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Leadership (Theory

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Title: Leadership (Theory


1
Leadership (Theory Practice)
  • Professional Development 2012

2
Learning Outcomes
  • Revisit Leadership Theory
  • Consider Significance of Emotional Intelligence
    for people centred leadership
  • Identify your own leadership profile in the
    context of leadership as a professional
    competency
  • Use essential readings to understand leadership
    in complex environments

3
Leadership What is it what are its
characteristics? Summary Of Leadership
Theories Authoritarian Vs Facilitative Leadership
Styles Leadership Power Influence? Emotional
Intelligence People Centred Leadership My
personal/professional Leadership profile (MBTI
perspectives) Leading Groups Through a Project
Cycle
4
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5
Think, Reflect, Recall
  • Family
  • College Peers
  • Placement
  • Community Development Contexts
  • Previous Career
  • Society
  • Public Life

6
Definition of Leadership
  • A process whereby an individual influences a
    group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
  • Peter G. Northouse
  • Leadership at its core, is a very simple process
    of thinking well or thinking clearly about the
    situation facing them
  • Sean Ruth

7
Most Common Characteristics
  • Caring
  • Approachable
  • Has Integrity
  • Accepting of people
  • Respectful
  • Affirming
  • Understanding
  • Enthusiastic
  • Thoughtful
  • Bring out the best in people
  • Positive
  • Supportive
  • Has a vision
  • Good listener
  • Challenging
  • Inspiring
  • Sense of Humour

8
Leadership Characteristics
  • Aware of group needs
  • Exhibits trust in his followers
  • Able to represent the organisation to his people
    and his people to the organisation
  • Generates good leaders from his followers
  • Enthuser
  • Integrity-lives his/her values
  • Leads by example
  • Aware of own behaviour
  • Intellect to meet job needs

9
Leadership Styles - Authoritarian
  • Described as the solo leader
  • Task oriented
  • one way communicator
  • Sees others as subordinates-directs
  • Makes all the decisions
  • Uses policy and structure-conforms
  • Uses extrinsic rewards
  • considered the expert
  • Pushes change from the top
  • works one to one with subordinates

10
Leadership style Facilitative
  • Works towards consensus-mission
  • Skilled in motivation toward improvement
  • Uses intrinsic motivation
  • Initiates change through groups
  • Develops colleagues
  • Quality oriented
  • Empowers-delegates decision making problem
    solving
  • Emphasises trust, innovation and risk taking
  • Defines tasks broadly and uses cross training

11
Power
  • Power is the capacity or potential to
    influence. Peter G. Northouse
  • Beliefs Attitudes Course of Action
  • What is your potential to exercise the above and
    does this indicate leadership role(s)?

12
Types of Power
  • John French and Bertram Raven in 1959
  • LEGITIMATE has a right to make demands and
    expects compliance and obedience.
  • REWARD Results from one persons ability to
    compensate another for compliance
  • COERCIVE Can punish others for non compliance.
  • EXPERT Persons superior skills and knowledge
  • REFERENT Persons perceived attractiveness,
    worthiness, and right to respect from others.

13
The Development of Leadership Theories
  • 1. Leadership Traits Theory
  • 2. Behavioural Style Theory (Blake and Mouton)
  • 3. Contingency Theory and Situational Leadership
    (Hersey Blanchard)
  • 4. Action Centred Leadership (Adair)
  • 5. Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)

14
1. Theories of Leadership
  • Trait theories
  • Personality?
  • Dominance and personal presence?
  • Perseverance
  • Charisma enthusiasm
  • Self confidence?
  • Achievement driven
  • Ability to formulate a clear vision?
  • Worker doer

15
2.Theories of Leadership
  • Behavioural
  • Imply that leaders can be trained focus on the
    way of doing things
  • Structure based behavioural theories focus on
    the leader instituting structures task
    orientated
  • Relationship based behavioural theories focus
    on the development and maintenance of
    relationships process orientated

16
3. Theories of Leadership
  • Contingency Theories
  • Leadership as being more flexible different
    leadership styles used at different times
    depending on the circumstance.
  • Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of
    characteristics that can be transposed into
    different contexts

17
4. Action Centered Leadership (Adair)
  • Leadership must ensure that all three sets of
    needs are met on an ongoing basis

Group
Task
Focus
Relationships
Individual
Self-esteem/actualisation
Tannenbaum and Schmidt
18
5. Emotional Intelligence
  • An array of capabilities, competencies and
    skills that influence ones ability to succeed in
    coping with environmental demands and pressures
    Reuven Bar On
  • It is a factor in determining ones ability to
    succeed in life
  • Relates to potential for performance

19
How does EQ differ from IQ
  • EQ focuses on developing an understanding of and
    ability to mange emotions
  • EQ can be developed and enhanced through life
  • Until recent years EQ has been over looked in
    predicting a persons potential for success
  • IQ focuses upon developing cognitive abilities
    and is more academically orientated
  • IQ is thought to be established at birth and
    cannot be enhanced
  • IQ has traditionally been used to predict a
    persons potential for success

20
Real Leadership
21
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22
EQ-I Measures
  • Intrapersonal emotional self awareness,
    assertiveness, self-actualisation, self regard,
    independence
  • Interpersonal empathy, social responsibility,
    interpersonal relationships
  • Adaptability problem solving, reality testing,
    flexibility
  • Stress Management stress tolerance, impulse
    control
  • General Mood happiness and mood

23
Components of EQ Intrapersonal.
  • Awareness of your own emotions ability to name
    feelings you are experiencing
  • Ability to manage your emotions anger, anxiety,
    sadness expressed in a constructive manner and
    ability to create and maintain positive emotions
  • Recognising emotions in other people putting
    yourself in the other persons shoes and having
    empathy for other peoples feelings

24
The Emotionally Intelligent Leader
  • Is self aware, motivated and perceives others
    accurately
  • Manages emotions to create well formed outcomes
  • Can recognise and name emotions
  • Prepares to manage both people and tasks
  • Thinks positively and stays with a challenge
  • Is flexible and adapts easily to changes
  • Excellent social skills and sense of community
  • Is resilient and looks for solutions
  • Seeks to grow and develop
  • Adapted from
    Emotional Intelligence Chartered Management
    Institute 2003

25
Emotional Capital- 3 core elements in
organisations
  • External emotional capital- value of feelings and
    perceptions held by the client/service user and
    external stakeholders
  • Internal emotional capital- values, feelings,
    beliefs held by all employees/volunteers in
    org/agency
  • Intra-personal emotional capitallevel of
    positive energy a leader invests and how they
    mobilise, focus and renew the collective energy
    of the people they lead
  • Source Emotional Capitalists Martyn Newman
    2005

26
MBTI Leadership Team Building (see handout for
your type-Krebs Hirsh, S.)
  • Your Team Leadership Style
  • How you might irritate team members
  • How you might influence team members
  • How you contribute to team dynamic
  • How you can maximise your effectiveness
  • How you might be irritated by other team members

27
Dominant Functions
ISTJ Reality/evidence/details experience ISFJ INFJ Possibilities Future Vision INTJ
ISTP ISFP Values, harmony cohesion INFP INTP
ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
ESTJ Rationality Cause Effect Logic ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
28
Additional Slides
  • Leading Teams/Groups throughout a project cycle

29
Blanchards Model of Situational Leadership
Applied to Team Development
Hi
Lo
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Competence of the Team
Commitment of the Team
30
Team Leaders responsibility at the Forming Stage
  • Hold a detailed briefing session
  • Answer all questions honestly
  • Create a clear sense of direction
  • Present mission, goals and requirements
  • Identify outputs and deliverables
  • Define tasks, responsibilities and roles
  • Provide training on team roles, tools and
    processes

31
Bonding Stage
  • Make team members feel welcome and needed
  • Develop relationships to unify participants
  • Establish ground rules to develop common ground
  • Build mutual trust between members and management
  • Cultivate participation with communication
  • Encourage creativity and accept feedback
  • Brainstorm problems and their causes

32
Storming Stage-managing team conflict
  • Welcome differences
  • React positively
  • Use empathy
  • Use positive feedback
  • Confront problems
  • Negotiate solutions together

33
Empowering the team
  • Let the team finalise its charter
  • Assist the team develop a master plan
  • Let the team run meetings as soon as possible
  • Guide the team to share its workload
  • Encourage consensus decision making
  • Help the team to resolve conflicts

34
Facilitating Team training
  • Team building skills
  • Organising Skills
  • People Skills
  • Meeting Skills
  • Supporting tools
  • Work and project management
  • Technical skills

35
Leadership is about inspiring trust?
36
Leadership is about seeing possibilities?
Rodger Bannister 1954
37
Leadership is about seeking new strategies?
Dick Fosbury 1969  
38
Leadership is about having a vision?
39
Leadership is about quality communication?
40
Reading Material
  • Two Journal Articles
  • Nienow, D. (2009). Collective Leadership For
    Community Change The Essential Role Of The
    Community Organisation. Centre of Ethical
    Leadership (PDF download on moodle).
  • Tarplett, P. (2011) Leadership in Tough Times
    International Journal of Leadership in Public
    Services, Vol 7, No 3 - 2011. (PDF copy on
    Moodle)
  • Leadership Theory and Practice Peter
    Northouse, Sage Publications, London 2007
  • Effective Educational Leadership Ed. Nigel
    Bennett, Megan Crawford, Marion Cartwright,
    Open University/Sage, London 2008
  • Leadership Can be Taught Sharon Daloz Parks,
    Harvard Business School Press,

  • Boston 2005
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