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Dietary Fat: The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly

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Title: Dietary Fat: The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly Author: MHS-Faculty Last modified by: Windows User Created Date: 3/11/2010 4:36:12 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dietary Fat: The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly


1
Dietary Fat The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly
2
A Few Fat Facts
  • Chemical family name for fats and related
    compounds is lipids
  • Word lipos Greek word for fat
  • Fats are very high energy nutrients

3
Do Any of these look good?
4
  • "Were hardwired to hunger for fatty, sugary,
    salty foods because, back when our ancestors were
    foraging for every meal, palatable eats meant
    extra energy and a leg-up on survival."
  • Dr. David A. Kessler, author of The End of
    Overeating Taking Control of the Insatiable
    American Appetite

5
How Your Body Uses Fat
  • Visible Body Fat
  • Source of stored energy
  • Gives body shape
  • Cushion (need some fat on your buttocks to sit!)
  • Reduces heat loss (insulation blanket)

6
Your Body Also Uses Fat
  • Kind of like bubble wrap for your guts!
  • Invisible (internal) body fat
  • Part of every cell including neurons
  • Shock absorber to protect internal organs
  • Part of hormones and other biochemicals

7
How does our body get energy from fat?
  • Well, picture a chain of long balloons

8
When you drop a balloon into water
  • It floats! Thats exactly what happens when you
    swallow fat-rich foods.
  • The fat floats on top of the watery
    food-and-liquid mixture in the stomach.

9
Okaynot relatedbut isnt that a really FAT
cat?!!
10
Back on topicSince the fat floats
  • This limits the effect that fat-busting digestive
    enzymes can have on it.
  • Because fat is digested more slowly, you feel
    fuller longer after eating high fat meals.
  • After a meal like one of these, you might say
    I feel fullway too fullurp!

11
Break it down
  • When fat moves down your digestive tract into
    your small intestine, a hormone signals your
    gallblader to release
  • BILE
  • Bile is an emulsifier, a substance that allows
    fat to mix with water.

12
Fatty Acids
  • The bile helps to break down the fat into fatty
    acids.
  • These can be used as a source of energy
  • Our body prefers using carbohydrates (since
    glucose is easier and more efficient) and will
    only burn fat when other available energy sources
    have been used up.

13
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14
How Much Fat is Too Much?
  • Too much fat increased risk of obesity,
    diabetes, heart disease and some forms of cancer
    (especially colon cancer)

15
But what about too little?
  • Infants and children
  • need fat to thrive.
  • Everyone needs some fat to absorb fat-soluble
    vitamins that smooth the skin, protect vision,
    bolster the immune system, and keep reproductive
    organs functioning.

16
No More than
  • In 2005, Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    recommends no more than 20 to 30 of total
    calories from fat.
  • For a diet of 2000 calories per day, that
  • 400 to 600 calories

.
17
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18
But are all fats equal?
  • Noand it all comes down to chemistry.
  • Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.
  • A fatty acid is a chain of carbon atoms with
    hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon.

19
But what does that have to do with what kind of
fat I should eat?
  • The more hydrogen atoms, the more saturated the
    fatty acid.
  • Saturated, unsaturated, or trans fat all have
    different types of fatty acids.
  • EEK!! I still want to know what does this have
    to do with me and my food choices?!!

20
Saturated Fat
  • Appears as a "waxy" or solid fat at room
    temperature.
  • What would it look like on your inside as it
    contributes to the fatty cholesterol build-up
    inside your arteries?

21
Sources of Saturated Fat
  • Beef, veal, lamb, pork and poultry.
  • Lard, butter, whole milk, cheese
  • Tropical cooking oils such as palm and coconut.

22
Should I eat this?
  • You can have some saturated in your diet, but aim
    to limit this fat to seven percent (preferably
    less) of your total daily calories.

23
Unsaturated Fats
  • Heart healthy fat that when used in place of
    saturated fat has the potential to lower the bad
    cholesterol known as LDL.
  • It is usually in a liquid form at room
    temperature and when chilled.

24
Why Unsaturated Fat is Good
  • Unsaturated fat contains "essential" fatty acids
    needed by our bodies to make hormones and to
    ensure healthy cell structure.
  • Contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and is
    helpful to the heart, brain and other body
    systems.

25
Foods that have Unsaturated Fat
  • Seafood
  • Cooking oils such as vegetable, safflower,
    cottonseed and corn.
  • Salmon, herring, and other fish
  • Walnuts, sunflower seeds and flaxseeds.

26
Unsaturated fat is good, but
  • It still has calories.
  • Aim for 10 percent of total daily calories

27
Trans Fat the Ugly!
28
Who Loves Trans Fat?
  • Bakeries, restaurants and food manufacturers use
    it.
  • Can withstand repeated heating and cooking
    (especially deep-fried foods such as french
    fries, donuts, others), has a long shelf life in
    food (many types of baked or pre-packaged snacks)
    and lasts a long time before spoiling.

29
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30
Where else can I find it?
  • Beware of processed foods, fast foods and frozen
    foods
  • Trans fats are also known as trans-fatty acids or
    may also be labeled as "partially hydrogenated
    vegetable oil" or vegetable shortening.

31
Why is trans fat so bad?
  • This type of fat is "man-made" by adding hydrogen
    to vegetable oil through a process known as
    "hydrogenation.
  • The extra hydrogen atoms clog your heart and
    raise levels of cholesterol.

32
How much trans fat should I eat?
  • Your daily dietary intake of trans fat should be
    as close to zero as possible.

33
Heres something to blow your (nutritional) mind
  • Just like we need some fat, we also need some
    cholesterol!

34
WAITISNT IT TRUE THAT
  • Too much cholesterol and the wrong type of
    cholesterol lead to dangers such as strokes and
    heart attacks.
  • What is cholesterol and why do we need it?

35
Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like substance that
  • Protects cell membranes
  • Helps nerve cells send messages
  • Building block for vitamin D
  • Lets gallbladder make bile
  • Base for estrogren or testosterone

36
Do any of these sound familiar?
  • Cholesterol is carried through the bloodstream by
    attaching to certain proteins. The combination is
    called a lipoprotein. There are four different
    types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in
    the blood
  • High density lipoprotein (HDL) or "good
    cholesterol"
  • Low density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad
    cholesterol"
  • Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which are
    very bad forms of cholesterol.
  • Chylomicrons, which carry very little
    cholesterol, but a lot of another fat called
    triglycerides.

37
Another reason trans fat is evil
  • Trans fat increases levels of bad cholesterol
    (LDL)
  • It also destroys good cholesterol (HDL)

38
And now for something completely different
39
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