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The Magical Play of Creation According to Modern Physics

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Title: The Magical Play of Creation According to Modern Physics


1
The Magical Play of Creation According to Modern
Physics
  • Dennis BlejerSchool of Practical Philosophy
  • and Meditation, Boston

2
Abstract
  • The Creation is a magical play known as the Lila
    (sport) of the Absolute. Modern physics is
    consistent with this point of view. The
    revolution in physics that took place during the
    20th century dramatically changed the view of a
    purely mechanistic (machine-like) and
    deterministic universe to one full of magic and
    potentiality. This talk will present the magical
    mystery of relativistic and quantum physics
    through illustrative examples. 

3
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

4
Psalm 9
  • I will praise thee, O Lord,
  • with my whole heart
  • I will shew forth all thy
  • marvelous works.

5
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

6
Three-dimensional Space and Time
Absolute, true, and mathematical time, in and of
itself and of its own nature, without reference
to anything external, flows uniformly and by
another name is called duration. (Newton)
7
St. Augustine on Time (400 A.D.)
  • What then is time? If no one asks then I know
    what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who
    asks me, I do not know.

8
Time
  • We dont know what time is
  • (St. Augustine), but we do claim to know how
    to tell time
  • We tell time with the use of clocks
  • What is a clock?
  • A clock is essentially a counter
  • Einsteins light clock using light to tell time

9
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

10
Minkoski, 1908
  • The views of space and time which I wish to lay
    before you have sprung from the soil of
    experimental physics, and therein lies there
    strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by
    itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade
    away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union
    of the two will preserve an independent reality.
    (Spacetime continuum)

11
Addition of Velocities
  • Why does a javelin thrower run before throwing
    the javelin?
  • Because velocities add by running he imparts
    a velocity to the javelin that adds to the
    velocity he imparts when releasing
  • The speed of light, however, is unaffected
    by the motion of the source or receiver

12
Einstein 1905
  • Measurements on the speed of light show that it
    is independent of the relative motion of the
    observer and the source
  • Einstein questions Newtonian assumptions about
    space and time and shows that space-time metrics
    depend on the relative motion of the observers

13
Stationary Light Clock Observed by an Observer at
Rest, or a Moving Light ClockObserved by a
Moving ObserverA light beam bounces up and down
between two mirrors
14
Light Clock Observed by a Moving Observer, or a
Moving Clock Observed by a Stationary Observer (c
is constant)
v
?t' ?t/v(1-v2/c2)
  • Time Dilation ?t' ?t/v(1-v2/c2)
  • For v2/c2 ¾ (v 0.87c) , ?t' 2?t

15
Time Dilation, Einstein, 1911
  • "If we placed a living organism in a box ... one
    could arrange that the organism, after any
    arbitrary lengthy flight, could be returned to
    its original spot in a scarcely altered
    condition, while corresponding organisms which
    had remained in their original positions had
    already long since given way to new generations.
    For the moving organism the lengthy time of the
    journey was a mere instant, provided the motion
    took place with approximately the speed of
    light".

16
Time Dilation of Muons
  • The muon is an unstable elementary particle with
    a half-life of 2.2 µs
  • Rossi and Hall (1941) compared the population of
    cosmic-ray-produced muons at the top of a
    mountain to that observed at sea level.
  • The muon sample at the base was only moderately
    reduced. The muons were decaying about 10 times
    slower than if they were at rest with respect to
    the experimenters.

17
Lorentz ContractionRelativity, Gravitation and
Cosmology, Ta-Pei Cheng, 2010 A pole carrying
runner runs through a barn
  • A stationary observer sees the time sequence
    of events as (1) AF, (2) BF, (3) AR, (3) BR
  • The pole is shorter than the barn
  • The runner sees the time sequence as
  • (1) AF, (2) AR, (3) BF, (4) BR
  • The pole is longer than the barn
  • Events are not simultaneous


18
Minkowski Spacetime Invariant
  • In the Newtonian conception of space and time
    measuring sticks and clocks are invariants
  • In relativistic physics the invariant is
    Pythagorian distance in 4-dimensional
    spacetime s v(?R2 c2?t2)
  • s square root of the distance between two
    spatial points squared minus the distance light
    would have traveled squared

19
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

20
Equivalence Principle
Introducing Stephen Hawking, J. McEvoy and O.
Zarate, 1999
21
Equivalence of Free Fall in a Gravitational Field
and an Inertial Frame of Reference
22
Light Bends in a Gravitational FieldGravity,
J.B. Hartle, Addison Wesley
23
Bending of Light in a Gravitational Field
  • Light bends in a gravitational field
  • Sir Arthur Eddington verifies in 1919 during
    an eclipse of the sun
  • Headlines exclaim Light caught bending
  • Gravitational time dilation
  • Clocks run more slowly in stronger
    gravitational fields than weak ones

24
Cassinihttp//physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/1
8268
Bruno Bertotti of the University of Pavia and
colleagues in Rome and Bologna measured how
radio waves sent from the Earth to the Cassini
satellite and back again were deflected by the
Sun (B Bertotti et al. 2003 Nature 425 374).
Their results, which are accurate to 20 parts
in a million, agree with the predictions of
general relativity.
25
Einstein Ring A special case of gravitational
lensing caused by the exact alignment of the
source, lens, and observer resulting in a
ring-like structure (Wikipedia)
26
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

27
Psalm 19The heavens declare the glory of God
and the firmament sheweth his handywork
20th Anniversary Image of the Carina Nebula,
HST, NASA
HST NASA
28
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

29
Birth of Black Hole www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blackho
le
If the collapsed star is greater than about
three times the solar mass, then nothing that
we know of in nature can withstand the force of
its gravity, and it crumples inexorably into a
black hole. It's a mysterious place where
gravity has become so powerful that the velocity
that an object would need to escape its grip is
greater than the 670,000,000-mile- per-hour speed
of light, which means that not even light can
escape. Hence its simple but deeply evocative
name, black hole.
30
Static Black Hole
The Schwarzschild radius is the radius of a
sphere that contains an amount of mass so great
that no known force can stop gravitational
collapse to a point of infinite density, i.e., a
black hole
The Photon Sphere occurs at 3/2 the Schwarzschild
Radius. It's the only place where light rays can
have (very) unstable orbits around the black
hole. At the photon sphere the speed you would
have to go to stay in orbit is c, the speed of
light, some 3 x 108 meters per second.
http//www.gothosenterprises.com/black_holes/stati
c_black_holes.html
31
Falling into a Non-rotating Black
Hole Introducing the Black Hole, R. Ruffini and
J. Wheeler, Physics Today, 1971
32
Rotating Black Hole
  • Two photon spheres
  • Ergosphere
  • Inner and outer event horizons
  • Ring singularity

Within the ergosphere, spacetime is dragged along
in the direction of the rotation of the black
hole at a speed greater than the speed of light
in relation to the rest of the
universe. Wikipedia
http//www.gothosenterprises.com/black_holes/rotat
ing_black_holes.html
33
Light Near a Rotating Black Hole
http//www.engr.mun.ca/ggeorge/astron/lkjh.gif
Behavior of light near a Kerr black hole. The
hole is rotating anti- clockwise. The rays drawn
in red just barely avoid capture by the hole.
34
RotatingBlack Holes
  • 10 January 2008 A new study using results from
    NASAs Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides one of
    the best pieces of evidence yet that many
    supermassive black holes are spinning extremely
    rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes
    drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of
    energy into their environment and affects the
    growth of galaxies.
  • "We think these monster black holes are spinning
    close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of
    relativity, which means that they can drag
    material around them at close to the speed of
    light," said Rodrigo Nemmen da Silva, lead author
    of a paper on the new results. "Conditions around
    a stationary black hole are extreme, but around a
    rapidly spinning one would be even worse," Nemmen
    said.

35
Supermassive Black Holes
This illustration shows the extreme activity
astronomers believe occurs near a supermassive
black hole. Matter that is spiraling inward forms
a disk swirling around the black hole, and high
speed jets of energetic particles are ejected
from the poles. The detail shows a computer
simulation of the inner region where matter
orbits just outside the black hole. The rotation
of the disk surrounding the black hole causes
one side to brighten. Credit
MIT/NASA/JohnsHopkins/U.Illinois
36
The giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4261 is one of
the twelve brightest galaxies in the Virgo
cluster, located 45 million light-years away
  • Visible light image shows hundreds of
    billions of stars
  • Radio image shows two jets spanning 88,000
    light years
  • Hubble image shows giant gas and dust disk
    that fuels a possible black hole

37
Milky Ways Black Holehttp//www.universetoday.co
m/guide-to-space/milky-way/the-milky-ways-black-ho
le
38
The Motion of a Star Around the Central Black
Hole in the Milky Way http//www.eso.org/public/im
ages/eso0226c/
Year
Infra Red Image
39
Stars orbiting Supermassive Black Hole in the
Center of the Milky Way UCLA Galactic Center
Group website
Caption The orbits of stars within the central
1.0 X 1.0 arcseconds of our Galaxy. Estimates
of orbital parameters are only possible for the
seven stars that have had significant curvature
detected. The annual average positions for these
seven stars are plotted as colored dots, which
have increasing color saturation with time. Also
plotted are the best fitting simultaneous orbital
solutions. These orbits provide the best evidence
yet for a supermassive black hole, which has a
mass of 4.1 million times the mass of the Sun.
13 years worth of data.
40
Sombrero Galaxy In the Virgo Cluster, about 28
million light years awaySmithsonian
Astrophysical Observatory
Chandra's X-ray image (in blue) shows hot gas in
the galaxy and point sources that are a mixture
of objects within the galaxy and quasars in
the background. Hubble's optical image (green)
reveals the bulge of starlight partially
blocked by a rim of dust, which glows brightly
in Spitzer's infrared view. It may have a
black hole of approximately 1 billion solar
masses at its core.
41
Chandra Reveals 1000s of Black Holes (March 18,
2007)
  • NASAs Chandra X-Ray observatory in orbit
    is racking up quite a record of groundbreaking
    discoveries this year. After enabling the
    verification of Dark Matter earlier this year,
    Chandra discovered over 1000 Black Holes in a
    patch of the sky about the size of a paperback
    book held at arms length.
  • Each of the colored dots in the field left
    (taken in the constellation Bootes) is a direct
    image of a black hole that lies at the center of
    a remote galaxy (hence the name Active Galactic
    Nuclei AGN).
  • http//www.allthebestbits.net/

42
How do 2 Black Holes say hello? - With a
gravitational wave
43
Evidence for Gravitational Waves
The figure (from Weisberg and Taylor (2004))
shows the cumulative shift of periastron time
for PSR 191316. This shows the decrease of
the orbital period as the two stars spiral
together. Although the measured shift is only
40 seconds over 30 years, it has been very
Accurately measured and agrees precisely with
the predictions from Einstein's theory of General
Relativity. The observation is regarded as
indirect proof of the existence of gravitational
waves. Indeed, the Hulse-Tayor pulsar is deemed
so significant that in 1993 its discoverers were
awarded the Nobel prize for their work.
44
Einstein equations indicate possibility of black
hole formation at the LHCApril 5, 2010, Miranda
Marquit
One of the concerns that has been voiced about
the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is that it
could result in the formation of black holes
that could destroy the world. While most
scientists dismiss claims that anything
produced in the LHC would destroy the planet,
there are some that think that black formation
could be seen with LHC collisions of
sufficiently high energy..
45
Worm Holes
http//www.daviddarling.info/childrens_encyclopedi
a/Build_a_Time_Machine_Chapter4.html
Worm Holes In science fiction, we often read
that a worm hole will connect two places in the
universe. The hero in the fiction will go through
the worm hole and travel to a distant place in a
short time. To our best knowledge, worm hole
exists theoretically. However, there are some big
drawbacks as a tunnel''. The two ends will
appear to be black holes to the outsiders. After
you travel through the worm hole, you can see
what happens outside, but you cannot get out of
the black hole at the other end before you are
crushed by the singularity.
Do Schwarzschild wormholes really exist? When a realistic star collapses to a black hole, it does not produce a wormhole The complete Schwarzschild geometry includes a white hole, which violates the second law of thermodynamics Even if a Schwarzschild wormhole were somehow formed, it would be unstable and fly apart .
46
Worm Holes http//casa.colorado.edu/ajsh/schww.h
tml
  • The Schwarzschild metric admits negative square
    root as well as positive square root solutions
    for the geometry.
  • The complete Schwarzschild geometry consists of a
    black hole, a white hole, and two Universes
    connected at their horizons by a wormhole.
  • The negative square root solution inside the
    horizon represents a white hole. A white hole is
    a black hole running backwards in time. Just as
    black holes swallow things irretrievably, so also
    do white holes spit them out. White holes cannot
    exist, since they violate the second law of
    thermodynamics.
  • General Relativity is time symmetric. It does not
    know about the second law of thermodynamics, and
    it does not know about which way cause and effect
    go. But we do.
  • The negative square root solution outside the
    horizon represents another Universe. The wormhole
    joining the two separate Universes is known as
    the Einstein-Rosen bridge.

47
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

48
Hubble Diagrams - Expansionhttp//www.eso.org/bl
eibund/papers/EPN/epn.html
  • Distance vs. redshift for Type 1a
  • Supernovae
  • The further away the faster the supernovae
    are moving
  • v HR, H 710e-11/yr
  • Implies 1/H years ago (14 billion) the
    universe was a point!
  • Big Bang term used by Fred Hoyle in
    derision for this notion

49
Expanding SpaceCosmic Jackpot, Paul Davies
  • Space is in the universe rather than the universe
    being in space
  • The Big Bang happened everywhere, not at one
    point in space
  • The Big Bang was the explosion of space, not an
    explosion in space

50
The Evolution of the Universe
51
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

52
The Composition of the Universe
If 72 of the energy density in the universe is
in the form of dark energy, which has a
gravitationally repulsive effect, it is just the
right amount to explain both the flatness of the
universe and the observed accelerated expansion.
Thus dark energy explains many cosmological
observations at once. NASA
53
Galactic Rotation Curves
  • Spiral galaxies rotate and the rotation rate is
    a function of the distance from the center of
    the galaxy and the mass distribution
    throughout the galaxy
  • The observed mass is insufficient to account for
    the observed rotation curve

a/vR
54
Rotation Curve for the Milky Way
http//www.angelfire.com/electronic/isolderadford/
galacdm.html
55
Seeing Dark Matter in the Andromeda GalaxyVera
Rubin, Physics Today, Dec 2006
56
Three-Dimensional Mapping of Dark MatterB.
Schwarzschild, Physics Today, March 2007
57
Dark Energy and Hubble ExpansionB.
Schwarzschild, Physics Today, Jan 2007
  • Hubbles Law v Hr
  • Fig a H vs. time
  • Fig b Cosmic expansion rate (H/1z)

deceleration
acceleration
z 0.5 corresponds to 5 billion yrs ago z 1.3
corresponds to 9 billion yrs ago
58
Dark Energy and Hubble ExpansionB.
Schwarzschild, Physics Today, Jan 2007
59
Outline
  • Newtonian Physics
  • Relativistic Physics
  • Special Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Cosmology
  • Black Holes
  • Big Bang
  • Dark Matter Energy
  • The Anthropic Principle and Fine Tuning

60
What is Man That Thou Art Mindful of Him? Psalm
8.4
61
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle and Fine
TuningThe Anthropic Cosmological Principle, J.
Barrow and F. Tipler
  • Weak anthropic principle (WAP) (Barrow and
    Tipler) "The observed values of all physical and
    cosmological quantities are not equally probable
    but they take on values restricted by the
    requirement that there exist sites where
    carbon-based life can evolve and by the
    requirements that the Universe be old enough for
    it to have already done so."
  • Strong anthropic principle (SAP) (Barrow and
    Tipler) "The Universe must have those properties
    which allow life to develop within it at some
    stage in its history."

62
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
  • Nobel laureate, high energy physicist, Professor
    Steven Weinberg, in the journal Scientific
    American, reflects on "how surprising it is that
    the laws of nature and the initial conditions of
    the universe should allow for the existence of
    beings who could observe it. Life as we know it
    would be impossible if any one of several
    physical quantities had slightly different
    values."

63
Anthropic Principle HawkingsWikipedia
  • As Stephen Hawking has noted, "The laws of
    science, as we know them at present, contain many
    fundamental numbers, like the size of the
    electric charge of the electron and the ratio of
    the masses of the proton and the electron. The
    remarkable fact is that the values of these
    numbers seem to have been very finely adjusted to
    make possible the development of life."
  • If, for example, the strong nuclear force were
    2 stronger than it is (i.e., if the coupling
    constant representing its strength were 2
    larger), while the other constants were left
    unchanged, diprotons would be stable and hydrogen
    would fuse into them instead of deuterium and
    helium. This would drastically alter the physics
    of stars, and presumably preclude the existence
    of life similar to what we observe on Earth.

64
The Anthropic Cosmological Principlehttp//www.20
01principle.net/2005.htm
Dr. David D. Deutsch, Institute of Mathematics,
Oxford University "If we nudge one of these
constants just a few percent in one direction,
stars burn out within a million years of their
formation, and there is no time for evolution. If
we nudge it a few percent in the other direction,
then no elements heavier than helium form. No
carbon, no life. Not even any chemistry. No
complexity at all."
65
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
In his best-selling book, A Brief History of
Time, Stephen Hawking (perhaps the world's most
famous cosmologist) refers to the phenomenon as
"remarkable." "The remarkable fact is that the
values of these numbers (i.e. the constants of
physics) seem to have been very finely adjusted
to make possible the development of life" (p.
125).
66
The Antropic Cosmological Principle
  • "For example," Hawking writes, "if the electric
    charge of the electron had been only slightly
    different, stars would have been unable to burn
    hydrogen and helium, or else they would not have
    exploded... It seems clear that there are
    relatively few ranges of values for the numbers
    (for the constants) that would allow for
    development of any form of intelligent life. Most
    sets of values would give rise to universes that,
    although they might be very beautiful, would
    contain no one able to wonder at that beauty."
    Hawking then goes on to say that he can
    appreciate taking this as possible evidence of "a
    divine purpose in Creation and the choice of the
    laws of science (by God)" (ibid. p. 125).

67
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle John
Wheeler
  • "To my mind, there must be at the bottom of it
    all, not an utterly simple equation, but an
    utterly simple IDEA. And to me that idea, when we
    finally discover it, will be so compelling, and
    so inevitable, so beautiful, we will all say to
    each other, 'How could it have ever been
    otherwise?'"

68
Eugene Wigner
  • It is not at all natural that laws of nature
    exist, much less that man is able to discover
    them.
  • 1963 Nobel Laureate in Physics for his
    contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus
    and the elementary particles, particularly
    through the discovery and application of
    fundamental symmetry principles.

69
Einstein
  • The most incomprehensible thing about the
    universe is that it is comprehensible.

70
Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad
  • He transformed Himself in accordance with each
    form That form of His was for the sake of
    making Him known. (2.3.19)

71
Backup Slides
72
Einstein Field Equation of General Relativity
Distribution of mass causes curvature of
spacetime
73
Newton, Optics, 1704
  • it seems probable to me, that God in the
    beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard,
    impenetrable, moveable particles,
  • It seems to me farther, that they are moved by
    certain active principles, such as would be the
    causes of gravity, and of magnetic and electric
    attractions, and of fermentations, if we should
    suppose that these forces or actions arose from
    qualities unknown to us, and incapable of being
    discovered and made manifest. Such occult
    qualities put a stop to the improvement of
    natural philosophy, and therefore of late years
    have been rejected. To tell us that every species
    of things is endowed with an occult specific
    quality by which it acts and produces manifest
    effects, is to tell us nothing But to derive two
    or three general principles of motion from
    phenomena, and afterwards to tell us how the
    properties and actions of all corporeal things
    follow from those manifest principles, would be a
    very great step in philosophy, though the causes
    of those principles were not yet discovered.
  • Now by the help of these principles variously
    associated in the first creation by the counsel
    of an intelligent agent. For it became him who
    created them to set them in order. And if he did
    so, it's unphilosophical to seek for any other
    origin of the world, or to pretend that it might
    arise out of a chaos by the mere laws of nature
    though being once formed, it may continue by
    those laws for many ages

74
Trajectory of Table Tennis Ball
Initial velocity Vx 50 ft/sec
75
Relativistic Clock Effects on GPSWikipedia
  • Special Relativity predicts that the frequency of
    the atomic clocks moving at GPS orbital speeds
    will tick more slowly than stationary ground
    clocks by approximately 7 µs/day, where the
    orbital velocity is v 4 km/s.
  • General Relativity predicts that a clock closer
    to a massive object will be slower than a clock
    farther away. Applied to the GPS system, the GPS
    clocks are faster by about 45.9 µs/day compared
    to clocks on the Earth.
  • When combining the time dilation and
    gravitational frequency shift, the discrepancy is
    about 38 microseconds per day. Without
    correction, errors in position determination of
    roughly 10 km/day would accumulate.
  • GPS observation processing must also compensate
    for the rotation of the earth. Ignoring this
    effect will produce an east-west error on the
    order of hundreds of nanoseconds, or tens of
    meters in position.

76
Radar Echo from VenusPrinciples of Cosmology and
Gravitation, M. Berry, 1976
77
LaPlace on Determinism
  • "We may regard the present state of the universe
    as the effect of its past and the cause of its
    future. An intellect which at any given moment
    knew all of the forces that animate nature and
    the mutual positions of the beings that compose
    it, if this intellect were vast enough to submit
    the data to analysis, could condense into a
    single formula the movement of the greatest
    bodies of the universe and that of the lightest
    atom for such an intellect nothing could be
    uncertain and the future just like the past would
    be present before its eyes." Marquis Pierre
    Simon de Laplace
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