings, wastewater
    system (showers and toilets).
  • Economy agricultural, trade cotton and cloth
  • Rulers yield great authority.
  • Great distinction between the rich and the poor.
  • Polytheistic
  • Decline Aryan arrival

4
Aryan Arrival
  • With horse drawn chariots, advantage over Indus
    valley people. Migrate throughout India.
  • Vedic Age Vedas collection of songs, hymns,
    prayers, rituals. Reflect society in which Aryans
    clash with Dravidians.
  • Religion polytheistic Upanishads explain why
    one is born into caste system.
  • Due to agriculture tribal non centralized
    govt?more formal govt council of elders
    (authority), and states governed by citizen
    representatives.Form small regional kingdoms.

5
Caste System
  • Originally formed to maintain social order.
  • Use varna or skin color to create hierarchy.
  • 1)Brahmins, 2) warriors and aristocrats, 3)
    cultivators and artisans, 4) peasants/serfs,
    5)untouchables
  • Subcastes jati later form reflect social
    changes, and allow foreigners to fit into
    society.
  • Members of jati improve their conditions
    collectively.
  • Patriarchal society male authority. Women have
    influence, but no roles in religious rituals.
  • Sati devotion to husbands, kill themselves on
    husbands funeral day.

6
Mauryan and Gupta Empires
  • Mauryan unify India
  • Chandrarupta Maurya- use spies for bureaucratic
    administration
  • High point Ashoka Maurya- tightly organized
    bureaucracy. Closely monitor regional affairs
  • Support Buddhism
  • Encourage trade (roads with comfort stations for
    merchants)
  • Fall of empire with Ashokas death economic
    problems (soldiers and bureaucracy too expensive)
  • Gupta Chandra Gupta
  • Leave administration to local govt?stability and
    prosperity
  • Science and math advancements plastic surgery,
    astronomy (earth is sphere), 0 and numeral
    system?algebra and calc.
  • Fall White Huns

7
Continuity
  • Harappan gods and goddesses close relations to
    Hindu gods
  • Caste System
  • Algebra and calc.
  • Hindi numerals? Arabic numerals
  • Cotton/cloth production (starting in Harappan
    societies)

8
600 - 1450
9
Junks
Dhows
  • Indian Ocean trade Trade route where Persians
    and Arabs dominated the ports in western India to
    ports in the Persian Gulf, which were connected
    to ports in eastern Africa. Monsoon winds

10
  • Silk Roads The Indians contributed a major
    source of cotton into the trade route. Along the
    Silk Roads, Buddhism and Hinduism spread to East
    Asia and Southeast Asia.

11
  • MAJOR CHANGE!!! - Islam enters India, in addition
    to Hinduism and Buddhism

Delhi Sultanate -Islamic invaders defeat
disorganized Hindus in North India. -Beginning
in 1206, Islam spreads to much of northern India
for next 200 years. Non-Muslims who didnt want
to convert had to pay JIZYA.
12
Negative
Positive
  • Hindu temples destroyed.
  • Laid the foundation of hatred for Hindus and
    Muslims for future generations
  • Under the Islamic Sultans, colleges were founded.
  • Irrigation systems improved
  • Mosques were built CULTURAL DIFFUSION!!

13
North India - Muslim
South India - Hindu
14
Indian Influences on Islam
  • Sophisticated mathematics, science and medicine
  • Hindi Numerals -gt Arabic Numerals
  • Numerals lead to discoveries on algebra, geometry
    and trigonometry

15
South India
  • The Chola Kingdom The Kingdom of Vijayanagar
    prospered greatly from Indian Ocean Trade Routes
  • Continuity Majority of population remains Hindu

16
Changes to Caste System
  • Continuity Caste system has always been
    changing, always adjusting to new circumstances,
    such as migrations and urbanization.
  • Creation of a new subcaste jati - made up of
    workers, merchants, manufacturers. They were very
    influential because they brought wealth to
    society.

17
India Influences Southeast Asia
  • Indian merchants spread ideas to Southeast Asia.
  • CHANGE AND CONTINUITY Southeast Asians embraced
    Hinduism and Buddhism. They took Buddism and
    mixed in their own ideas. As a result, there are
    two branches of Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism and
    Theravada Buddhism.

18
1450 - 1750
19
  • Political
  • In 1526, Babur defeats the Delhi Sultanate and
    establishes the Mughal Empire.
  • United almost all of India
  • Akbars reign (1556-1605) was a golden age
  • Economic
  • Allowed trade with Europeans
  • Allowed formation of trading stations and
    merchant colonies by British, Portugese, French,
    and Dutch
  • British East India Company dominated trade in the
    region

20
  • Religion
  • Mughal empire le by Muslims
  • Akbar had a policy of religious tolerance-
    eliminated jizya, welcomed Hindus into government
    positions. Sought to create a mixture of the
    religions, his divine faith-was not
    successsful.
  • Aurangzeb (1659-1707) broke policy of religious
    tolerance. Imposed tax on Hindus, demolished
    several famous Hindu temples and replaced them
    with mosques- deep hostility among Hindus
  • Goa was center of Christian mission

21
  • Social
  • Akbar sought to improve position of women by
    trying to eliminate sati (Hindu women throw
    themselves on husbands funeral pyre)
  • Intellectual/Arts
  • Fatehpur Sikri- city planned and constructed by
    Akbar to serve as capital. Even though the
    buildings had Islamic character, they had
    Indian elements, such as stone elephants. Later
    abandoned due to bad water supply.
  • Shah Jahan had to the Taj Mahal built to be his
    wifes tomb.
  • Interactions
  • Foreign trade- establishment of trading outposts
    in India

22
  • Change
  • In 1526, the Mughal Empire begins will last 300
    years
  • Gradually over the course of the dynasty, more
    and more of India is united until almost the
    whole subcontinent was united except for a small
    region at the southern tip
  • Increased foreign trade formation of trading
    outposts at cities
  • Continuity
  • Like the Delhi Sultanate before, all rulers
    during the Mughal dynasty were Muslim

23
Taj Mahal
24
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25
1750 - 1914
26
Political
  • East India Company takes advantage of Mughal
    weakness to expand trading posts, where merchants
    won official rights to rule.
  • Enforced rule with small British army and large
    number of Indian troops- sepoys

27
The Sepoy Mutiny- 1857
  • Sepoys receive new rifle cartridges in animal
    fat. British told them to tear it off with their
    teeth Hindu would not because what if it came
    from cows, which they held sacred. Muslim would
    not because what if it came from pigs, which they
    considered foul.

28
  • After Sepoy Mutiny, British govt took away
    control from East India Company and imposed
    direct imperial rule
  • The Indian National Congress (1885) was a group
    of well-educated Indians who started the path
    towards independence
  • Joined forces with the All-India Muslim League in
    1916

29
Economic
  • British empire of India grew out of mercantile
    activities of the East India Company- monopoly on
    English trade with India.
  • British encouraged cultivation of tea, coffee,
    and opium
  • British colonial rule transformed the production
    of cotton

30
Religion
  • Sati- the practice of widows burning themselves
    on their husbands funeral pyres
  • This was common among upper-class Hindus this
    custom was banned in 1829 under pressure of
    E.I.C.

31
Social
  • Ram Mohan Roy- the father of modern India. he
    helped create a sense of Indian identity, and
    wanted a society based on modern European science
    and Indian tradition of devotional Hinduism
  • Supported end of sati, and worked with Christian
    reformers to improve status of women

32
Interaction
  • Interaction between India and British started
    with trade in the British East India Company
  • Because of British rule, India became more
    connected with the global economic network

33
Art/Intellectual
  • British built expensive railroad and telegraph
    networks that tightened links between India and
    the rest of the world

34
Changes
  • British colonialism in India brought an end to
    empire rule
  • British rule also brought new inventions to
    India, making them a bit more industrialized
  • Some of Indias customs were changed or banned
    because they did not fit with British laws or
    values

35
Continuities
  • India had cultivated many of the crops long
    before the British had come, but British rule
    transformed the production of crops like cotton
  • Indias religions continued (Hindu and Muslim)
    even though Britain tried to bring in Christian
    missionaries

36
1914 - Present
37
Timeline
  • 1914-Start of Great War
  • 1920-Non-Cooperation Movement under Mohandas
    Gandhi
  • 1930-Civil Disobedience Movement led by Gandhi
  • 1935- Government of India Act- Gave India
    institutions of a self-governing state
  • 1946- Day of Direct Action
  • 1947- Indian Independence and Partition into
    Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan
  • Establishment of democratic rule
  • 1947-1991- Cold War- Indian nonalignment
  • 1966-1977- Indira Gandhi as prime minister
  • Green Revolution- increased
    agricultural yields, but increased poverty
  • 1974- India explodes first atomic bomb
  • 1998- Indian National Congress (Congress Party)
    is replaced by Hindu nationalist party

38
India
  • Political
  • Indian National Congressnational political party
  • Muslim League-gt competition with Congress Party
    for power
  • Independence from Great Britain 1947
  • Divided into India and Pakistan to solve conflict
    between Hindus and Muslims
  • Established worlds largest democracy
  • Battle for Kashmir
  • Nonalignment during Cold War
  • Resentment towards China after revolt in Tibet
    failed-gt fought over unclear borders in 1962
  • Economic
  • Main export- textiles and clothing
  • Boycott of British cloth, source of wealth for
    British
  • The Salt March
  • Green Revolution- increases agricultural yields
    worldwide

39
  • Religion
  • Mainly Hindu population
  • One million died in migration of Muslims to
    Pakistan and Hindus to India after partition
  • Conflict between Hindus and Muslimspower
    struggle-gt fear of one dominating the other
  • Social
  • Civil disobedience led by Gandhi
  • Importance of caste system in society
  • Women gains equality in Constitution of India
  • Overpopulation leads to policy of involuntary
    sterilization by government
  • Interaction
  • Globalization and incorporation into world trade
  • Did not choose sides during Cold War
  • Arts/ Accomplishments
  • English official language in education and
    government
  • Spinning wheel on flag represented importance of
    textiles in India
  • Achieved independence from Great Britain.

40
Changes
  • Indian independence in 1947 ended almost 90 years
    of British imperial rule
  • India divided into Hindu India and Muslim
    Pakistan
  • After its independence, India begins to modernize
    and by 1974 tests its first nuclear weapons.
  • Hindu Nationalist Party replaces Indian National
    Congress who was in power since 1947
  • Role of women changed- can now participate in all
    kinds of activities school, politics, media,
    etc compared to previous ideals such as sati.

41
Continuities
  • After independence, established democratic rule
    and has maintained it to this day
  • Religious conflict between Hindu and Muslims
    still exist
  • Overpopulation, despite Indira Gandhis attempt
    in birth control policies
  • Poverty is widespread
  • Battle for region of Kashmir- which has a Hindu
    leader with a majority Muslim population
  • Resentment between India and China over Tibetian
    incident

42
the end.
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