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TAKS Objective 2 The Human Body System (11th Grade Blitz)

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Title: TAKS Objective 2 (Blitz) The Human Body System Author: monika.martin Last modified by: christal.owens Created Date: 4/23/2009 6:41:18 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TAKS Objective 2 The Human Body System (11th Grade Blitz)


1
TAKS Objective 2 The Human Body System (11th
Grade Blitz)
2
Levels of Organization in Multicellular Organisms
3
Circulatory System
  • Transports oxygen (by hemoglobin in the red blood
    cells), nutrients, and needed materials to the
    cells transport wastes from cells to other parts
    of the body
  • Heart, blood vessels (arteries, capillaries,
    veins)

4
Circulatory System interacting with other systems
Digestive Blood carries digested nutrients to body cells.
Nervous The brain stem controls heart rate.
Skeletal Bone marrow produces blood cells,
Endocrine Blood carries hormones throughout the body.
Reproductive Nutrients diffuse through the placenta and are carried to the embryo through blood vessels in the umbilical cord.
Integumentary Platelets in the blood help close small cuts in the skin,
Immune White blood cells attack pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
Excretory Waste products are filtered from the blood in the kidneys.
Muscular The heart is largely composed of muscle tissue.
Respiratory Oxygen moves from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood to the lungs.
5
Digestive System
  • (also called Gastrointestinal tract) break down
    food chemically (with enzymes) and mechanically
    (chewing peristalsis) into nutrients the body
    can use. The nutrients are delivered to the
    blood stream through the the small intestines.
  • Mouth (tongue teeth, salivary glands), pharynx,
    esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
    intestine
  • Accessory organs liver, gall bladder, pancreas

6
Nervous System
  • Detect and respond to changes in the environment
    transmit information as electrochemical impulses
    throughout the body
  • Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • Cells of the nervous system which transmit the
    impulses are called neurons

7
Skeletal System
  • Support and movement of body, protect internal
    organs, produce blood cells (bone marrow)
  • Bones, cartilage

8
Endocrine System
  • Secrete hormones (chemicals) that work to
    regulate body functions and maintain homeostasis
    (balance)
  • Pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, thymus,
    thryroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, testes
    (males), ovaries (females)

9
Reproductive System
  • Produce offspring
  • Males testes, vas deferens, prostate gland,
    penis
  • Females ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus,
    vagina, breast

10
Integumentary System
  • Provide barrier between body and external
    environment help maintain homeostasis
  • Skin, hair, nails

11
Respiratory System
  • Brings oxygen into the body and eliminates and
    carbon dioxide (gas exchange) between body and
    external environment.
  • The gases travels through the blood stream
  • Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs,
    diaphragm

Gas exchange (CO2 with O2)
12
Respiratory System interacting with other systems
Digestive The pharynx serves as a passageway for both air and food.
Nervous The brain stem regulates breathing.
Skeletal The rib cage expands to help move air into the lungs.
Endocrine Hormones can contribute to asthma attacks.
Reproductive Breathing rate increases to provide the extra oxygen needed during labor.
Integumentary Cells lining the nostrils produce mucus that keeps the nearby tissue from drying out
Immune Mucus lining the respiratory passages helps trap pathogens.
Excretory The respiratory system removes the waste gas carbon dioxide from the body.
Muscular Contraction of the diaphragm helps move air into the lungs.
13
Muscular System
  • Move body and pump blood throughout the body
  • Heart and other muscles of the body

Pairs of opposing muscles work together to move
bones and joints. (i.e. When the bicep muscle
contracts, the triceps muscle relaxes and vice
versa).
14
Muscular System interacting with other systems
Digestive Muscles churn the stomach to aid in digestion.
Nervous Signals travel down the spinal cord to the muscles.
Skeletal The contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles moves bones.
Endocrine Hormones cause males to put on more muscle mass during puberty.
Reproductive Muscle contractions in the uterus push the fetus out during labor.
Integumentary Muscles raise the hair on the arms and legs to help retain heat.
Immune Sneezing involves involuntary muscle contractions.
Excretory Muscle contractions are involved in emptying the urinary bladder.
Respiratory Breathing rate increases during exercise to help meet the increased oxygen demand by skeletal muscles.
15
Excretory System (includes organs of the urinary,
integumentary respiratory digestive system)
  • Removes wastes
  • Kidneys, bladder, lungs, skin, intestines and
    rectum

16
Immune System
  • Protects body from diseases
  • lymph nodes, lymph vessels, White blood cells
    (helper T cells)

17
Lets try some practice questions!
18
A portion of the human excretory system is
represented in the diagram above. The order in
which urine flows through the system is   F.
urethra ???bladder ??ureter ??kidney G. ureter
??kidney ??bladder ??urethra H. kidney ??ureter
??bladder ??urethra J. bladder ??urethra
??kidney ??ureter
19
Which body system is directly responsible for
delivering nutrients to cells throughout the
body? A. Circulatory system B. Integumentary
system C. Endocrine system D. Respiratory system
20
Red marrow is the principal tissue that produces
red blood cells in humans. In which body system
is red marrow found? F. Integumentary system G.
Respiratory system H. Nervous system J.
Skeletal system
21
The diagram represents a human arm. Which
structure is most responsible for moving the arm
to a straighter position? A. Tendons of
origin B. Biceps C. Radius D. Triceps
22
Food is digested in the gastrointestinal tract to
provide nutrients to the body. In addition,
various hormones secreted from the lining of a
few digestive organs allow other organs to
function properly.
According to this information, some organs of the
gastrointestinal tract A. fit in more than
one organ system B. perform only one function at
a time C. supply the body with platelets D.
produce soluble vitamins
23
In the diagram above, one cell creates and
releases chemicals that travel to a second cell
and quickly induce that cell into action. This
diagram represents part of the A. endocrine
system B. skeletal system C. muscular system D.
nervous system
24
Hemoglobin carries oxygen to body cells. Which
body system contains hemoglobin? A. Circulatory
system B. Respiratory system C. Endocrine
system D. Nervous system
25
Nutrients from digested food move from the
digestive system directly into the A.
circulatory system B. integumentary system C.
excretory system D. endocrine system
26
When a person is frightened by a wild animal,
some organ systems immediately become active,
while others are suppressed. Which of these
systems is likely to be suppressed? F.
Muscular system G. Respiratory system H.
Endocrine system J. Digestive system
27
How is the circulatory system related to the
digestive system? F The brain stem controls the
heart rate. G Blood carries nutrients to body
cells. H Stomach muscles contract and expand. J
The pharynx is a passageway for air and food.
28
How is the excretory system most likely to
respond when an animal is thirsty? F. By
relaxing the smooth muscles G. By retaining body
fluids H. By absorbing heat from lymph glands J.
By releasing hormones
29
Because chewing begins the breakdown of food
before it is swallowed, digestion starts in the
mouth and throat. Which of the following systems
aids most in this early stage of digestion? A.
Immune system B. Excretory system C. Muscular
system D. Respiratory system
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