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MPEG-4 AVC (H.264)

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Title: MPEG-4 AVC (H.264)


1
MPEG-4 AVC (H.264)
2
Introduction
  • The H.264 is aimed at very low bit rate,
    real-time, low end-to-end delay, and mobile
    applications such as conversational services and
    internet video.
  • Enhanced visual quality at very low bit rates and
    particularly at rate below 24kb/s.

3
Structure of H.264/AVC Video Coder
  • VCL Designed to efficiently represent the video
    content
  • NAL formats the VCL representation of the video
    and provides head information for conveyance by a
    variety of transport layers or storage media.

4
(No Transcript)
5
Video Coding Layer
6
Basic Structure of VCL
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
7
Intra-frame Prediction
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
8
  • Intra-frame encoding of H.264 supports Intra_4
    ?4, Intra_16 ?16 and I_PCM.
  • I_PCM allows the encoder directly send the values
    of encoded sample.
  • Intra_4 ?4 and Intra_16 ?16 allows the intra
    prediction.

9
  • Intra 4?4
  • 9 modes
  • Used in texture area
  • Intra 16?16
  • 4 modes
  • Used in flat area

10
  • Four modes of Intra_16?16
  • Mode 0 (vertical) extrapolation from upper
    samples(H)
  • Mode 1 (horizontal) extrapolation from left
    samples(V)
  • Mode 2 (DC) mean of upper and left-hand samples
    (HV)
  • Mode 3 (Plane) a linear plane function is
    fitted to the upper and left-hand samples H and
    V. This works well in areas of smoothly-varying
    luminance

11
Example
Original image
12
  • Nine modes of Intra_4?4
  • The prediction block P is calculated based on the
    samples labeled A-M.
  • The encoder may select the prediction mode for
    each block that minimizes the residual between P
    and the block to be encoded

13
Example
Consider a 4?4 block and its neighbors
labeled below.
Suppose we use the mode 4 for prediction. Then
a (A 2M I 2)/4
14
Example
15
(No Transcript)
16
Motion Estimation/Compensation
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
17
  • Features of the H.264 motion estimation
  • Various block sizes
  • ¼ sample accuracy
  • 6-tap filtering to ½ sample accuracy
  • simplified filtering to ¼ sample accuracy
  • Multiple reference pictures
  • Generalized B-Frames

18
  • Variable Block Size Block-Matching
  • In the H.264, a video frame is first splitted
    using fixed size macroblocks.
  • Each macroblock may then be segmented into
    subblocks with different block sizes.
  • A macroblock has a dimension of 16 ? 16 pixels.
    The size of the smallest subblock is 4 ? 4

19
Example
This example shows the effectiveness of block
matching operations with smaller sizes.
Frame 1
20
Frame 2
21
Difference between Frame 1 and Frame 2
22
Results of block-matching operation with size
1616
23
Results of block-matching operation with size 88
24
Results of block-matching operation with size 44
25
To use a subblock with size less than 8?8, it is
necessary to first split the macroblock into
four 8?8 subblocks.
26
Example
27
Encoding a motion vector for each subblock can
cost a significant number of bits, especially if
small block sizes are chosen. Motion vectors
for neighboring subblocks are often highly
correlated and so each motion vector is
predicted from vectors of nearby, previously
coded subblocks. The difference between the
motion vector of the current block and its
prediction is encoded and transmitted.
28
The method of forming the prediction depends on
the block size and on the availability of nearby
vectors. Let E be the current block, let A be
the subblock immediately to the left of E, let
B be the subblock immediately above E, and let C
be the subblock above and to the right of E. It
is not necessary that A, B, C, and E have the
same size.
C C C C
D D B C C C C
A E E
E E
29
  • There are two modes for the prediction of
  • motion vectors
  • Median prediction
  • Use for all block sizes excluding 168 and
    816
  • Directional segmentation prediction
  • Use for 168 and 816

30
C C C C
D D B C C C C
A E E
E E
Median prediction If C not exist then CD If B, C
not exist then prediction VA If A, C not exist
then prediction VB If A, B not exist then
prediction VC Otherwise Prediction
median(VA,,VB,VC)
31
  • Directional segmentation prediction
  • Vector block size 816
  • Left prediction VA
  • Right prediction VC
  • Vector block size 168
  • Up prediction VB
  • Down prediction VA

32
  • Fractional Motion Estimation

In H.264, the motion vectors between current
block and candidate block has ¼-pel resolution.
The samples at sub-pel positions do not exist
in the reference frame and so it is necessary
to create them using interpolation from nearby
image samples.
33
Interpolation of ½-pel samples.
bround((E-5F20G20H-5IJ)/32) hround((A-5C20G
20M-5RT)/32) jround((aa-5bb20b20s-5gghh)/32)

34
Interpolation of ¼-pel samples.
around((Gb)/2)
dround((Gh)/2)
eround((bh)/2)
35
  • Multiple Reference Frames

36
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37
  • The motion estimation techniques based on
    multiple
  • reference frame technique provides
    opportunities
  • for more precise inter-prediction, and also
    improved
  • robustness to lost picture data.
  • The drawback of multiple reference frames is that
  • both the encoder and decoder have to store the
  • reference frames used for Inter-frame
    prediction in
  • a multi-frame buffer.

38
Mobile Calendar (CIF, 30 fps)
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
PSNR Y dB
31
30
29
PBB... with generalized B pictures
28
PBB... with classic B pictures
PPP... with 5 previous references
27
PPP... with 1 previous reference
26
0
1
2
3
4
R Mbit/s
39
  • Generalized B Frames

Basic B-frames The basic B-frames cannot be
used as reference frames.
40
Generalized B-frames The generalized B-frames
can be used as reference frames.
41
Mobile Calendar (CIF, 30 fps)
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
PSNR Y dB
31
30
29
PBB... with generalized B pictures
28
PBB... with classic B pictures
PPP... with 5 previous references
27
PPP... with 1 previous reference
26
0
1
2
3
4
R Mbit/s
42
Mobile Calendar (CIF, 30 fps)
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
PSNR Y dB
31
30
29
PBB... with generalized B pictures
28
PBB... with classic B pictures
PPP... with 5 previous references
27
PPP... with 1 previous reference
26
0
1
2
3
4
R Mbit/s
43
Transformation/Quantization
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
44
  • Transformation

The Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) operates on
x, a block of NN samples and creates X, and
NN block of coefficients.
The forward DCT
The reverse DCT
45
The elements of A are
where
That is,
46
Example
The transform matrix A for a 44 DCT is
47
That is,
or
where
48
  • The H.264 transform is based on the 44 DCT but
    with
  • some fundamental differences
  • It is an integer transfer,.
  • The core part of the transform can be implemented
  • using only additions and shifts.
  • A scaling multiplication is integrated into the
  • quantizer, reducing the total number of
  • multiplications.

49
Recall that
where
50
Post-scaling
(where d c/b)
1. We call (CxCT) the core 2D transform. 2. E is
a matrix of scaling factors. 3. ? indicates that
each element of (CxCT) is multiplies by the
scaling factor in the same position in matrix E
(i.e., ? is scalar multiplication rather than
matrix multiplication)
51
To simplify the implementation of the transform,
d is approximated by 0.5. In order to ensure
that the transform remains orthogonal, b also
needs to be modified so that
52
The final forward transform becomes
53
The inverse transform is given by
Pre-Scaling
54
  • Quantization
  • H.264 assumes a scalar quantization.
  • The quantization should satisfy the following
  • requirements
  • avoid division and/or floating point arithmetic
  • incorporate the post and pre-scaling matrices
  • Ef and Ei.

55
The basic forward quantizer operation is
Z(u,v) round( X(u,v)/QStep )
where X(u,v) is a transform coefficient,
Z(u,v) is a quantized coefficient, and
QStep is a quantizer step size.
56
There are 52 quantizers (i.e.,Quantization
Parameter (QP)0-51). Increase of 1 in QP means
an increase of QStep by approximately
12 Increase of 6 in QP means an increase of
QStep by a factor of 2.
57
  • Post-Scaling
  • The post-scaling factor (PF) (i.e., a2 , ab/2 or
    b2/4) is
  • incorporated into the forward quantizer in the
  • following way
  • The input block x is transformed to give a block
  • of unscaled coefficients WCf xCfT.
  • Then, each coefficient in W is quantized and
    scaled in
  • a single operation
  • where PF is a2 , ab/2 or b2/4 depending on the
    position
  • (u,v).

Z(u,v) round( W(u,v)PF /QStep )
Why?
58
In order to simplify the arithmetic, the factor
(PF/QStep) is implemented as a multiplication by
a factor MF and a right shift, avoiding any
division operations.
Z(u,v) round( W(u,v)MF /2qbits )
where
and
qbits15?QP/6?
59
Note that the round operation does not have to
be the nearest integer operation. In the
reference model software, the round operation is
realized by
Z(u,v)(W(u,v)MFf)gtgtqbits sign(Z(u,v))sign(
W(u,v))
where f is 2qbits/3 for Intra blocks and 2qbits
/6 for Inter blocks.
60
Example
Suppose QP4 and (u,v)(0,0). Therefore,
QStep1.0, PFa20.25, and qbits15.
From
We have MF8192
61
The MF value for various QPs (QP ?5) are shown
below.
Table_for_MF
For QPgt5, the factors MF remain unchanged,
but qbits increases by 1 for each increment of
six in QP. That is, qbits16 for 6?QP ?11,
qbits17 for 12 ?QP ?17, and so on.
62
  • Pre-Scaling

The de-quantized coefficient is given by
The inverse transform involving pre-scaling
operations proceeds in the following way 1.
The dequantized block is pre-scaled to
block for core 2D inverse
transform. 2. The reconstructed block
is then given by
63
The pre-scaling factor (PF) (i.e., a2 , ab or
b2) is incorporated in the computation of
, together with a constant scaling factor of 64
to avoid rounding errors.
The values at the output of the inverse transform
should be divided by 64 to remove the constant
scaling factor.
64
The H.264 standard does not specify QStep or PF
directly. Instead, the parameters VQStepPF64
is defined.
The V values for various QPs (QP ?5) are shown
below.
Table_for_V
65
For QPgt5, the V value increases by a factor of 2
for each increment of six in QP.
That is,
where
66
  • The Complete Transformation, Quantization,
    Rescaling and Inverse Transformation
  • Encoding
  • Input 44 block x
  • Forward core transform WCf xCfT
  • Post-scaling and quantization
  • Z(u,v) round( W(u,v)MF /2qbits )
  • Decoding
  • Pre-scaling
  • Inverse core transform
  • Re-scaling

67
Example
1. Suppose QP10, and input block x
5 11 8 10
9 8 4 12
1 10 11 4
19 6 15 7
2. Forward core transform W
140 -1 -6 7
-19 -39 7 -92
22 17 8 31
-27 -32 -59 -21
68
3. MF8192,3355 or 5243, qbits16 and f is
2qbits/3. Z
17 0 -1 0
-1 -2 0 -5
3 1 1 2
-2 -1 -5 -1
4. V32, 50 or 40 because 2?QP/6? 2.
544 0 -32 0
-40 -100 0 -250
96 40 32 80
-80 -50 -200 -50
69
5. Output of the inverse core transform after
division by 64 is
4 13 8 10
8 8 4 12
1 10 10 3
18 5 14 7
70
Entropy Coding
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
71
  • Here we present two basic variable length coding
  • (VLC) techniques used by H.264 the Exp-Golomb
  • code and context adaptive VLC (CAVLC).
  • Exp-Golomb code is used universally for all
    symbols
  • except for transform coefficients.
  • CAVLC is used for coding of transform
    coefficients.
  • No end-of-block, but number of coefficients is
  • decoded.
  • Coefficients are scanned backward.
  • Contexts are built dependent on transform
  • coefficients.

72
  • Exp-Golomb code

Exp-Golomb codes are variable length codes with
a regular construction.
First 9 codewords of Exp-Golomb codes
73
Each codeword of Exp-Golomb codes is constructed
as follows M zeros1INFO where INFO is
an M-bit field carrying information. Therefore,
the length of a codeword is 2M1.
74
  • Given a code_num, the corresponding Exp-Golomb
  • codeword can be obtained by the following
    procedure
  • M ?log2code_num1)?
  • INFOcode_num1-2M

Example code_num6 M?log261)?2 INFO61-22
3 The corresponding Exp-Golomb codeword M
zeros1INFO00111
75
  • Given a Exp-Golomb codeword, its code_num can be
  • found as follows
  • Read in M leading zeros followed by 1.
  • Read M-bit INFO field
  • code_num2MINFO-1
  • Example
  • Exp-Golomb codeword00111
  • M2
  • INFO3
  • code_num223-16

76
A parameter v to be encoded is mapped to
code_num in one of 3 ways ue(v) Unsigned
direct mapping, code_numv. (Mainly
used for macroblock type and
reference frame index) se(v) Signed mapping. v
is mapped to code_num as follows.
code_num2v, (v?0)
code_num2v-1,(vgt0) (Mainly used
for motion vector difference and
delta QP)
77
me(v) Mapped symbols. Parameter v is
mapped to code_num according to a
table specified in the standard.
This mapping is used for coded_block_pattern
parameters. An example of such a mapping
is shown below.
78
  • CAVLC

This is the method used to encode residual and
zig-zag ordered blocks of transform coefficients.
79
  • The CAVLC is designed to take advantage of
    several
  • characteristics of quantized 44 blocks
  • After prediction, transformation and
    quantization,
  • blocks are typically sparse (containing
    mostly zeros).
  • The highest non-zero coefficients after the
    zig/zag
  • are often sequences of /- 1.
  • The number of non-zero coefficients in
    neighboring
  • blocks is correlated.
  • The level (magnitude) of non-zero coefficients
    tends
  • to be higher at the start of the zig-zag
    scan, and
  • lower towards the high frequencies.

80
The procedure described below is based on the
document entitled JVT Document JVT-C028, Gisle
Bjøntegaard and Karl Lillevold,
Context-adaptive VLC (CVLC) coding of
coefficients, Fairfax, VA, May 2002.
The H.264 CAVLC is an extension of this work.
81
  • The CAVLC encoding of a block of transform
  • coefficients proceeds as follows.
  • Encode the number of coefficients and trailing
    ones.
  • Encode the sign of each trailing ones.
  • Encode the levels of the remaining no-zero
    coefficients.
  • Encode the total number of zeros before the last
  • coefficients.
  • Encode each run of zeros.

82
  • Encode the number of coefficients and trailing
    ones

The first step is to encode the number of
coefficients (NumCoef) and trailling ones
(T1s). NumCoef can be anything from 0 (no
coefficient in the block) to 16 (16 non-zero
coefficients). T1s can be anything from 0 to
3. If there are more than 3 trailing /- 1s,
only the last 3 are treated as special cases
and the others are coded as normal coefficients.
83
Example Consider the 44 block shown below
-2 4 0 -1
3 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
-1 1 0 0
The Num-Coef7, and T1s3
84
Three tables can be used for the encoding of
Num_Coeff and T1 Num-VLC0, Num-VLC1 and
Num-VLC2.
Num-VLC0
85
The selection of tables depends on the number of
non-zero coefficients in upper and left-hand
previously coded blocks NU and NL. A parameter N
is calculate as follows If blocks U and L are
available (i.e., in the same coded slice),
N(NUNL)/2 If only block U is available,
NNU. If only block L is available, N NL. If
neither is available, N0.
86
The selection of table is based on N in the
following way
N Selected Table
0,1 Num-VLC0
2,3 Num-VLC1
4,5,6,7 Num-VLC2
8 or above FLC
The FLC is of the following form xxxxyy (i.e.,
6 bits) where xxxx and yy represent Num_Coeff
and T1, respectively.
87
  • Encode the sign of each trailing ones

For each T1, a single bit encodes the sign
(0,1-). These are encoded in reverse order,
starting with the highest frequency T1.
88
  • Encode the levels of the remaining no-zero
    coefficients

The level (sign and magnitude) of each remaining
non-zero coefficient in the block is encoded in
reverse order. There are 5 VLC tables to choose
from, Lev_VLC0 to Lev_VLC4. Lev_VLC0 is biased
towards lower magnitudes Lev_VLC1 is biased
towards slightly higher magnitudes, and so on.
89
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90
This is used only when it is impossible for a
coefficient to have values /- 1. It will happen
when T1slt3.
91
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92
To improve coding efficiency, the tables are
changed along with the coding process based on
the following procedure.
93
  • Encode the total number of zeros before the last
  • coefficient

The following shows the table for encoding the
total number of zeros before the last
coefficient (TotZeros)
94
  • Encode each run of zeros

At this stage it is known how many zeros are left
to distribute (call this ZerosLeft). When
encoding or decoding a non-zero coefficient for
the first time, ZerosLeft begins at TotZeros,
and decreases as more non-zero coefficients are
encoded or decoded. The number of preceding
zeros before each non-zero coefficient (called
RunBefore) needs to be coded to properly locate
that coefficient. Before coding the next
RunBefore, ZerosLeft is updated and used to
select one out of 7 tables.
95
zero-left
Why the maximum number is 14?
96
Example
Consider the following interframe residual 44
block
0 3 -1 0
0 -1 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
The zigzag re-ordering of the block is shown
below 0,3,0,1,-1,-1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 Therefor
e, NumCoeff5, TotZero3, T1s3 Assume N0
97
Encoding
Value Code Comments
NumCoeff5, T1s3 0001011 Use Num-VLC0
sign of T1 (1) 0 Starting at highest frequency
sign of T1(-1) 1
sign of T1(-1) 1
Level 1 1 Use Lev-VLC0
Level 3 0010 Use Lev-VLC1
TotZeros3 1110 Also depends on NumCoeff
ZerosLeft3RunBefore1 00 RunBefore of the 1st Coeff
ZerosLeft2RunBefore0 1 RunBefore of the 2nd Coeff
ZerosLeft2RunBefore0 1 RunBefore of the 3rd Coeff
ZerosLeft2RunBefore1 01 RunBefore of the 4th Coeff
ZerosLeft1RunBefore1 No code required last coeff
The transmitted bitstream for this block is
0001011011100101110001101
98
Decoding
Code Value Output Array Comments
0001011 NumCoeff5, T1s3 Empty
0 1 T1 sign
1 - -1,1 T1 sign
1 - -1,-1,1 T1 sign
1 1 1,-1,-1,1 level value
0010 3 3,1,-1,-1,1 level value
1110 TotZeros3 3,1,-1,-1,1
00 RunBefore1 3,1,-1,-1,0,1 RunBefore of the 1st Coeff
1 RunBefore0 3,1,-1,-1,0,1 RunBefore of the 2nd Coeff
1 RunBefore0 3,1,-1,-1,0,1 RunBefore of the 3rd Coeff
01 RunBefore1 3,0,1,-1,-1,0,1 RunBefore of the 4th Coeff
0,3,0,1,-1,-1,0,1 ZeroLeft1
99
De-block Filter
Input Video Signal Split into Macroblocks 16x1
6 pixels
Coder Control
Control Data
Transform/Scal./Quant.
Quant.Transf. coeffs
-
Decoder
Scaling Inv. Transform
Entropy Coding
De-blocking Filter
Intra-frame Prediction
Output Video Signal
Motion- Compensation
Intra/Inter
Motion Data
Motion Estimation
100
The beblocking filter improves subjective visual
quality. The filter is highly context adaptive.
It operates on the boundary of 44 subblock as
shown below.
q3
q2
q1
q0
p0
p1
p2
p3




q3 q2 q1 q0 p0 p1 p2 p3
101
The choice of filtering outcome depends on the
boundary strength and on the gradient of image
samples across the boundary. The boundary
strength parameter Bs is selected according to
the following rules.
102
  • A group of samples from the set
    (p2,p1,p0,q0,q1,q2)
  • is filtered only if
  • (a) Bsgt0 and
  • (b) p0-q0 lt? and p1-p0 lt? and q1-q0 lt?
  • where ? and ? are thresholds defined in the
    standard.
  • The threshold values increase with the average
    quantizer
  • parameter QP of two blocks q and p.

103
When QP is small, anything other than a very
small gradient across the boundary is likely to
be due to image features that should be
preserved and so the thresholds ? and ? are
low. When QP is larger, blocking distortion is
likely to be more significant and ? and ? are
higher so that more boundary samples are
filtered.
104
without deblock filtering
with deblock filtering
105
Data Partitioning andNetwork Abstraction Layer
106
A video picture is coded as one or more
slices. Each slice contains an integral number
of macroblocks from 1 to total number of
macroblocks in a picture. The number of
macroblocks per slice need not to be constant
within a picture.
107
  • There are five slice modes. Three commonly use
    modes are
  • I-slice A slice where all macroblocks of the
    slice are coded using intra prediction.
  • P-slice In addition to the coding types of the
    I-slice, some macroblocks of the P-slice can be
    coded using inter-prediction (predicted from one
    reference picture buffer only).
  • B-slice In addition to the coding types
    available in a P-slice, some macroblocks of the
    B-slice can be predicted from two reference
    picture buffers.

108
Note that the coded data in a slice can be placed
in three separate Data Partitions (A, B and C)
for robust transmission. Partition A contains
the slice header and header data for each
marcoblock in the slice. Partition B contains
coded residual data for Intra slice
macroblocks. Partition C contains coded residual
data for Inter slice macroblocks.
109
In the H.264, the VCL data will be mapped into
NAL units prior to transmission or
storage. Each NAL unit contains a Raw Byte
Sequence Payload (RBSP), a set of data
corresponding to coded video data or header
information. The NAL units can be delivered over
a packet-based network or a bitstream
transmission link or stored in a file.
NAL header RBSP NAL header RBSP NAL header RBSP
sequence of NAL units
110
RBSP type Description
Parameter Set Global parameter for a sequence such as picture dimensions, video format.
Supplemental Enhancement Information Side messages that are not essential for correct decoding of the video sequences.
Picture Delimiter Boundary between pictures (optional). If not present, the decoder infers the boundary based on the frame number contained within each slice header.
Coded Slice Header and data for a slice this RBSP contains actual coded video data.
Data Partition A, B or C Three units containing Data Partitioned slice layer data (useful for error decoding).
End of Sequence
End of Stream
Filler Data Contains dummy data
111
Example
The following figure shows an example of RBSP
elements.
Sequence parameter set SEI Picture parameter set I Slice (Coded slice) Picture delimiter P Slice (Coded slice) P Slice (Coded slice)
...
112
Profiles
  • Baseline
  • Main
  • Extended
  • High

113
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