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The Middle East: North Africa

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Title: The Middle East North Africa & SW Asia Author: Brad Arcement Last modified by: Les Kelly Created Date: 9/29/2009 12:43:34 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle East: North Africa


1
The Middle East North Africa Southwest Asia
2
The Land and Climate
3
  • Desert climate dominate the region.
  • Covers ½ of the Middle East.
  • Major desert areas
  • Sahara largest desert in the world (3.5 million
    sq. mi.) in northern Africa.
  • Rubal-Khali (Empty Quarter)
  • (250,000 sq. mi) located on the Arabian
    Peninsula
  • Rain falls a few times each year.
  • Temperatures in summer can reach 120F in the day
    and 30F at night. Frost occurs often during the
    winter.

4
  • Springs, where water rises naturally from cracks
    in rocks, have formed oases.
  • Surface water is rare
  • Nile River longest river in the world (4187
    mi.). It flows from south to north because the
    elevation in the south is higher than in the
    north.
  • Tigris River in Iraq
  • Euphrates River in Iraq

5
Nile River
6
Agriculture
  • Despite the climate, agriculture is a major
    occupation in the area.
  • Fertile soils are found only in river valleys, on
    high plateaus, and in a few oases.
  • Overuse and overgrazing has led to countries
    conserving soil and plant resources.

7
  • Most agriculture is subsistence agriculture.
  • Barley and wheat are important grains. Citrus
    fruits, olives, figs, nuts, and grapes are grown
    on the Mediterranean coast.

8
  • Irrigation first developed in the Middle East.
  • Most is small scale in which water is diverted
    into a small canal leading directly to a field.
  • Deep wells also
  • provide
  • irrigation.

9
Natural Resources
  • Oil is the regions richest mineral resource.
  • Middle East contains 60 of the worlds oil
    reserves.
  • Main deposits lie along the shores of the Persian
    Gulf and in Iraq.
  • Economies of the oil-exporting countries rise and
    fall with the price of oil.
  • These countries have joined with other oil-rich
    countries around the world to form the
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC).

10
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11
  • Israel is considered the only developed country
    in the region because it does not depend upon
    only one resource for its income.
  • Though the oil-rich countries have high incomes,
    it is limited
  • mainly to oil-refining.

12
  • Middle East also contains 50 of the worlds
    natural gas reserves.
  • Morocco is a leading producer of phosphate
    (chemical used in fertilizers).

13
Ethnicity
  • Main ethnicity Arab
  • Israel Jewish
  • Iran Persian
  • Turkey Refer to themselves as Turks not Arabs

14
Language
  • Main language Arabic
  • Israel - Hebrew
  • Iran - Farsi

15
Middle Eastern Religions
16
The Middle East is the birthplace of 3 world
religions.
  • All are similar in 3 ways
  • All are monotheistic (one god)
  • All deal with a covenant between God and the
    people.
  • All share the same patriarch Abraham.

17
Judaism
  • Flourished between 3500 B.C. and 600 B.C. in an
    area called Palestine.
  • First major religion to center around the belief
    in one god.
  • Holy Book Torah (laws of the Old Testament)
  • Followers are called Jews.
  • Israel - 99 Jewish

18
Christianity
  • Developed from Judaism
  • Based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who is
    believed to be the Son of God by Christians
  • Spread during the Roman era
  • Split into two parts after the fall of the Roman
    Empire
  • Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople
  • Roman Catholic Church in Rome
  • In the 1500s, the Roman Catholic Church was split
    into two parts Protestantism and Catholicism.

19
  • Followers are called Christians
  • Holy Book Bible
  • (especially New Testament)
  • Lebanon - 50
  • Christian

20
Islam
  • Dominate religion in the Middle East
  • 2nd largest in the world and fastest growing
  • Founder Mohammed (571 632 A.D.)
  • He had a revelation in Mecca about a one god
    religion and told to preach this to the Arabs
  • He was laughed at and forced to flee Mecca.
  • This is called the Hejira or The Flight.
  • Marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar 2009
    1430 AH (After Hejira)
  • He went back to Mecca years later and preached.

21
Full Mohammed
Faceless Mohammed
22
  • Holy Book Koran
  • Written in Arabic and is said to contain the
    exact words of God
  • Muslims pray in mosques.
  • Worshippers use prayer mats on the floor.
  • Five Pillars of Islam
  • Must state there is no god but Allah and Mohammed
    is his prophet
  • Prayer Must pray 5 times daily facing the holy
    city of Mecca. On Fridays at noon, pray at a
    mosque if available.
  • Giving of alms (charity) to the poor
  • Fasting special time is during the month of
    Ramadan for the daylight fast
  • Pilgrimage (the Hajj) to Mecca at least once in
    their lifetime.

23
  • Two major types of Muslims
  • Shia A minority division of Islam estimated at
    1015, found mostly in Iran and surrounding
    countries. They practice a more conservative form
    of Islam.
  • Sunni The mainstream body of Muslims. They are
    scattered throughout the world. Sunnis maintain
    that revelations from God ended with the death of
    Mohammed.

24
Culture Regions of the Middle East
25
North Africa
  • Berbers indigenous people before Arab invasion.
  • 15 million in region today
  • Mostly farmers
  • Arabs migrated to north Africa in 600s.
  • Bedouins are Arabic-speaking people who migrated
    to north Africa from deserts in southwest Asia.
  • Nomadic herders
  • Water is scarce in the area. Most people live
    near the coast and around rivers.
  • Egypt is the key power because of the Suez Canal
    (shipping lane that connects Mediterranean Sea to
    Red Sea).
  • Most people are Sunni Muslims and speak Arabic.

26
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27
East Mediterranean
  • Arabs Jews live in this region.
  • 7.1 million Israelis
  • ½ Israels Jews born in Israel
  • Other ½ immigrated from other places especially
    Europe
  • Israel became a country in 1948 replacing the
    country of Palestine.
  • Palestinians (Arabs) did not want Jews in their
    country.
  • Resulting in 6 wars over the years

28
  • Palestinians are Arabs living in Palestine which
    is now Israel.
  • Many were displaced and had to live in refugee
    camps in Arab countries (such as Syria, Lebanon,
    and Jordan).
  • Many refugee camps are becoming permanent.
  • Most people live along the coast and in Euphrates
    River Valley.
  • Mostly urban.
  • 75 urban in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon.
  • 50 urban in Syria Palestine.

29
Petra, Jordan
Jerusalem, Israel
Lebanon
30
Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Jews were expelled from their homeland by the
    Romans.
  • Late 1800s, Zionists called for a return to
    Palestine.
  • After WWII, war broke out.
  • 1947 United Nations divided Palestine into
    Jewish and Arab nations.
  • 1948 Jews proclaimed independence.

31
  • Next 25 years, six wars with Israel victorious in
    all.
  • Palestinians want independent state of their own.
  • 1990s peace talks begin.
  • Palestine began to acknowledge Israel and to
    limit self-rule.
  • Israeli troop withdraw and begin giving authority
    to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
  • By 2002, negotiations stall.

32
  • 2006 Islamic group, Hamas, won elections in the
    West Bank Gaza Strip.
  • Hamas opposes Israels right to exist and
    supports armed attacks on Israeli territory.

33
Israeli forces
Hamas forces
34
The Northeast (Turkey, Iran, Iraq)
  • Turks migrated in 1000s from central Asia.
  • Practice Islam speak Turkish
  • About 70 million in population
  • Iran, once called Persia, means land of the
    Aryans.
  • Believe they are descendants of Aryans
    (Indo-Europeans who migrated from southern Russia
    around 1000 BC)
  • Speak Farsi and 90 are Shia Muslims
  • About 67 million in population

35
  • Majority of people in Iraq are Arab.
  • Most are Shia Muslims with 35 Sunnis.
  • Arabic is spoken.
  • Home of ancient civilizations and empires
  • Mesopotamia between the Tigris Euphrates Rivers
    in modern Iraq.
  • Phoenicians along the Mediterranean coast.
  • Persian Empire (modern Iran) during the 500s BC.
  • Ottoman Empire (centered in modern Turkey) lasted
    for 600 years.

36
  • Western Europe controlled the area by late 1800s.
  • Great Britain controlled Iraq until 1932 and fell
    into turmoil.
  • Iran set up a secular (non-religious) government
    in 1979.
  • Overthrown during the Islamic Revolution
  • Religious clerics came to power and continue to
    dominate Iran.
  • Oil discovered in the early 1900s.
  • OPEC formed in the late 1950s.

37
US soldiers in Iraqi market
Turkey
Iran
Iraq
38
Arabian Peninsula
39
  • Most people live on the coast because most of the
    land is desert.
  • 56 Arab most are Muslims some Christians
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Only 15-20 are citizens
  • Foreign oil workers make up the rest of the
    population.
  • 50 of Qatar 60 of Kuwait are foreigners

40
  • Local families took control of the peninsula
    around 1750 and formed the United Kingdom of
    Saudi Arabia in 1932.
  • Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Yemen had treaties with
    Great Britain for protection in the 1800s and
    early 1900s.
  • Kuwait became independent in mid 1900s.
  • UAE formed a group of sheikdoms (territories
    ruled by Islamic religious leaders) in 1971.

41
  • Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman became monarchies
    that follow shariah (Islamic law) based on the
    Koran.
  • Kuwait Qatar became constitutional emirates
    which are ruled by emirs (princes).

42
Pres. Obama with Saudi King Abdullah
Qatar Emir with Wife
Sheikh Mohammed leads UAE equestrian team to
victory
43
Afghanistan
44
Afghanistan
  • Historically invaded
  • 1979 Soviet Union invaded hoping to spread
    communism.
  • US, Great Britain, China provided arms to the
    rebels.
  • 1988 Soviet Union withdrew.
  • After Soviet withdrawal, the rebel group,
    Mujahadeen, overthrew the government creating the
    Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

45
  • 1995 the Taliban (Islamic military group)
    promised to restore order and rose to power.
  • Cracked down on crime and drugs
  • Severely limited womens rights and used violence
    to enforce law
  • After 9/11, US attacked and ousted the Taliban.
  • American forces have worked with the country to
    stabilize the government.
  • 2004 Hamid Karzai named president in countrys
    first successful election.
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