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Demography of Russia and the Former Soviet Union

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Title: Gender Specific Effects of Early-Life Events on Adult Lifespan Author: Natalia Gavrilova Last modified by: Leonid Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Demography of Russia and the Former Soviet Union


1
Demography of Russia and the Former Soviet Union
  • Lecture 10
  • Sociology SOCI 20182

2
Current trends in life expectancy
3
Current trends in life expectancy in Moscow and
some Eastern European countries
4
Main features of recent improvement
  • Highest gains in working ages (15-64)
  • Main improvements due to causes directly related
    to alcohol, accidents and respiratory diseases
  • These improvements may be related to the recent
    measures of increased control after alcohol
    production adopted in 2005

5
Additional factor fluctuations in
alcohol-related mortality
Age-standardized mortality of men (per 100,000)
from accidental poisoning by alcohol
6
Improvement in life expectancy in 2005-2006, Men
7
Improvement in life expectancy in 2005-2006, Women
8
Migration
  • Different types of migration
  • International migration
  • Internal migration
  • Labor migration
  • Forced migration
  • Repatriation

9
Migration statistics in the Soviet Union
  • Soviet Union had unique and very accurate system
    of migration statistics (for internal migration)
  • This system was closely related to the passport
    system and residence registration (propiska).
    Data were collected by the Ministry of Internal
    Affairs (MVD)
  • Change of address was accompanied by departure
    registration and arrival registration
  • The system was totalitarian (migration required
    permission from police)

10
Migration statistics in Russia (1990s)
  • Soviet system of migration statistics was
    destroyed
  • Main changes happened in 1995 when the system of
    registration was modified. All migrants were
    divided into two categories
  • (1) those who change their permanent
    address
  • (2) those who register for temporary
    residence.
  • Migration statistics covers only permanent
    migrants.
  • Main limitation incomplete coverage

11
Staying in Russia required registration in police
Police could stop person without any reason and
ask for registration
12
Problems with migration statistics in Russia
(continue)
  • Problems also existed in registration of external
    migration (migration to/from other countries)
  • Restrictive laws about obtaining permanent
    residence in Russia were adopted in 2000 and then
    in 2003. As a result, many immigrants registered
    as temporary migrants and were not accounted by
    the state statistics (migration underestimation)

13
Migrants often have problems with police
Deportation of illegal immigrants
14
Migration flows in the FSU countries
Until recently only Russia and Belarus had
positive migration rates
15
Migration in FSU countries
  • Migration rates are declining in most countries.
    Exception Kazakhstan
  • Migration outside FSU countries is also
    declining. Most emigrants go to USA, Germany and
    Israel
  • Over 80 of migrants are at working ages

16
Migration between Russia and FSU countries
  • In 1980-1989 positive migration flows to Russia
    from all FSU countries except for the Baltic
    countries
  • In 1990-1994 positive migration flows from all
    FSU countries except for Ukraine
  • In 1995-1999 positive migration flows from all
    FSU countries except for Belarus
  • With outside world (non-FSU countries) migration
    rate was always negative (out-migration exceeded
    in-migration)

17
Labor migration in Russia
  • Most labor migrants come to Russia illegally.
    Researchers estimate over 4 million illegal
    migrants in Russia.
  • Until 2005 the number of official migrants
    comprised no more than 5 of all labor migrants
  • In January 2007 new legislation was adopted,
    which facilitated official registration for labor
    migrants

18
Labor migrants in Russia
Migrants often occupy low-skilled jobs
19
Growth of official labor migrants in Russia
20
Labor migrants to Russia in 2006 (official data)
  • 16.9 came from Ukraine
  • 10.4 came from Uzbekistan
  • 9.7 came from Tadjikistan
  • 10 came from Turkey
  • 20.8 came from China
  • 40 work in construction
  • 30 work in trade

21
According to surveys
  • 70 of migrants are men
  • Mean age 32-33 years
  • 35-40 have 3 or more dependents
  • About 50 had no stable work in their country of
    origin
  • 40-50 could be called very poor before
    migration

22
Recent tendencies in labor migration in Russia
  • Proportion of migrants from Central Asia is
    increasing
  • Cultural distance between migrants and local
    population is increasing 3 of migrants in
    Moscow and 17 in Astrakhan (Southern city) know
    Russian poorly
  • Educational level of migrants is decreasing

23
Education of migrants
24
Foreign labor migrants by industry
25
Russia will depend on labor migrants
  • By 2015 labor force in Russia will decrease by 8
    million people by 2025 by 18-19 million

26
New migration policy in Russia
  • On March 17 2005 President Putin called
    stimulation of migration processes to be one of
    the most important task
  • New laws On migration accounting of foreign
    citizens and persons without citizenship in
    Russian Federation and On legal status of
    foreign citizens were adopted on July 18 2006
    and significantly facilitated migration to Russia

27
New migration policy in Russia
  • Registration at the place of residence (all
    immigrants) simple procedure, which does not
    require permission (in the past it required
    personal visit to police for all persons living
    at the registration address)
  • Permission to work (non-visa immigrants) simple
    procedure (in the past permission was given to
    employer)
  • Migrant quotas separately for visa and non-visa
    immigrants. No quotas for qualified specialists.

28
Registration among migrants to Russia before and
after the new migration laws (survey results in
2007)
Question Have you registered?
29
Obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia
before and after the new migration laws (survey
results in 2007)
Question Have you obtained your work permit?
30
Gender differences in registration and obtaining
work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
31
Age differences in registration and obtaining
work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
32
Education differences in registration and
obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia
(2007)
33
Ethnic differences in registration and obtaining
work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
34
Positive results of new migration policy in Russia
  • More accurate data about total number of
    immigrants including labor migrants. During 2007
    eight million entries to Russia were registered
  • Significant decrease of illegal immigration,
    increase of legitimate status of temporary labor
    migrants. Two-fold increase of taxation base
  • Better estimation of the number of labor
    migrants, which is about 4.5 million in Russia in
    2007

35
Russia and international standards of migration
statistics
  • International standards consider two major
    statistical categories
  • flows (number of persons changed their place of
    residence during the studied period) and
  • stocks number of migrants at the particular
    territory on a specific date.

36
Russia and international standards of migration
statistics
  • Flows are registered by the current migration
    statistics (number of persons changed their place
    of residence during the current year), border
    statistics (number of departures and entries
    during the year), statistics of foreign workers
    getting their jobs, statistics of foreign
    students, etc.

37
Improvement of migration statistics after 2007
  • Since 2007 Rosstat (former Goskomstat) gets data
    from the Federal Migration Service about foreign
    migrants
  • Since 2008 Rosstat gets data from the FMS about
    migrants-Russian citizens registered at their new
    residence for more than a year (information about
    ethnicity removed but info about the purpose of
    migration added)
  • In the forthcoming 2010 census more questions
    related to migration are added

38
Improvement of migration statistics after 2007
(continue)
  • Since 2007 Federal Migration Service presents
    information on its activity at FMS website
    http//www.fms.gov.ru
  • Administrative systems became more open (e.g.,
    statistics on obtaining Russian citizenship)
  • Development of these information systems is at
    the beginning now, so we will see the results
    later.

39
Russia and international standards of migration
statistics
  • Stocks can be estimated by census (number of
    foreign citizens living in the country or number
    of persons born abroad), by FMS (persons with
    residence permit or work permit, refugees).
  • Standard methods of migration statistics are not
    completely applicable to Russia and other FSU
    countries, which were a single country in the
    past (e.g., number of persons born abroad).

40
Russia and international standards of migration
statistics
  • In the past moving from one part of the country
    to another one was made by the citizens of the
    same country within the boarders of one country
  • Most migrations occurred before the Soviet Union
    dissolution. For example, censuses in Ukraine and
    Belarus showed that 85 and 68 of persons born
    outside these countries migrated before the
    Soviet Union dissolution (so cannot be considered
    as international migrants).

41
New citizens in Russia
In 1992-2006 Russian citizenship obtained more
than 6 million people
42
New citizens in Russia by the country of previous
residence
43
Internal migration in Russia
  • Five zones (migration in 1991-2003)
  • European accepting zone. Accepted 1.9 million
    people due to migration from other parts of
    Russia
  • European North and Republics of Northern Caucasus
    lost population (about 20 of population
    received by European accepting zone)
  • Eastern out-migration zone 60 of the Russian
    territory but only 10 of population. Provided
    about 60 of population received by European
    accepting zone (strong Western drift)

44
Major migration zones of Russia
45
Migration rate per 100,000 in 1997
46
Proportion of migrants in population ()
47
Migration flows in Moscow
48
Growth of Moscow population
49
After WWII migration to Moscow exceeded natural
increase (rates per 1000)
50
Net migration in Russia and Moscow (in thousand)
51
Natural and migration increase in Moscow in
1989-2002 (in thousand)
52
Migration to Moscow compared to other Russian
regions
  • In 2006 only 22 regions out of 80 had positive
    migration rate (increase). Migrants to Moscow
    comprised 46.5 of all migrants.
  • In 2007 Moscow migration rate was 48.6 persons
    per 10000 inhabitants. Migration rate in Moscow
    oblast was 111 persons per 10000 (easier to
    register, cheaper housing, lower police racket,
    etc.).
  • Few regions are able to compete with Moscow for
    migrants St Petersburg, and Leningrad oblast,
    Krasnodar kray, Tumen.

53
Moscow is a city of migrants
  • According to 2002 census, 47 of Moscow residents
    were not born in Moscow. This is similar to
    Russia 45 of persons living in Russia were not
    born in Russia (2002 census)
  • 27.7 of them arrived in Moscow in 1992-2002
  • This is similar to Russia 45 of persons living
    in Russia were not born in Russia (2002 census)
  • 2002 labor migrants predominantly from Ukraine,
    Transcaucasia, Moldova and China.
  • 2007 labor migrants predominantly from
    Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan

54
Structure of permanent and temporary migrants in
Moscow by country of departure in 2007
55
Migrants from Transcaucasia
Relative changes in ethnic groups between
censuses. 1989 1.00
56
Family status of migrants from Transcaucasia
coming to Moscow
Many migrants (mostly men) come alone and with
friends
57
Type of occupation by ethnicity in Moscow
Many migrants from Transcaucasia occupy top
positions
58
Proportion of Russians in Moscow and Russia
population is declining
Unlike many world capitals, population of Moscow
still remains very uniform (for example,
proportion of ethnic minorities in Paris is over
29)
59
Proportion of men per 1000 women of marriageable
age (20-34) by ethnicity in Moscow (2002 census)
60
Ethnic tensions
  • According to surveys, 67 of moscovites believe
    in the existence of ethnic tensions
  • However, only 12-14 personally encountered
    xenophobic actions
  • Unlike many world capitals, migrants to Moscow
    are more complementary to the resident
    population, most of them know Russian. Their
    children born in Moscow lose native language (61
    of Armenian children, 24 of Azerbaijan children)

61
Refugees and forced migrants in Russia, 1997
62
Forced deportations during Stalin period
  • 1941-1942 preventive deportations of
    Germans, Finns, Greeks (about 1.2 million people)
  • 1943-1944 deportations of retaliation.
    Crimea tatars, Chechens, Ingush, Balkar,
    Karachaev, Kalmyk
  • 1944-1945 preventive deportations in the end of
    WWII (to clean-up the borders). Turks-meskhi
    from Georgia, many nations of Crimea, Western
    parts (Ukraine, Baltic countries). Totally about
    260 thousands

63
Forced compensation migrations
  • Lands left after deportations showed decline in
    agriculture productivity.
  • Forced migration of Russians from nearby regions
    to keep production of collective farms. Many
    forced migrants fled the territories later.
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