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On Farm Salmonella Control for the Broiler Industry

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Title: The costs of on-farm interventions to reduce pathogen contamination Author: Stan Last modified by: Stan Created Date: 7/29/2003 7:28:56 PM Document ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: On Farm Salmonella Control for the Broiler Industry


1
On Farm Salmonella Control for the Broiler
Industry A U.S. Perspective
  • J. Stan Bailey
  • 1 USDA, Agricultural Research Service
  • Athens, Georgia
  • Phone (706)546-3356
  • email jsbailey_at_saa.ars.usda.gov

2
U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • 31 years experience
  • 15 years in processing plant
  • 2 years feed
  • 14 years on farm

3
U.S. poultry facts
  • The U.S. industry grows in excess of 8.5 Billion
    broilers a year
  • 80 million broiler breeders
  • About 100,000 broiler houses
  • About 85 pounds per person per year consumed in
    the U.S. ( 15 export market)

4
U.S. broiler industry Salmonella status
  • Mid to late 1990s Pathogen reduction HACCP
    baseline studies 20 ()
  • Recent years 11 to 13 ()

5
Why the reduction?
  • Elevated levels of chlorine in chill tank (40)
    with proper pH control of chill water
  • Secondary antimicrobial treatment in
    inside/outside bird washer
  • Improved Salmonella status of breeder stock and
    hatchery sanitation

6
Significant improvements will likely require
on-farm intervention strategies
7
Estimated major sources of human salmonellosis in
Denmark
Broilers
Pork
Table Eggs
8
Sweden and Denmark have instituted effective
on-farm intervention programs. However, the size
and maturity of the U.S. industry would be very
expensive and will make implementation of these
exact programs difficult
9
Swedish control program for Salmonella in broilers
  • Very simple program for a small industry which
    was even smaller when program started
  • No Salmonella in breeder flocks/chicks
  • Eradicate all positive breeders
  • Eliminate Salmonella from all feed
  • Have active surveillance program to monitor
    Salmonella status at all times at all levels
  • Have active government input to process
  • NO Salmonella positive chicken allowed to be sold.

10
Scientific principals of Swedish program
  • If broilers are never exposed to Salmonella then
    they cannot become colonized and subsequently
    they will not be contaminated after processing.
  • Primary method of control is eradication of
    Salmonella positive breeders or broilers
  • Control Salmonella on farm. No chemical
    treatments in the processing plant.

11
Sweden status
  • All fresh processed broilers sold are Salmonella
    negative. EU has allowed this as a restrictive
    trade barrier.
  • Industry under pressure from non-fresh imports
    which do not have to be Salmonella negative and
    are usually less expensive.
  • Industry is under intense economic pressures to
    remain competitive, partially as a result of
    increased costs to produce Salmonella negative
    products.

12
Danish control program for Salmonella in broilers
  • Similar program to Sweden
  • Control in breeder flocks
  • Control in feed
  • Active surveillance program
  • Salmonella positive chickens are allowed to be
    sold

13
Denmark status
  • Less than 2 of broilers now Salmonella positive
  • Control responsibilities turned over to industry
    in 2003. They working to finalize an insurance
    system similar to that used in Sweden.

14
Scientific principals of Danish control program
  • Similar to Sweden model where all treatments are
    on the farm relying on principal that if chickens
    are never exposed to Salmonella then they cannot
    become contaminated.
  • Principal difference between Sweden and Denmark
    is that in Denmark only breeders are killed and
    indemnified, broilers which test positive for
    Salmonella are scheduled for special processing
    times.
  • Salmonella negative labeling is allowed.

15
The rest of Europe
  • Control programs ?
  • Reported Salmonella levels in poultry. Similar
    to U.S. figures or in some cases higher than in
    U.S.

16
U.S. issues with northern European practices
  • Breeder eradication program is not economically
    feasible in a large, mature industry
  • Broiler eradication program is not economically
    feasible
  • Potential exists for control of feeds, but will
    be difficult because of size of industry and
    number of facilities involved

17
Current US status
  • It is highly unlikely that the government will
    assume any costs in development of a new
    Salmonella reduction program
  • Unless federal regulations are changed the
    industry will not likely adopt changes that are
    cost prohibitive or put them at a competitive
    disadvantage

18
Scientific principals of proposed US model
  • Work to achieve similar results to Sweden and
    Denmark in a more cost effective manner.
  • Rather than eradicate breeders and/or broilers,
    use other intervention treatments to achieve
    similar results.
  • Vaccination (breeders), competitive exclusion and
    increased biosecurity are principal components of
    the proposed model

19
Best Management Practices for Control of
Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Breeders
  • Salmonella-free chicks
  • Competitive exclusion treatments
  • Vaccination program
  • Biosecurity
  • Rodent and insect control program
  • Footbaths / movement of workers

20
Best Management Practices for Control of
Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Feed
  • Attempt to control quality of ingredients
  • Sufficient time in conditioner to give
    time/temperature/moisture for Salmonella kill
  • Control post pelleting (processing)
    recontamination. Pay particular attention to
    cooling area

21
Best Management Practices for Control of
Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Hatchery
  • Enforce cleaning/sanitation program
  • Control air movement in hatchery
  • Institute chemical disinfection program in hatch
    cabinets during hatch period
  • Do not reuse tray liners

22
Best Management Practices for Control of
Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Grow-out
  • Salmonella-free chicks
  • Competitive exclusion treatments
  • Moisture control (no leaking nipple drinkers)
  • Proper working ventilation system (reduce stress
    on birds litter amendments if necessary)
  • Rodent and insect control program
  • Limit movement of workers / visitors

23
Best Management Practices for Control of
Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Transport
  • Insist on proper feed and water withdrawyl time
  • Clean transport coops more work needs to be
    done
  • To extent possible limit time in transport cages

24
Conclusions
  • Experience has shown that the best way to control
    pathogens in food systems is to control the
    pathogens on the farm and prevent them from ever
    entering the processing plant.
  • Costs of these control programs can be highly
    variable.
  • Costs can be direct or indirect and in some
    instances actually will save money in the cost of
    production of animals.

25
Food Safety starts on the farm and these on-farm
efforts will greatly influence everything else
that must be done during the processing and
distribution of foods.
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