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Gas Laws and Relationships between P, V, and T

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Gas Laws and Relationships between P, V, and T Boyle s Law Charles s Law Gay-Lusaac s Law How to use each – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gas Laws and Relationships between P, V, and T


1
Gas Laws and Relationships between P, V, and T
  • Boyles Law
  • Charless Law
  • Gay-Lusaacs Law
  • How to use each

2
Gases and their Variables
  • Four Variables when exploring gases P, V,
    T, and n
  • P Pressure in atms
  • V Volume in L
  • T Temperature in K
  • n quantity of matter in moles

How do they relate to one another? Lets put on
our PVT Cards and find out!
3
Gas Properties can be modeled using MATH! And
again, Scientists have done all of the work for
us!
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v13WUqWd_Yk8feature
related
4
Boyles Law
States The volume of a sample of gas is
inversely proportional to its pressure, if
temperature remains constant. Translation At
constant temperature and n, 1 a P
V
Robert Boyle
EX. Volume Decreases, Pressure Increases
Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases
In an inverse relationship, the product of the
two quantities is a constant. P1 x V1 P2 x
V2 P1 V1 P2 V2
5
Boyles Law
6
Example 1 - A sample of gas collected in a 350
cm3 container exerts a pressure of 103 kPa. What
would be the volume of this gas at 150 kPa of
pressure? (Assume that the temperature remains
constant.) Solving If temperature remains
constant - use Boyles Law. Write the original
formula P1V1 P2V2 Then list what is given and
what is unknown. P1 103 kPa V1 350 cm3
P2 150 kPa V2 ?
Then PLUG AND CHUG! Lets work it together. 103
kPa (350 cm3) 150 kPa V2 150 kPa 150 kPa 240
cm3 V2
7
Charless Law
States The volume of a sample of gas is directly
proportional to its Kelvin temperature, if
pressure remains constant. Translation At
constant pressure and n, V a T
Temperature ALWAYS in Kelvin
Jacques Charles
EX. Volume Increases, Temperature Increases
Volume Decreases, Temperature Decreases
In an direct relationship, the quotient of the
two quantities is a constant. V1 / T1 V2 / T2
V1 V2 T1 T2
8
Charless Law
9
Ex. If a gas occupies 733 cm3 at 10.0 oC, at what
temperature will it occupy 950 cm3? Assume that
pressure remains constant.
Solving If pressure remains constant - use
Charless Law. Write the original formulaV1
V2 T1 T2 Then list what is given
and what is unknown. V1 733 cm3 T1 10.0 oC
V2 950 cm3 T2 ?
Then PLUG AND CHUG! Lets work it together.
First convert oC to Kelvin K 10.0 oC 273
283 K 733 cm3 950 cm3 283 K T2 366.7 or
370 K T2
10
How does a hot air balloon work?
TIP Think about Charless Law.
11
Gay-Lussacs Law
States The Kelvin temperature of a sample of gas
is directly proportional to pressure, if volume
remains constant. Translation At constant
volume and n, T a P Temperature
ALWAYS in Kelvin
Joseph Gay-Lussac
EX. Temperature Increases, Pressure Increases
Temperature Decreases, Pressure Decreases
In an direct relationship, the quotient of the
two quantities is a constant. P1 / T1 P2 / T2
P1 P2 T1 T2
12
Gay-Lussacs Law
13
EX. If a gas is cooled from 323.0 K to 273.15 K
and the volume is kept constant what final
pressure would result if the original pressure
was 750.0 mm Hg?
Solving If volume remains constant - use
Gay-Lussacs Law. Write the original formulaP1
P2 T1 T2 Then list what is given
and what is unknown. P1 750.0 mm Hg T1 323.0
K P2 ? T2 273.15 K
Then PLUG AND CHUG! Lets work it together.
750.0 mm Hg P2 323.0
K 273.15 K 634.2 mm Hg P2
14
ONE MORE FUN FACT! Standard Temperature and
Pressure (STP)
  • At STP
  • Temperature 273 K or 0 oC
  • Pressure 1 atm 760 mm Hg
  • Gas Laws Song
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v13WUqWd_Yk8

15
Lets Practice!
1. A sample of neon has a volume of 239 cm3 at
2.00 atm of pressure. What would the pressure
have to be in order for the gas to have a volume
of 5.00 x 102 cm3? 2. A 30.0 L sample of
nitrogen inside a rigid, metal container at 20.0
C is placed inside an oven whose temperature is
50.0 C. The pressure inside the container at
20.0 C was at 3.00 atm. What is the pressure of
the nitrogen after its temperature is
increased? 3. A sample of gas at 3.00 x 103 mm
Hg inside a steel tank is cooled from 500.0 C to
0.00 C. What is the final pressure of the gas in
the steel tank? HOMEWORK Practice problems
with each law! FINISH LAB TO TURN IN AT END OF
CLASS!
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