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Learning Target 7.4.1 Chapt. 5 Section 1

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* * Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes, IR, and Textbook With so many traders passing though their lands, Ghana s rulers looked for ways to make money from them. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Target 7.4.1 Chapt. 5 Section 1


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Learning Target 7.4.1Chapt. 5 Section 1
  • Analyze the effect of geography on trade in West
    Africa.

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Geography of Africa
7.4.1
The Big Idea West Africa has varied environments
and valuable resources. 2 Main Ideas
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Main Idea 1 The landforms, water, climate, and
plant life affected history in West Africa
  • Africa is the second largest continent and is
    shaped like a soup bowl with mountains on the
    rim.
  • The Niger River became a source of water, food,
    and transportation that allowed many people to
    live in the sub-Saharan plains, areas in Africa
    south of the equator.

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Africas Four Regions
  • The northern band across West Africa is the
    southern part of the Sahara. It has the worlds
    largest desert.
  • The semiarid Sahel divides the desert from wetter
    areas. It has enough vegetation to support hardy
    grazing animals.
  • Farther south is a band of savannah, or open
    grass with scattered trees. Grazing animals are
    common there.
  • Rain forests, or moist, densely wooded areas, are
    near the equator. They contain a variety of
    plants and animals.

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Main Idea 2 West Africas resources included
farmland, gold, and salt.
West Africas land produced many crops, such as
dates and kola nuts. Kola nuts could be used for
medicine.
Gold could be used for jewelry or coins. Gold
came from the Southern Forests. Mines were kept a
secret because of fear and the need to control
the trade.
Salt was a resource that was found deep in the
earth, from lakes that had dried up. Came from
ancient, dried lakebeds. Salt was needed in
their diets, so it was valuable.
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  Chapter 5 Section 1 Notes, IR, and
Textbook
  1. Along what river did the great civilizations in
    West Africa arise? 
  2. Put the vegetation Zones in order from most
    rainfall to least. 
  3. Describe the Sahel. 
  4. What are traditional West African crops? 
  5. Mineral resources in West Africa include what?

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Learning Target 7.4.2Chapter 5 Section 2
  • Explore the roles of family, labor, and trade in
    the development of West Africa.

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Early Culture and Trade
7.4.2
The Big Idea Family ties, religion, iron
technology, and trade all contributed to the
growth of West African societies. 3 Main Ideas
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Main Idea 1 Family and religion influenced
daily life in early West African society.
  • A typical West African family was an extended
    family including close relatives.
  • Some people took part in another type of group,
    called age sets.
  • In these groups, people who had been born within
    the same two or three years formed special bonds.
  • Religion was called animism. This is the belief
    that bodies of water, animals, and natural
    objects have spirits. Animism reflects the
    dependence of African people on the natural
    environment for their daily lives.

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Loyalties
Loyalty to families and age-sets helped the
people of a village work together.
  • Everyone had specific duties.
  • Men hunted and farmed.
  • Women farmed and cared for the children.
  • Elders taught traditions to the children.
  • Children started working as soon as they were
    able.

Many West Africans believed that unseen spirits
of their ancestors stayed nearby. They shared
their problems and news with the spirits and
offered them food.
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Main Idea 2 Iron technology changed life in
West Africa.
  • Changes in technology helped some early
    communities grow.
  • The people of Nok began using iron to make farm
    tools and weapons.
  • Farmers could work the land faster and grow more
    food.
  • Warriors gained power with better weapons.
  • People could live in places they hadnt been able
    to before.

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Main Idea 3 Trade shaped the history of West
Africa.
  • West Africans began to trade the areas resources
    with buyers who lived thousands of miles away.
  • They traded gold, salt, cloth, copper, silver,
    and other items.
  • Camels were used to transport goods over long
    distances because they could store water and
    carry heavy loads.

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Trade patterns
  • Salt was found in the North, in the Sahara
    desert, and carried South.
  • Gold was found in the South, in the rainforest,
    and carried North to trade.
  • The places people gathered became towns.
    Timbuktu, for example, started as a trading camp,
    and grew into a large trade center

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 Chapter 5 Section 2 Notes, IR, and Textbook
  1. Who were men and women in traditional West
    African society loyal to? 
  2.  What role did the elders play in the life of the
    village?   
  3. The traditional religious practice of West
    Africans was centered on what beliefs?  
  4. What activities were part of West African
    religious practices concerning the dead
    ancestors?  
  5. What does the animistic belief system reveal
    about traditional West Africans?  
  6. Why did farming in Africa improve during the
    early West African time period? 
  7.  Who was one of the earliest groups of people in
    West Africa to benefit from iron tools?   
  8. Which two uses of iron were the most significant
    for West Africans?

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 Chapter 5 Section 2 Notes, IR, and Textbook
  1. What were the main characteristics of early
    African societies? How did they live, what did
    they trade and what helped them farm? What kind
    of government did they have? 
  2. What was the name of the group of people who led
    desert caravans through the Sahara?  
  3. What did people south of the Sahara trade their
    gold for?  
  4. What began as a camp for African traders and
    became a large trade center? 
  5. What was the trade pattern direction of gold and
    salt? 
  6.  What is an age set?  
  7. What two factors had the biggest impact on the
    growth of West Africa?

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Chapter 6 Section 1
  • Learning Target 7.4.1
  • Understand how the differing geographical areas
    near the Niger River affected the growth of the
    empires of Ghana and Mali.

Learning Target 7.4.2 Examine the role family,
specialized labor, and trade played in the growth
of West Africa
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Empire of Ghana
7.4.1
  • The Big Idea
  • The rulers of Ghana built an empire by
    controlling the salt and gold trade.
  • Main Ideas
  • Ghana controlled trade and became wealthy.
  • Through its control of trade, Ghana built an
    empire.
  • Ghanas decline was caused by attacking invaders,
    overgrazing, and the loss of trade.

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Main Idea 1 Ghana controlled trade and became
wealthy.
  • Ghana was created when groups of farmers banded
    together.
  • Ghana became a powerful state only when it gained
    control of valuable trade routes. Most valuable
    resources were gold and salt.
  • The exchange of gold and salt followed a process
    called silent barter. This is a process in which
    people exchange goods without ever contacting
    each other directly.
  • Ghanas rulers gained power and wealth, and the
    military grew in strength, too.

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Gold and Salt and Trade
  • The salt traders leave salt at riverbanks. Beat
    drum and leave. Gold traders leave fair amount
    of gold and beat drum and leave. Salt trader
    returns. If happy ? takes gold, if not ?
    continue process

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Main Idea 2 Through its control of trade, Ghana
built an empire.
  • Ghana protected traders with its army. Traders
    were not afraid to travel to Ghana.
  • With so many traders passing through their lands,
    they made money by forcing traders to pay taxes.
  • In addition, the people of Ghana and the small
    neighboring tribes they controlled had to pay
    taxes.
  • Ghana also had rich gold mines.
  • Rulers didnt want everyone to have gold because
    it was very rare.

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Expansion of the Empire
  • Ghanas kings used their great wealth to build a
    powerful army and conquered many of their
    neighbors, especially ones that had centers of
    trade. Money came from taxes.
  • To keep order in the empire, conquered kings were
    allowed to keep much of their power. They acted
    as governors of their territories.
  • The empire of Ghana reached its peak under King
    Tunka Manin.

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Main Idea 3 Ghanas decline was caused by
attacking invaders, overgrazing, and the loss of
trade.
  • Invasion
  • A Muslim group called the Almoravids cut off many
    trade routes, without which Ghana could not
    support its empire.
  • Overgrazing
  • When the Almoravids moved, they brought herds of
    animals with them.
  • These animals ate all the grass, leaving the land
    worthless for farming.
  • Internal rebellion
  • The people whom Ghana had conquered rose up in
    rebellion and took over the entire empire.

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Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes, IR, and Textbook
  1. How did Ghana become such a powerful state?
  2. What was significant about the location of the
    Ghana Empire?
  3. Why was salt so valuable?
  4. What is silent barter?
  5. Why was silent barter useful?
  6. How did Ghanas kings govern such a large empire?
  7. What type of leader was Tunka Manin?

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Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes, IR, and Textbook
With so many traders passing though their lands, Ghanas rulers looked for ways to make money from them. One way they raised money was by forcing traders to pay taxes.
  • What can you infer about Ghanas rulers from the
    above passage?
  • How did the location of cities in the West
    African Empires of Ghana and Mali influence their
    growth?
  • How did Ghanas kings use the tax and tribute
    money they collected?
  • Who were the Almoravids?
  • What happened to the fertile land that Ghanas
    farmers once cultivated?

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Chapter 6 Section 2
  • Learning Target 7.4.3
  • Describe how trans-Saharan caravan trade
    influenced West African religion and culture, and
    how Islam affected West Africa.
  • Learning Target 7.4.4
  • Show how the Arabic language spread throughout
    West African government, trade, and Islamic
    learning.

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Empire of Mali
7.4.3
  • The Big Idea
  • The wealthy and powerful Mali Empire ruled West
    Africa after the fall of Ghana.
  • Main Ideas
  • A ruler named Sundiata made Mali into an empire.
  • Mali reached its height under the ruler Mansa
    Musa.
  • Mali fell to invaders in the late 1400s.

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Main Idea 1 A ruler named Sundiata made Mali
into an empire.
  • Sundiata, Malis first strong leader, was both a
    warrior and a magician.
  • He conquered Ghana and took over the salt and
    gold trades.
  • He had new farmlands cleared for crops of beans,
    onions, and rice. He also introduced cotton as a
    new crop.
  • To protect his authority, he took power away from
    others and adopted the title mansa.

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Mansa
  • Mansas had both political and religious roles in
    society.
  • The religious role of the mansa grew out of
    traditional Malian beliefs.
  • According to the beliefs, peoples ancestors had
    made an agreement with the spirits of the land
    that would ensure the lands provided plenty of
    food.

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Main Idea 2Mali reached its height under the
ruler Mansa Musa.
  • Islam was important to Musa, so he made a
    pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • He influenced the spread of Islam through a large
    part of West Africa and had mosques built
    throughout his empire.
  • He also stressed the importance of education and
    learning to read the Arabic language.
  • He sent scholars to study in Morocco. They came
    back and set up schools to study the Quran.
  • During this journey, he introduced the empire of
    Mali to the world.
  • Mali became famous throughout Africa, Asia, and
    Europe.

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Main Idea 3 Mali fell to invaders in the late
1400s.
Weak rulers such as Maghan could not stop
raiders, leading to the empires gradual decline.
The empire had become so large that the
government could not control it. Some areas
declared their independence.
In 1431 it was invaded by the Tuareg
Nomads. Invaders finally took over almost all the
lands of the Mali Empire by the 1500s.
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  • Chapter 6 Section 2 Notes, IR, and Textbook
  • Explain the similarity between the development of
    the Ghana and Mali empires.
  • What things of importance happened during the
    reign of Sundiata.
  • Unlike Sundiata, most of Malis later rulers,
    including Mana Musa, were what religion?
  • Who were the mansas?
  • Who was Malis greatest and most famous ruler?
  • What was the importance of Mansa Musas hajj to
    Mecca?
  • How did Mansa Musa spread Islam and education
    throughout Mali?
  • What contributed to the fall of the Mali Empire?

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Chapter 6 Section 3Learning Target 7.4.3
  • Describe how trans-Saharan caravan trade
    influenced West African religion and culture, and
    how Islam affected West Africa.

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Empire of Songhai
7.4.3 7.4.4
  • The Big Idea
  • The Songhai Empire strengthened Islam in West
    Africa.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Songhai built a new empire in West Africa.
  • Askia the Great ruled Songhai as an Islamic
    empire.
  • Songhai fell to Moroccan invaders, ending the
    great era of West African empires.

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Main Idea 1 The Songhai built a new empire in
West Africa.
  • Along the Nile River, once a part of Mali,
    Songhai rose up against it and regained its
    freedom.
  • Songhai grew in many ways, mostly due to the work
    of Sunni Ali.
  • Worked constantly to unify, strengthen, and
    enlarge it
  • Conquered the wealthy trade cities of Timbuktu
    and Djenné
  • He participated in both Islam and local religions
    and brought peace and stability as a result.

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Main Idea 2Askia the Great ruled Songhai as an
Islamic empire.
  • Before Askia the Empire wasnt united under
    Islam.
  • Islam gained influence under Askia the Great.
  • Most of Songhais traders were Muslim and when
    they gained power, the religion of Islam spread.
    This changed Songhais government

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Education and Government
  • Askia the Great worked to support education and
    especially supported learning about medicine.
  • Doctors discovered that mosquitoes spread
    malaria.
  • They also performed surgery on the human eye.
  • To help maintain order, Askia set up five
    provinces within Songhai.
  • He removed local leaders and appointed new
    governors who were loyal to him.
  • He created special departments to oversee certain
    tasks.
  • He created a standing professional army.

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Main Idea 3 Songhai fell to Moroccan invaders,
ending the great era of West African empires.
  • Because Morocco wanted to control the Saharan
    salt mines, it invaded Songhai.
  • The Moroccans brought with them a terrible new
    weapon, the arquebus, an early form of gun.
  • The Moroccans guns and cannons brought disaster
    to Songhai.
  • Cities were taken over and looted.
  • Changes in trade patterns completed Songhais
    fall.

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  • Chapter 6 Section 3 Notes, IR, and Textbook
  • Which city, that was once the center of the Mali
    Empire, became the center for the Songhai Empire?
  • Why did Morocco invade Songhai?
  • What is an arquebus?

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Chapter 6 Section 4
  • Learning Target 7.4.4
  • Show how the Arabic Language spread throughout
    West African government, trade, and Islamic
    learning.
  • Learning Target 7.4.5
  • Explain how oral and written histories have kept
    the history of Africa alive.

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Historical and Artistic Traditions
7.4.5
  • The Big Idea
  • Because the people of West Africa did not have a
    written language, their cultures have been passed
    down through oral history, writings by other
    people, and the arts.
  • Main Ideas
  • Storytellers helped maintain the oral history of
    the cultures of West Africa.
  • Visitors to West Africa from other lands wrote
    histories and descriptions of what they saw
    there.
  • Traditionally, West Africans have valued the arts.

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Main Idea 1 Storytellers helped maintain the
oral history of the cultures of West Africa.
Writing was not common in West Africa. People
passed along information through oral histories,
a spoken record of past events.
West African storytellers were called griots.
They helped keep the history of their ancestors
alive for each new generation.
In addition to stories, they recited proverbs.
These were short sayings of wisdom or truth. They
were used to teach lessons to the people.
Some of tahe griot poems are epics that are
collected in the Dausi and the Sundiata.
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Main Idea 2 Visitors to West Africa from other
lands wrote histories and descriptions of what
they saw there.
  • The people of West Africa left no written
    histories of their own. Much of what we know
    about early West Africa comes from the writings
    of travelers and scholars from Muslim lands such
    as Spain and Arabia.
  • One of the first people to write about West
    Africa was al-Masudi. He described the
    geography, customs, history, and scientific
    achievements of West Africa.

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Other Writers
  • Abu Ubayd al-Bakri wrote about life in West
    African kingdoms.
  • Ibn Battutah described the political and cultural
    lives of West Africans. He was a Muslim.
  • Leo Africanus was the last major Muslim visitor
    to West Africa. Leo lived and wrote in Europe, so
    for a long time, his writing was the only source
    about life in Africa available to Europeans.

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Main Idea 3 Traditionally, West Africans have
valued the arts.
  • Of all the visual forms, the sculpture of West
    Africa is probably the best known.
  • The sculpture is mostly of people.
  • It was made for religious rituals.
  • Artists were deeply respected.
  • Artists carved elaborate masks, used mostly for
    rituals as they danced around fires.
  • They wove cloth such as kente, a hand-woven,
    brightly colored fabric.
  • Also they wove baskets
  • Music and dancing were important.
  • These activities helped people honor their
    history and were central to many celebrations.

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Chapter 6 Section 4 Notes, IR, and Textbook
Much of what we know about early West Africa comes from the writings of travelers and scholars from Muslim lands such as Spain and Arabia.
  • What is the best inference you can make from this
    statement?
  • How was music and dance incorporated into the
    lives of the people of early West Africa?
  • What are the names of two West African Epics?
  • For special occasions, West African kings and
    queens wore garments made of what special cotton
    material?
  • The contacts between civilizations shown in the
    map below were primarily made by what kind of
    people?
  • What are African storytellers who memorize and
    recite the names and histories called?

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