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Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Fernando Reimers Last modified by: Harvard University Created Date: 10/12/2001 10:59:04 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.


1
  • Part I. Introduction. Comparative and
    International Education.
  • Part II. The Process of Policy Analysis
  • The Making of
  • Education Policy

2
Summing Up Part 1
  • The purpose of comparison. What is comparative
    education? What is international education?
  • Comparative cross-national studies.
  • Education and Development and Education as a
    Human Right.
  • Current Global Education Issues (Social
    inequality, urban-rural, gender inequality,
    conflict)

3
Where should the 2016 Olympic Games take place?
  1. Chicago
  2. Tokyo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. Madrid

4
If you were IOC President Rogge, where do you
think the 2016 Olympic Games should take place?
  1. Chicago
  2. Tokyo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. Madrid

5
If you were President Obama, where would you
think the 2016 Olympic Games should take place?
  1. Chicago
  2. Tokyo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. Madrid

6
If you were Brazils President Luiz Inácio Lula
da Silva, where would you think the 2016 Olympic
Games should take place?
  1. Chicago
  2. Tokyo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. Madrid

7
Where will the 2016 Olympic Games take place?
  1. Chicago
  2. Tokyo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. Madrid

8
Summing Up Part 1
  • The purpose of comparison. What is comparative
    education? What is international education?
  • Comparative cross-national studies.
  • Education and Development and Education as a
    Human Right.
  • Current Global Education Issues (Social
    inequality, urban-rural, gender inequality,
    conflict)

9
Pestalozzi
  • Joseph Lancaster

Horace Mann
Comenius
J.J. Rousseau
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
S
10
Comparative education
Comparative studies
Education Abroad
International Education
Development Education
Comparative Pedagogy
Intra-educational And intra-cultural studies
International pedagogy
Study of work of International organizations
Halls typology of comparative education
11
Required Under Constraint
Negotiated Under Constraint
Introduced Through Influence
Borrowed Purposely
Imposed
1
5
3
4
2
  1. Totalitarian/authoritarian rule, etc.
  2. Defeated/occupied countries
  3. Required by bilateral and multilateral agreements
  4. Intentional copying of policy/practice observed
    elsewhere
  5. General influence of educational ideas/methods

Source Phillips and Schweisfurth 2007
12
Entire Population
Religious Groups
Gender Groups
Ethnic Groups
Other Groups
Age Groups
Level 1 World regions/continents
Level 2 Countries
Other aspects
Level 3 States/Provinces
Labor Market
Political Change
Management Structures
Level 4 Districts
Educational Finance
Teaching Methods
Level 5 Schools
Level 6 Classrooms
Curriculum
Level 7 Individuals
Bray and Thomas
13
http//www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
  • Article 26.
  • (1) Everyone has the right to education.
    Education shall be free, at least in the
    elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary
    education shall be compulsory. Technical and
    professional education shall be made generally
    available and higher education shall be equally
    accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  • (2) Education shall be directed to the full
    development of the human personality and to the
    strengthening of respect for human rights and
    fundamental freedoms. It shall promote
    understanding, tolerance and friendship among all
    nations, racial or religious groups, and shall
    further the activities of the United Nations for
    the maintenance of peace.
  • (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind
    of education that shall be given to their
    children.

14
How do we measure progress?
  • Inputs
  • Per pupil Spending
  • Processes
  • Structures, Curriculum
  • Outputs
  • Educational Attainment, Literacy
  • Outcomes
  • Employment and Productivity, Political
    Participation, Social Capital

15
What is equality of educational opportunity?
  • Conservative Definition (Position in the social
    structure determines education chances)
  • Liberal Definition (Equality of Treatment)
  • Progressive Definition (Equality of Outcomes
    requires inequality of treatment. Positive
    Discrimination).

16
IEA Studies
  • The very first IEA study was intended to
    investigate the feasibility of undertaking more
    extensive investigations of educational
    achievement. This study, known as Pilot
    Twelve-Country Study, was conducted in 195962
    with samples of 13-year-old students in 12
    countries. Testing was carried out in five areas
    mathematics, reading comprehension, geography,
    science, and non-verbal ability.

17
Using gradients to examine equality
18
High mathematics performance
Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich
Mathematik
High average performance Large socio-economic
disparities
High average performance High social equity
Strong socio-economic impact on student
performance
Socially equitable distribution of learning
opportunities
Low average performance Large socio-economic
disparities
Low average performance High social equity
Source Schleicher 2007
Low mathematics performance
19
Who should be educated? For what purposes?
Teacher selection Initial Training In-service
Training
School Organization System Administration School
Management
Curriculum Pedagogy Instructional
resources Assessment
20
Cultural Context Identity Values Norms
Shared meanings
Economic Context Structure of the Economy
Comparative Advantage Productivity Employment
Political Context Staterepresentation
Governance State legitimacy Stability Rule
of Law
Educational Institutions
Social Context Status Hierarchies
Individual-Society
Geographical Context Natural Endowments
Human-Environmental Issues
Demographic Context Demographic Structure
Demographic Dynamics
21
Five Definition of Literacy
  • 1. ability to read and write
  • 2. the ability to read, write, spell, listen, and
    speak
  • 3. reading and writing at a level adequate for
    communication, or at a level that lets one
    understand and communicate ideas in a literate
    society, so as to take part in that society.
  • 4. 'Literacy' is the ability to identify,
    understand, interpret, create, communicate,
    compute and use printed and written materials
    associated with varying contexts.
  • 5. Literacy is understanding, using and
    reflecting on written texts to enable an
    individual to achieve his or her goals, to
    develop his or her knowledge and potential, and
    to participate fully in the wider society

22
Between Perfect Inequality and Perfect Equality
Perfect Equality
Perfect Inequality
23
  • Part I. Introduction. Comparative and
    International Education.
  • Part II. The Process of Policy Analysis
  • The Making of
  • Education Policy

24
The Making of Education Policy
Carol, please call HGSE CSO and hire an IEP
graduate
I need to make an educational policy decision
I must hire an analyst to examine all alternatives
Sorry, they are all hired now. You are going to
have to wait til June of 2010
  • A synoptic model of decision making

25
The Making of Education Policy
  • A Model of Education Decision Making

26
Policy
  • An explicit or implicit decision which may set
    out directives for guiding future decisions,
    initiate or retard action, or guide
    implementation of previous decisions
  • Strategy
  • Multi-Program or Plan
  • Program or Project
  • Issue or Task

27
Discuss examples of Policy (Strategy)
  • Describe policy
  • How were they made?

28
(No Transcript)
29
In a Synoptic approach
  1. Interest groups negotiate a decision
  2. A single decision maker makes a decision
  3. A decision evolves over time
  4. The decision is implicit

30
Steps to Policy Making
  • Formulate Policy
  • Assess Alternatives (Ex-Ante)
  • Make the Decision
  • Implement
  • Evaluate Impact
  • Make Adjustments
  • New Policy Cycle

31
These steps represent a synoptic Approach to
Education Polic y Analysis
  1. Yes
  2. No

32
(No Transcript)
33
This model includes the role of politics in
policy making?
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

34
Implementation Trumps Outcomes
35
Assessment of Outcomes
36
The Eightfold Path
  • Define the Problem
  • Assemble some Evidence
  • Construct the Alternatives
  • Select the Criteria
  • Project the Outcomes
  • Confront the Tradeoffs
  • Decide
  • Tell your Story

37
The Eightfold Path is a Synoptic Approach to
Policy Analysis
  1. Yes
  2. No

38
Bureaucratic Politics
39
Based on your experience, would you say that
educational research is used for educational
decision making?
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

40
Why is Research not Used?
  • Characteristics of Education Research that
    influence use
  • Characteristics of Policy Formation that
    influence demand for research
  • Context and Politics of the situation

41
Education research and influence
  • The low quality and prestige of the education
    research enterprise explain the lack of
    influence.
  • Persistent belief that research rarely leads to
    improvements in practice.
  • Need to build a strong research community to
    increase influence

42
Building a strong research community
  • Contested nature of education research
  • Pluralistic character of the enterprise
  • Public character. Limited authority of experts.
  • Need more dialogue among ed. Schools,
    foundations, AERA.
  • Bring teachers into the conversation
  • Researchers reach out to broad constituencies

43
Kinds of evaluation use
  • Non-use ignoring evaluation findings
  • Instrumental use immediate use for
    decision-making
  • Symbolic or Political use provides legitimation
  • Conceptual or enlightenment use gradual
    percolation of findings indirect influence

44
What is influence?
  • Influence a continuum between direct impact and
    changing paradigm
  • Conceptualizing Policy Process
  • Rational Models linear, incrementalism,
    interactive
  • Political Models policy networks, agenda
    setting, policy narratives, policy transfer
  • Research Quality

45
Informed Dialogue
  • How Education Policy is Made
  • Knowledge as a construction
  • Planning as a conversation

46
  • Dialogue space
  • Convergent and divergent problems
  • Can one discipline solve the problem
  • Is technical knowledge sufficient
  • One or multiple decision makers
  • Context

47
The challenges of informing education policies
  • Complex problems
  • Multiple policy objectives
  • Long-term effects of policies
  • Controversy over program theory
  • Multiple stakeholders
  • Loosely coupled organizations
  • Complex structure of ministries of education
  • Social isolation of schools

48
Discuss some examples of ed challenges that
illustrate these dimensions
49
Educational Organizations Ministries are
similar to other Public Organizations?
  1. Yes
  2. No

50
Complex internal structure
  • Inadequate funding
  • Insufficient information and analysis
  • Inefficient bureaucracies
  • Lack of accountability
  • Multiple goals
  • Structures that do now allow horizontal
    communication.
  • Staff
  • Budgeting and Planning
  • Corruption and patronage

51
  • Complex external environment
  • Stakeholders. Different interests at different
    moments of the policy cycle.

52
  • Generation.
  • a.      State/Government/Political parties
  • b.      Curriculum Development
  • c.      Textbook production
  • d.      Construction
  • e.      Development organizations
  • f.        NGOs

53
  • Distribution of resources
  • a.      Teachers
  • b.      Teacher organizations
  • c.      Private providers/NGOs
  • d.      Institutions (teacher education,
    universities)

54
  • Benefits
  • a.      Students
  • b.      Parents
  • c.      Employers
  • d.      Political Groups

55
  • Three perspectives on knowledge utilization
  • Dialogue as Persuasion
  • Dialogue as Negotiation
  • Dialogue as Co-construction

56
  • Utilization as Persuasion (Emphasis on Supply of
    Research Results)
  •  
  • Lack of utilization explained by the two-cultures
    theory
  • Failures of communication
  • Impact was greater where researchers had
    established links with policy makers
  • Rational decision theory
  • Alternatives to rational decision making
    bureaucratic and political

57
  • Two applications of the utilization as
    dissemination approach
  • Networking to Disseminate Information
  • Northern Research Review and Advisory Groups
  • REDUC in Latin America. Abstracting 28,000
    documents
  • Experiences in Africa. ERNESA, South Africa
    (EduSource)
  •  
  • Policy Dialogue as Persuasion
  • Marketing the Results of Research

58
  • Utilization as Negotiation. Providing Decision
    Makers with Data. (Emphasis on Demand for
    Research Results)
  • Knowledge Brokers
  • Characteristics of useful research-based
    knowledge
  • a.       Interdisciplinary approach
  • b.      Policy orientation in the analysis
  • c.       Understand the problem from the
    perspective of the client
  • d.      Fit with timing of policy cycle
  • Syntheses of Research
  • Training in Research Utilization

59
  • Applications of Dissemination as Negotiation
  • Management Information Systems
  • Survey Research and Information Procedures
  • Sector Assessments

60
  • As in Policy Dialogue as Persuasion,
    Information/Knowledge is seen as the result of a
    highly specialized activity carried out by
    knowledge producers. Users have more choice to
    decide which knowledge they want to use.

61
  • Informed Dialogue. Constructing Knowledge
    (Emphasis on Join Construction of Knowledge by
    Decision Makers and Users).
  •  
  • The limits of technical expertise
  • The advantages of participation
  • Qualitative judgement as an essential ingredient
    in policy analysis. Need for consultation.
  • Policy formation as a political and
    organizational process.
  • Two ways to understand who makes policy
  • Senior officials
  • All actors in the system

62
  • Limits to participation
  • Time consuming
  • Lack of skills of researchers and planners
  • Host cultures often do not support participation
    and openness

63
  • Two variations of participatory collaboration
  • Participation by Policy Makers
  • Collaboration in research design
  • Collaboration in data analysis
  • Collaboration in design and implementation of
    policy

64
  • Policy Dialogue as Organizational Learning
  • Who are the actors that matter?
  • Planning as a conversation
  • Dialogue as an instrument to facilitate learning

65
Unescos Role in Leading the Global Action Plan
66
Based on the article discussing Unescos role in
the GAP, who is leading Education For All?
  1. UNESCO
  2. The World Bank
  3. UNICEF
  4. The Governments of Countries
  5. Universities

67
To what extent did you learn new material in part
1 of the course?
  1. To a great extent
  2. To some extent
  3. Not much
  4. Not at all

68
Is the pace of the course
  1. Too fast for me
  2. More or less adequate for me
  3. Just right for me

69
How much discussion would you like to have on
fridays?
  1. Less discussion, more lecture
  2. About the amount of discussion we have now
  3. More discussion, less lecture
  4. Only discussion, no lecture

70
With regard to the readings for the course?
  1. They are above my head, I cant follow them
  2. They are challenging, but I can follow
  3. They are about right
  4. They are too simple for me

71
With regards to discussion sections
  1. I am learning from them
  2. I am learning a little from them
  3. I am not learning from in them

72
Have a Good Weekend
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