Practical experience with applying Environmental Impact Assessment /EIA/ in the EU Fourth EU-Central Asia High Level Conference: Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation 13-14 February 2013, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Practical experience with applying Environmental Impact Assessment /EIA/ in the EU Fourth EU-Central Asia High Level Conference: Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation 13-14 February 2013, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

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Title: Practical experience with applying Environmental Impact Assessment /EIA/ in the EU Fourth EU-Central Asia High Level Conference: Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation 13-14 February 2013, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic


1
Practical experience with applying
Environmental Impact Assessment /EIA/ in the EU
Fourth EU-Central Asia High Level
Conference Platform for Environment and Water
Cooperation 13-14 February 2013, Bishkek, Kyrgyz
Republic
  • Dipl. Eng. Nina Stoyanova, Environmental
    consultant,
  • Bulgaria

2
Challenges and results of the policy
  • Key environmental policy - embodies the
    preventive approach to environmental protection
    by requiring that before consent is given by a
    governmental body, development projects likely to
    have significant effects on the environment are
    subjected to an assessment of possible
    environmental impacts. Basic rules and minimum
    requirements to carry out this assessment
    procedure, which includes the requirement of
    public participation, should lay down in the
    relevant national legislation.
  • A systematic process of determination,
    description and evaluation the direct and
    indirect impacts of the investment proposals for
    construction, activities and technologies on
    human beings, biodiversity and its elements,
    including flora and fauna, soils, water, air,
    climate and landscape, bowels of the earth and
    material and cultural heritage and their
    interaction.

3
Legislation
  • EU
  • Council Directive 97/11/EC, amending Directive
    85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of
    certain public and private projects on the
    environment
  • Directive 2003/35/EC providing for public
    participation in respect of the drawing up of
    certain plans and programmes relating to the
    environment and amending with regard to public
    participation and access to justice Council
    Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61/EC
  • Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the
    effects of certain public and private projects on
    the environment (codification)
  • Proposal for a Directive amending Directive
    2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of
    certain public and private projects on the
    environment
  • UNO
  • UN/ECE Convention on EIA in a transboundary
    context

4
EIA procedure
  • Notification to the competent environmental
    authority and concerned public
  • Screening case-by-case examination or thresholds
    or criteria set by the Member State
    (consultations, public access to the
    determination/decision)
  • Scoping (consultations)
  • Preparation of the EIA study/report
    (consultations)
  • Evaluation of the quality of the study/report -
    does it contain comprehensive information
  • Public hearings/debates
  • Issuing of the EIA statement/decision (public
    access)
  • Control and/or post project analyze

5
Participants in the EIA procedures
  • Investors of the projects
  • Competent Environmental Authorities
  • Other Authorities - Ministries, Agencies,
    Municipalities, Competent Authorities for the
    development consent
  • EIA practitioners
  • EIA Consultees
  • Academics
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
  • Financial institutions
  • The public who participate in consultations and
    public hearings

6
EIA and energy sector
  • Environmental concerns (1)
  • Nuclear power plants
  • Radioactive waste
  • Risk of accidents
  • Serious public troubles
  • New/reconstruction of thermal power plants
  • Cumulative effects on air
  • More land for waste disposal sites
  • Conflicts with the politics for reducing the
    green gases
  • Crude oil and gas pipelines
  • Limited alternatives of the route because of
    existing infrastructure and high cost of the
    by-pass route
  • Conflicts with the protection of the biodiversity
  • Pollution of the land and seas

7
EIA and energy sector
  • Environmental concerns (2)
  • Wind farms
  • Conflicts with the protection of the biodiversity
  • Negative visual effects on the landscape
  • Noise pollution
  • Small hydro power plants
  • Limited water resources
  • Conflicts with the protection of the biodiversity
  • Solar plants
  • Conflicts with the protection of the biodiversity
  • Generation of big amount of waste

8
Examples for transboundary EIA cases at South
Eastern Europe
  • Road Gotze Delchev (Bulgaria) Drama (Greece)
  • Crude oil pipeline Burgas (Bulgaria)
    Alexandrupolis (Greece)
  • Second Bridge over the Danube river between Vidin
    (Bulgaria) and Calafat (Romania)
  • Crude oil pipeline Burgas (Bulgaria) Vlora
    (Albania)
  • Expansion of NPP Chernavoda (Romania)
  • Construction of NPP Belene (Bulgaria)
  • Mining and processing of gold ore in Krumovgrad
    (Bulgaria)
  • Construction of refinery for processing of crude
    oil to end products in Silistra (Bulgaria)
  • Nabucco gas pipeline (Turkey Bulgaria -
    Romania)
  • South stream gas pipeline (Russia - Black Sea
    Bulgaria Republic of Serbia)

9
The case study Construction of NPP
Belene (Bulgaria)
  • EIA procedure (1)
  • Party of Origin Bulgaria
  • Affected Party Romania
  • Notification - 10 September 2003 Bulgaria to
    Romania
  • Expressed interest to participate 7 October
    2003 Romania to Bulgaria
  • Public access to the Environmental Impact Study
    one month in both countries
  • Public hearings in Bulgaria 24-29 April 2004 -
    Belene, Svishtov, Nikopol and in Sofia 4 May
    2004
  • Public hearings in Romania 8 September 2004
    Turnu Magurele

10
The case study Construction of NPP Belene
(Bulgaria)
  • EIA procedure
  • Issued EIA decision on 22 November 2004 it
    contains 50 conditions to be implemented during
    the phase of design, construction and operation
  • Conditions proposed by Romania taken into
    account
  • The conditions in the EIA decision are subject to
    control
  • Public access to the EIA documentation is secured
    according to the Law on access t? public
    information

11
The case study Nabucco gas pipeline (not
finished yet)
  • Pipeline system for transportation of gas from
    various sources in the Caspian region and the
    Middle East to Central Europe

12
The case study Nabucco gas pipeline (not
finished yet)
  • Party of Origin and Affected Party Turkey,
    Bulgaria and Romania
  • Exchange of Notifications between the parties
  • Express of interest for participation Turkey is
    not willing to participate in the Bulgarian EIA
    procedure. Romania expressed its willingness to
    participate.
  • Consultations between Bulgaria and Romania at the
    scoping phase
  • Elaboration of the Environmental Impact Study
  • Evaluation of the Environmental Impact Study
  • Forthcoming Public access to the Environmental
    Impact Study one month in both countries and
    public debates

13
Advantages of the EIA procedure in a
transboundary context
  • Permanent exchange of environmental information
    among the countries
  • Exchange of methods for environmental analysis
  • Preparation of bi-and multilateral agreements on
    EIA strengthening the relation between the
    countries
  • Create basis for common environmental monitoring
    in the region
  • Public awareness campaigns in the region
  • Enhancement of the environmental culture of the
    population

14
Environmental Assessment
/EA/ for Plans and Programs
  • Environmental policy instrument for providing a
    high level protection of the environment and for
    contribution of the integration of environmental
    consideration into the preparation and adoption
    of plans and programs with a view to promoting
    sustainable development
  • A systematic process for evaluating the
    environmental consequences of proposed policies,
    plans and programs that form the planning
    framework for projects at the earliest stage of
    decision-making.

15
Legislation
  • EU
  • Council Directive 2001/42/EC of the assessment of
    the effects of certain plans and programs on the
    environment
  • Directive 2003/35/EC providing for public
    participation in respect of the drawing up of
    certain plans and programs relating to the
    environment and amending with regard to public
    participation and access to justice Council
    Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61/EC
  • UNO
  • Protocol on the Strategic Environmental
    Assessment to the UN/ECE Convention on EIA in a
    transboundary context

16
SEA procedure
  • Screening and scoping of the environmental
    assessment
  • Elaborating the EA study/report
  • Conducting a consultation with the public and
    concerned authorities
  • Taking into account the results of the
    consultation in the EA study/report
  • Defining the measures of monitoring and control
    of the plan/program implementation
  • Issuing a statement on EA 
  • Monitoring and control of the plan/program
    implementation

17
Participants in the SEA procedures
  • Investors of the plans and programs
  • Competent Environmental Authorities
  • Other Authorities - Ministries, Agencies,
    Municipalities, Competent Authorities for the
    development consent
  • EA practitioners
  • EA Consultees
  • Academics
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
  • Financial institutions
  • The public who participate in consultations

18
Practical experience with SEA for Plans and
Programs in Bulgaria (1)
  • Sectoral plans and programs
  • National longterm program for the development of
    renewable energy sources
  • National Program for Waste Management
  • Regional Plans for Development - 6 Regions South
    West South Central South East North
    West North Central North East
  • National Program for Ports Development
    (2006-2015)
  • Master Plans for Ports Port Burgas and Port
    Varna
  • Master Plans for Airports Airport
    Burgas/Airport Varna

19
Practical experience with SEA for Plans and
Programs in Bulgaria (2)
  • Operational Programs /OP/ under Structural and
    Cohesion Policy
  • OP Environment
  • OP Transport
  • OP Regional development
  • OP Development of the Competitivness of Bulgarian
    Economy
  • Rural Development Program
  • Fisheries and aquaculture

20
Practical experience with SEA in transboundary
context for Masterplan - ,,Protection and
Rehabilitation of the Romanian costal zone
  • Country of origin Romania
  • Affected country Bulgaria
  • Notification January 2012 Romania to Bulgaria
  • Expressed interest to participate
  • Consultations between the Parties including
    public access to the EA study in Bulgaria
  • Sending the results to the Romanian authorities
  • Issuing of the Environmental Approval by the
    Romanian authorities
  • Applying the Program for Monitoring

21
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