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Effects of palatability on food, caloric, and macronutrient intake in a three-course meal.

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Course sequence does have an effect on the overall nutritional value of a multicourse ... energy-dense foods Sensory Specific Satiety -Rolls 1980s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effects of palatability on food, caloric, and macronutrient intake in a three-course meal.


1
Effects of palatability on food, caloric, and
macronutrient intake in a three-course meal.
  • Tim Beckner,
  • Michelle Bertling,
  • Jai-Sheena Garnett,
  • Allison Thomas,
  • Kim Trimble

2
Overeating A Growing Problem
3
Some Factors that Promote Overeating
  • Wide variety of easily accessible, highly
    palatable, energy-dense foods
  • Sensory Specific Satiety
  • -Rolls 1980s (humans)
  • -LeMagnen 1950s (rats)

Im full.
BUT!!
4
Sensory Specific Satiety Research at Wofford
College
What is the palatability ranking?
  • - Stinnett et. al 2005
  • - Ross et. al 2004
  • - Henry et. al 2003

RC
RC
FL
Meal Calories per gram
Froot Loops (FL) 3.8
Funyuns (OR) 5.0
Rat Chow (RC) 3.3
RC
5
Purposes
  • (1) To determine relative palatabilities of Rat
    Chow, Onion Rings and Froot Loops
  • (2) To determine if sequences of courses in a
    three-course meal affects
  • food intake
  • caloric intake

6

Hypotheses
  • When offered 3 foods simultaneously,
  • Rats will eat very little Rat Chow,
  • Moderate amounts of Onion Rings, and
  • Large quantities of Froot Loops.
  • (2) Offering a sequence of courses in which
    palatability increases with each course will
    result in the highest consumption of food and
    caloric intake.

Expected palatability ranking RCltORltFL
7
Methods Cafeteria Experiment
  • 21 Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
  • 12 hour light/12 dark cycle, RC H2O ad libitum
    except
  • Experimental Day (18 hour food deprivation)
  • Foods presented simultaneously
  • Froot Loops
  • Onion Rings
  • Rat Chow
  • 3 rats per week
  • Counterbalanced over 7 weeks

8
Experimental Timeline
Latency is the time from presentation of the food
to first bite.
End Experiment Remove and weigh all foods
Foods removed, weighed, and returned to cages
Begin Experiment Insert 3 foods
800 AM
810
820
830
840
850
900
920
930
910
18 hour food deprivation
Two indices of palatability 1) Latency to eat
each food (minutes) 2) Intake of each food (grams)
Foods removed, weighed, and returned to cages
Statistical Tests RM ANOVA and S-N-K Multiple
Comparisons plt0.05
9
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10
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11
Results of Cafeteria Experiment
  • Palatability Hierarchy
  • RC OR lt FL

Next Experiment
3 Course Meal
Food Intake
Effects of Palatability on
Caloric Intake
12
Methods Sequence Experiment
1st Course 2nd Course 3rd Course
Sequence 1 RC OR FL
Sequence 2 RC FL OR
Sequence 3 OR RC FL
Sequence 4 OR FL RC
Sequence 5 FL RC OR
Sequence 6 FL OR RC
Counterbalanced over 7 weeks
13
Experimental Timeline
1st Course
2nd Course
3rd Course
850
910
940
1010
18 hr food Deprivation
14
Palatability Heirarchy RCORltFL
15
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16
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17
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18
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19
3.3 Cal/gram
5.0 Cal/gram
3.8 Cal/gram
20
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21

Hypotheses
  • (1) When offered 3 foods, Froot Loops will be the
    most palatable, Rat Chow the least, and Onion
    Rings will have an intermediate palatability.
  • (2) Offering a sequence of meals in which
    palatability increases with each meal will result
    in the greatest food and caloric intake.

22
  • But Eureka!
  • Course sequence does have an effect on the
    overall nutritional value of a multicourse meal.

23
Rats and Humans Differences
24
Rats and Humans Similarities
  • Both show Sensory Specific Satiety
  • Both tend to gorge on highly palatable foods.

25
Recall the Growing Problem of Overweight and
Obesity
  • Observation Easy access to highly palatable,
    energy dense foods promotes overeating.
  • Advice based on our research and understanding of
    SSS Eating the most nutritious courses first
    allows one to become satiated such that one
    consumes smaller amounts of less nutritious
    foods.

26
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27
Extra slides beyond this point
28
Who Cares?!
  • Overweight and obese people.
  • Portion control
  • Nutritional Value

29
Further Application NASA
  • Increase in space exploration
  • Astronauts spend more time in space
  • Change in cephalic fluid
  • Astronauts get sick and dont eat enough
  • Nutritional value

30
BIG PICTURE!
  • Changing course sequence in a meal can affect
    macronutrient intake

31
Have your cake and eat it TOO!!
But make sure you eat it LAST!!
32
Based on intake, which food is most
palatable? Least palatable?
  • Summary
  • Shorter latencies to eat OR and FL suggest
  • that these foods are more palatable than RC.

33
In a three-course meal, does the sequence of
food presentation affect total food or nutrient
intake or macronutrient intake?
  • Summary
  • When presented simultaneously, rats show a
    strong preference for Froot Loops.
  • RC and OR are of similar palatability.

34
Results
35
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36
The Essential Points
  • Overeating is a serious problem
  • Why do we overeat?
  • Need for study of feeding behaviors
  • An animal model of overeating
  • SSS and overeating
  • Do rats overeat?
  • Does palatibility contribute to overeating?
  • What effect does palatability have on food,
    caloric, and macronutrient intake?
  • Must establish relative palatabilities for 3
    foods?
  • Does the sequence of courses affect intake?
  • How is this information useful or beneficial?
  • What recommendations can be made based on our
    results?

37
What did we learn?
  • 3 food choices offered Froot loopsmost
    palatable, rat chowthe least, and
    funyunsintermediate
  • If offered 3 foods simultaneously, rats will eat
    to satiety on the most palatable food, eating
    very little of the less palatable foods.
  • After being food deprived, the order in which 3
    meals were offered did not effect the total food
    intake.
  • Changing the order in which you eat food has no
    effect on how much you eat.
  • Meal sequence does have an effect on the
    nutritional value of what you eat in a meal

38
Return to the Growing Problem of Overweight and
Obesity
  • Observation Easy access to highly palatable,
    energy dense foods promotes overeating.
  • Advise based on our research and understanding of
    SSS Eat more nutritious foods first, then can
    eat less dessert and feel just as satisfied.

39
Experimental Timeline
Course 1
Course 2
Course 3
18 hr food Deprivation
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