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Theodore Roosevelt

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Theodore Roosevelt & the Square Deal Conservation Under TR Newlands Reclamation Act Federal government creates irrigation systems & build dams to make dry lands ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theodore Roosevelt


1
Theodore Roosevelt the Square Deal
2
Agenda for Next Week
  • Monday October 10 Wrap up chapter 16/finish
    lecture on Roosevelt Progressivism
  • Tuesday October 11 Ms. Connolly (Current Events)
  • Wednesday October 12 Ch. 16 Test (Sub)
  • Thursday October 13 Ms. Connolly

3
Agenda for Week of October 17-21
  • Monday-Tuesday Ms. Connolly
  • Wednesday, Thursday, Friday -
  • - Substitute teacher.
  • - Watching To Kill a Mockingbird
  • in class.

4
The Many Talents of TR
  • Politician (held offices at city, state Federal
    levels)
  • Explorer
  • Hunter
  • Published author (wrote over 35 books)
  • Soldier
  • Historian
  • Cattle Rancher

5
Vice President
  • Elected as William McKinleys VP in 1900

6
McKinley Assassinated in September 1901
7
Roosevelt becomes youngest President in history
at 42 years old
  • Changed the Presidency
  • Believed that the President should be more active
    set the legislative agenda
  • The first truly activist President
  • Credited with transitioning US into 20th century

8
The Bully Pulpit
  •  "I suppose my critics will call that preaching,
    but I have got such a bully pulpit!
  • TR used the Presidency to advocate issues to
    get public support for his agenda
  • Believed the President should lead and actively
    push and progress America forward.
  • Traveled the country giving dynamic speeches

9
Used his Presidency to enact PROGRESSIVE
IDEASto REFORMAmericanpolitics, society
business
10
TRs Domestic Agenda of Reform
  • Labor Advocated the rights of workers (labor).
  • Trust-Busting Breaking up monopolistic trusts
  • Regulation of business Government took power to
    regulation railroads
  • Consumer Protection Government regulation of
    food production
  • Conservation Set aside land for national parks

11
LABORThe Coal Strike of 1902
  • May 12, 1902 Coal Miners in eastern Pennsylvania
    go on strike to
  • Secure better wages
  • Safer working conditions
  • Recognition of United Mine Workers of America
    (UMWA)Over 100,000 workers walk off the job

12
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13
Americans feared if strike continued, they would
have no coal for the winter
14
TR Intervenes
  • TR directly intervenes in the crisis
  • Calls the Coal Business owners and Union leaders
    to the White House directly mediates meeting
  • Encourages arbitration

TR threatened to take over mines with Federal
troops if an agreement wasnt made
15
TR Saves the Day
  • Mine Owners accept arbitration because of TRs
    threat
  • Special Arbitration rules
  • Workers get a 10 pay increase
  • Workday shortened to 9 hours

16
How does TRs demonstrate change?
  • Presidents (before TR) did not interfere in
    businesses and in labor strikes (laissez faire)
  • TR threatened to take control of coal mines.
    Constitutional or not?
  • Beginning of the trend of government taking the
    side of workers
  • Activist government

17
When asked if his efforts were legal and
Constitutional, TR said . . . .
To hell with the Constitution, people want coal!
18
Roosevelt called thisThe Square Deal
  • Roosevelt believed he balanced the desires of all
    parties . . .
  • The People Wanted coal
  • The Workers Got higher wages (not as high was
    they wanted) and shorter workdays
  • Business owners Production resumed, were not
    required to recognize Union.

19
Square Deal becomes TRs capaign slogan
  • Roosevelt said he promised to see that each
    person is given a square deal, because he is
    entitled to no more and should receive no less.
  • Promised to balance the needs of workers,
    businesses and consumers.

20
TRUST-BUSTING
  • Northern Securities Company
  • Northern Pacific, Great Northern Chicago,
    Burlington and Quincy Railroads combine into one
    company
  • Total worth 400 Million
  • Dominated Railroad lines
  • from Chicago to Northwest.

21
TR Stops it!
  • TR sues the National Securities Company for
    violating the (what law prohibited trusts that
    limited competition?)

SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT
22
Teddy the Trust-Buster Roosevelt
  • Roosevelt successfully breaks up the National
    Securities Company
  • Next sues to break up Rockefellers Standard Oil
    Company (completed under Taft)
  • Filed dozens of lawsuits against other trusts
    that he saw as bad for the American consumer.

23
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24
TR Railroad Regulation
  • Review Railroad rebates for big businesses

25
TR Railroad Regulation
  • TR persuades Republic Congress to pass
    legislation giving Federal government control
    over railroad companies
  • Elkins Act (1903) Makes it illegal for
    railroad companies to
  • give rebates to large corporations
  • Hepburn Act (1906) Gave the
  • Interstate Commerce Commission
  • the power to set railroad rates.

26
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27
The Main Idea
  • Roosevelt believed that government had the duty
    to regulate big business to protect the welfare
    of society
  • Believed  laissez-faire did not apply when
    business provided a necessary service to the
    people (Railroads, coal, oil)

28
Environmental Conservation
  • Background
  • February 14, 1884 TRs wife (Alice) and mother
    die on the same day.

29
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30
Environmental Conservation
  • Roosevelt moves to the Dakotas to hunt buffalo
    and start a ranch
  • Roosevelt became disturbed by
  • Damage being done to wildlife
  • Forests being depleted
  • The western frontier was disappearing

This experience leads TR to develop
conservationist ideas
31
Environmental Conservation
  • What is a Conservationist?
  • A person who seeks to protect and
  • preserve natural
  • resources

32
Environmental Conservation
  • TR uses the Presidency to promote conservation of
    the American wilderness
  • Before TR, government had left wilderness
    unregulated
  • 1903 TR visits naturalist John Muir
  • at Yosemite
  • - Muir helps convinces Roosevelt to
  • use Federal government to
  • preserve land

33
Muir believed all of the undeveloped land should
be preserved . . . TR believed some land should
be preserved and other land should be developed
for economic use
34
Conservation Under TR
  • Newlands Reclamation Act
  • Federal government creates irrigation systems
    build dams to make dry lands productive
  • Applies to land in 20 states
  • Funded by the sale of government land
  • After an area would be irrigated, it would be
    sold
  • Allowed much of the dry land of the American west
    to be developed and settled

35
Conservation Under TR
  • Establishes U.S. Forest Service
  • TR increased Federal land reserves from 40
    million to 200 million acres by the end of his
    2nd term.
  • Brought much of the west under direct
  • Federal control.
  • Authority later expanded to allow
  • Federal government to buy privately
  • owned land.
  • - Land in eastern U.S. added

36
Antiquities Act of 1906
  • Authorized the Federal government to declare
    historical landmarks
  • Designed to protect Indian ruins, artifacts
    other areas of natural American history
  • Created 18 national monuments

37
Legacy of TRThe Grand Canyon
38
Legacy of TRCrater Lake National Park (Oregon)
39
Legacy of TRPetrified Forest (Arizona)
40
  • "All the great natural resources which are vital
    to the welfare of the whole people should be kept
    either in the hands or under the control of the
    whole people."
  • - Theodore Roosevelt

41
Consumer Protection
  • 1906 Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle
  • Exposes the unsanitary conditions within the meat
    packing industry
  • Muckraking Journalists who exposed the filth
    (muck) of society.

42
Read excerpt from The Jungle
43
"I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident
I hit it in the stomach. - Upton Sinclair
44
The Result
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Mandatory inspection of livestock before
    slaughter
  • Mandatory postmortem inspection of every carcass
  • Sanitary standards established for slaughterhouses
     and meat processing plants and
  • Authorized U.S. Department of Agriculture ongoing
    monitoring and inspection of slaughter and
    processing operations.

45
The Result
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • Forbade the manufacture, sale or transportation
    of food or medicine containing harmful
    ingredients
  • Required ingredient labels on drugs
  • Created the Food and Drug Administration
    responsible for testing the safety of foods and
    drugs designed for human consumption

46
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47
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