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Persuasive Appeals

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Persuasive Appeals ENGLISH 11 Persuasion Persuasion is presenting an argument The goal of argument is to win acceptance of one's ideas. Modern argumentation theory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Persuasive Appeals


1
Persuasive Appeals
  • ENGLISH 11

2
Persuasion
  • Persuasion is presenting an argument
  • The goal of argument is to win acceptance of
    one's ideas.
  • Modern argumentation theory has roots in Greek
    and Roman thinking.
  • We judge evidence, investigate carefully, state
    ideas accurately, and listen critically.

3
Logos
  • Reason (logos) - support your general claims with
    concrete, specific data.
  • Reason which begins with specifics and moves
    toward a generalization is inductive.  Example 
    Several clubs have reported difficulty completing
    their business during Flex time.  This proves
    that Cardinal time should be longer.
  • Reason which starts with a general observation
    and moves to specifics is deductive.  Example 
    When people hurry, inefficiency and poor
    communication are the results.  Under current
    conditions clubs must hurry at Flex time
    meetings.  Therefore, Cardinal time should be
    lengthened to allow for better club meetings.

4
Logos, cont
  • Use two or three different strong reasons to
    support your argument.
  • Support your reasons with evidence.
  • Facts - can be proven.
  • Expert opinions or quotations
  • Definitions - statement of meaning of word or
    phrase
  • Statistics - offer scientific support
  • Examples - powerful illustrations
  • Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's
    personal experiences
  • Present opposition - and give reasons and
    evidence to prove the opposition wrong
  • Conclude with call to action - urge the reader to
    do something

5
Ethos
  • Ethics (ethos) - convince your readers that you
    are fair, honest, and well informed.  They will
    then trust your values and intentions.
  • Avoid over-use of negatively charged loaded
    words.

6
Pathos
  • Emotion (pathos) - a carefully reasoned argument
    will be strengthened by an emotional appeal.
  • Use description or narrate an example, often from
    your own experience.
  • Your point of view is demonstrated in an
    emotional appeal, and is important to the reader.
  • Careful word choice presents your position
    accurately.

7
Diction
  • Choice and use of words in speech and writing
  • Diction affects tone!
  • For example
  • To a friend "a screw-up"
  • To a child "a mistake"
  • To the police "an accident"
  • To an employer "an oversight"

8
Categories of Persuasive Communication
  • The persuasive communicator has a responsibility
    to present accurate and timely evidence to
    support his or her arguments.  The ethical
    responsibility of the communicator to present
    evidence in an accurate manner is essential to
    quality argumentation.
  • These communications can be divided into three
    categories
  • Fact
  • Value
  • Policy

9
Questions of Fact
  • Questions of fact This argument deals with
    things that have already happened, are occurring
    now, or will happen in the future and reasons for
    such occurrences.
  • Example  Use of passive restraint devices will
    save thousands of lives over the next ten years.

10
Questions of Value
  • Questions of value  This argument addresses the
    morality of an issue and calls for a judgment to
    be made right/ wrong, good / bad, proper /
    improper.
  • Example The United States has a moral
    responsibility to protect human rights around the
    world.

11
Questions of Policy
  • Question of policy This argument advocates a
    plan of action to be taken and will include both
    fact and value in addition to a plan of action.
  • Example The United States will support with
    human resources and financial aid all United
    Nations sponsored human rights programs.

12
Circular Reasoning
  • Also called begging the question
  • A fallacy in which the premise includes the claim
    that the conclusion is true or (directly or
    indirectly) assumes that the conclusion is true.
  • For example
  • Interviewer "Your resume looks impressive but I
    need another reference." Bill "Jill can give me
    a good reference." Interviewer "Good. But how
    do I know that Jill is trustworthy?" Bill
    "Certainly. I can vouch for her."

13
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14
Either/Or Fallacy
  • An either/or fallacy occurs when a speaker makes
    a claim (usually a premise in an otherwise valid
    deductive argument) that presents an artificial
    range of choices.  For instance, he may suggest
    that there are only two choices possible, when
    three or more really exist. 
  • These types of arguments falls because the
    audience is not given a fair choice there exist
    many alternate (and often more desirable) choices
    that are never offered to the listener for
    consideration.  Isnt Switzerland a neutral
    country?  (Yes.)  So, are they for or against
    the United States?  Do you love every part of
    your best friends personality?  Does that mean
    that you too are for or against this person?

15
Oversimplification
  • This fallacy occurs when a series of actual
    causes are reduced to the point where there is no
    longer a genuine connection between the cause and
    effect.
  • Often a result of trying not to bog a reader down
    with too many details, but oversimplification can
    lead you down bad roads.
  • For example,
  • School violence has gone up and academic
    performance has gone down ever since racial
    segregation was banned. Therefore, segregation
    should be reintroduced, resulting in school
    improvement.

16
Overgeneralization
  • Statements so general they ignore or over
    simplify reality
  • This fallacy is very similar to
    oversimplification in that facts often must be
    overlooked in order to get to this point. For
    example, All citizen support their country in
    time of crisis. Oh, really, what about our
    friendly, neighborhood anarchist over there?
  • Or example, 2 All birds can fly.

17
False Cause
  • Non Causa Pro Causa
  • A does not necessarily mean B
  • This fallacy attributes a cause and effect
    relationship when none is proven to exist. Its
    dark now, which means its dangerous.

18
Hasty Generalization
  • This is the fallacy of generalizing about a
    population based upon a sample which is too small
    to be representative.

19
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