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Trends in Project Management

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Title: Trends in Project Management Author: Default Last modified by: adalet.oner Created Date: 11/27/2004 4:44:20 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Trends in Project Management

1
Engineering Mechanics
2
What is Mechanics ?
Mechanics is a science that describes or predicts
the conditions of rest or motion of bodies under
the action of forces.
3
History
• Aristotle ( 384 -322 B.C.)
• Archimedes ( 287 212 B.C.)
• Isaac Newton ( 1642 1727)
• DLambert
• Lagrange
• Hamilton
• Albert Einstein ( Theory of Relativity - 1905)

4
Basic Concepts
Space 3 dimensional
Position of point A is defined by three lengths
measured from the origin in three directions.
(coordinates)
Unit of length is meter (m)
5
Basic Concepts
• Mass
• a fundamental property of a body
• amount of matter in the body
• a numerical measure of its inertia
• Force
• the action of a body on another body
• it causes the body to accelerate, that is to
change its velocity
• It can be applied by actual contact or at a
distance (gravitational forces, magnetic forces)

Unit of mass is kilogram (kg)
6
Basic Concepts
• Force
• Force is defined by
• its point of application
• its magnitude
• its direction

Unit of force is newton (N)
30
Defined by a vector
A
7
Basic Concepts
• Resultant Force
• The total effect of two or more forces acting
on a particle or a body can be represented by a
single force which is called resultant force.

P
R
Q
8
Basic Concepts
Particle very small amount of matter which
may be assumed to occupy a single point in a
space Rigid Body combination of a large
number of particles
9
Basic Concepts
Newtons Three Fundamental Laws If the
resultant force on a particle is zero,
then a. if it was at rest originally , it
remains at rest b. if it was in motion, its
velocity doesnt change
10
Basic Concepts
Newtons Three Fundamental Laws
2. If the resultant force is not zero, then it
causes the particle or the body to have an
acceleration. The amount of the acceleration is
proportional to the magnitude of the resultant
and in the direction of the resultant force
F m a
F resultant force acting on the particle m
mass of the particle a acceleration of the
particle
11
Basic Concepts (Reminder)
Speed
• Speed is the rate at which a particle changes its
position
• The distance taken in unit time (meters/second)
• It refers to how fast a particle is moving
• It is a scalar quantity.
• Direction doesnt matter

Velocity
• Speed with defined direction
• Vector quantity

12
Basic Concepts (Reminder)
Acceleration
• the rate of change in velocity
• It refers to how fast a particle changes its
velocity
• amount of change in velocity in unit time
• (meters/second) / second meters/ second
squared)

13
Basic Concepts
Newtons Three Fundamental Laws
3. The forces of action and reaction between
bodies in relation have the same magnitude, same
line of action but opposite direction.
14
Basic Concepts
Newtons Law of Gravitation
m
m,M masses of particles r distance between
particles
-F
F
M
r
Two particles (bodies) attract each other
mutually with equal and opposite forces F and F
of magnitude F
G universal constant
15
Basic Concepts
Newtons Law of Gravitation Special Case
Attraction of earth on a particle located on its
surface R the radius of earth, M mass of earth
16
Basic Concepts
Newtons Law of Gravitation Special Case
Weight W the gravitational force applied on
particle by the earth
17
Systems Of Units
Time second (s) Original definition 1 /
86400 of mean solar day Official definition
9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation
corresponding to the transition between two
levels of the fundamental state of cesium-133
atom. Length meter (m) Original definition
1 / 10,000,000 of the distance from equator to
either pole Official definition 1,650,763.73
wavelengths of the orange-red light corresponding
to a certain transition in a atom of krypton-86
18
Systems Of Units
Mass kilogram (kg) Original definition mass
of 0,001 m3 water Official definition mass of
platinum-iridium standart Force newton (N)
The magnitude of force that gives an
acceleration of 1 to a mass of 1
kg. 1 N (1 kg) ( 1 )
19
Systems Of Units
Weight Newton (N)
the gravitational force applied on a body by the
earth
m the mass of particle ( kg)
The weight of a body of mass 1 kg
20
Systems Of Units
• Homework
• Review the other systems of units
• Units of Area
• Units of Volume
• etc