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Exam 3 Review Slides

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Title: Bio 211 Lecture 5 Subject: Cells Author: Greg Erianne Last modified by: Greg Created Date: 11/14/2002 7:21:14 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exam 3 Review Slides


1
Exam 3 Review Slides
  • Lectures 9-12
  • Chapters 5, 6, and 7

2
Types/Functions of Epithelial Tissue
  • Types of epithelium
  • Covering and Lining Epithelium
  • External Surfaces, e.g., skin, Internal surfaces
  • Glandular Epithelium
  • Functions of Epithelial Tissue
  • Physical protection
  • Control of permeability
  • Secretion, Absorption, Filtration
  • Provide sensation
  • Provide specialized secretions (glands)

3
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
  • Specialized contacts with other cells
  • Polarity (different ends of cell do different
    things)
  • Avascularity (no blood supply)
  • Regeneration (can divide to make new cells)
  • Cellularity (lots of cells in close contact)

Remember Epithelial tissues always have a free
surface and a basement membrane
4
Basal Lamina
Formerly called Basement membrane
Two components Lamina Lucida - glycoproteins
and fine protein filaments - Barrier for passage
of substances from underlying tissue
into epithelium Lamina Densa - bundles of
coarse protein fibers - gives basal lamina its
strength
Lamina thin layer
Figure from Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy
Physiology, Benjamin Cummings, 2004
5
Classification of Epithelial Tissues
Epithelial tissues are classified according to
both their
  • Shape
  • Squamous (Thin, flat, irregular in shape)
  • Cuboidal (Square or cuboidal)
  • Columnar (Rectangular, tall)
  • Type of layering (stratification)
  • Simple (one layer)
  • Stratified (two or more layers)
  • Note that classification of stratified epithelium
    is based on the shape of the superficial, not
    deep, layers

6
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue Specialized
Contacts
Tight junction forces substances to go through
cells, rather than being able to pass between
them Gap junction allow rapid passage of small
molecules/ions between cells Desmosome binds
cells together firmly so they stay connected
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
7
Review
NAME OF ET DESCRIPTION STRUCTURE LOCATION FUNCTION
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS a single layer of flattened cells linings of air sacs, capillaries, lymph vessels, body cavities covering ventral organs diffusion, reduction of friction
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL a single layer of cube-shaped cells with large centrally located nuclei linings of kidney tubules, ducts of glands absorption, secretion
SIMPLE COLUMNAR a single layer of tall cells with basally located nuclei, goblet cells, mucrovilli lining of intestine protection, absorption, secretion
PSEUDO- STRATIFIED COLUMNAR a single layer of tall cells with scattered nuclei, cilia, goblet cells lining of trachea, lining of fallopian tube protection, secretion
8
Review
NAME OF ET DESCRIPTION STRUCTURE LOCATION FUNCTION
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS many layers of flattened cells keratinized epidermis non-keratinized lining of vagina, anus, throat, mouth protection
TRANSITIONAL several layers of cells that change shape under pressure lining of urinary bladder and ureters Distensibility (able to stretch)
GLANDULAR simple cuboidal lining the ducts of glands secretion
9
Review of Epithelial Tissues
  • Glands are specialized epithelium
  • Secrete on to a surface (exocrine)
  • Secrete into a duct (exocrine)
  • Secrete into the blood (endocrine)
  • Exocrine glands have several different mechanisms
    of secretion
  • Merocrine
  • Release of product from vesicles by exocytosis
  • Apocrine
  • Loss of cytoplasm containing secretion Apical
    portion of cytoplasm is shed
  • Holocrine
  • Entire cell is packed with secretion and then
    bursts

10
Membranes
A membrane is a combination of epithelium and
connective tissue that covers and protects other
structures and tissues. Technically, then, a
membrane is an organ.
  • Serous
  • line body cavities that lack openings to outside
  • reduce friction
  • inner lining of thorax and abdomen
  • cover organs of thorax and abdomen
  • secrete serous fluid
  • Mucous
  • line tubes and organs that open to outside world
  • lining of mouth, nose, throat, digestive tract,
    etc.
  • secrete mucus
  • Synovial
  • surround joint cavities
  • Cutaneous
  • covers body
  • skin

11
Review
NAME OF CT DESCRIPTION LOCATION FUNCTION
MESENCHYME Embryo gives rise to all other CTs
AREOLAR gel-like matrix with fibroblasts, collagen and elastic fibers beneath ET (serous membranes around organs lining cavities) diffusion, cushioning organs
ADIPOSE closely packed adipocytes with nuclei pushed to one side by fats beneath skin, breasts, around kidneys eyeballs insulation, energy store, protection
RETICULAR network of reticular fibers in loose matrix basement membranes, lymphatic organs support
DENSE REGULAR dense matrix of collagen fibers tendons, ligaments attachment (high tensile strength)
DENSE IRREGULAR loose matrix of collagen fibers dermis of skin strength in several directions
12
Review
NAME OF CT DESCRIPTION LOCATION FUNCTION
ELASTIC CT matrix of elastic fibers lung tissue, wall of aorta durability with stretch
HYALINE CARTILAGE chondrocytes in lacunae in amorphous matrix embryonic. skeleton, costal cart, tip of nose, trachea, larynx support
FIBRO- CARTILAGE less firm than above intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis tensile strength, shock absorber
ELASTIC CARTILAGE above plus elastic fibers external ear, epiglottis shape maintenance plus flexibility
BONE concentric circles of calcified matrix Bones support, protection, movement, Ca storage, hematopoiesis
BLOOD red cells, white cells and platelets in liquid plasma in heart and blood vessels transport of nutrients, wastes gases
13
Connective Tissue (CT) Summary Table Three main
components of ALL CT cell, fibers, ground
substance
Name of CT Different types of this CT Main types of cells present Main types of fibers present Consistency of matrix Examples of Locations
CT Proper 1) Areolar (Loose) 2) Dense regular 3) Dense irregular 4) Adipose 5) Reticular 6) Elastic 1) Fibroblasts 2) Fibroblasts 3) Fibroblasts 4) Adipocytes 5) Fibroblasts 6) Fibroblasts 1) Collagen, Elastic 2) Collagen 3) Collagen 4) Reticular 5) Reticular 6) Elastic Semi-liquid 1) Skin, between muscles 2) Tendons, ligaments 3) Dermis 4) Body fat areas 5) Stroma of liver, spleen 6) Lungs, airways, arteries/heart
Cartilage 1) Hyaline 2) Fibrocartilage 3) Elastic (All) Chondrocytes 1) Collagen (sparse) 2) Collagen (dense) 3) Elastic Semi-solid, gelatinous 1) Ribs, ends of bones 2) Intervertebral disks 3) Pinna of ear, epiglottis
Bone 1) Dense 2) Spongy (All) Osteocytes Collagen Solid (hydroxyapatite) 1) Outer portions of bone 2) Inner portions of bone
Blood -- 1) RBCs 2) WBCs 3) Platelets (cell fragments) Fibrinogen (soluble) Liquid Blood vessels, heart
Lymph -- Lymphocytes Reticular (in stroma of lymphoid organs) Liquid Lymph vessels
-cyte fully differentiated -blast young,
actively synthesizing cell
14
Connective Tissue - Major Cell Types
  • Fibroblasts
  • fixed cell
  • most common cell always in CT proper
  • large, star-shaped
  • produce fibers
  • produce ground substance
  • Macrophages
  • wandering cell
  • phagocytic
  • important in defense
  • derived from circulating monocytes

15
Connective Tissue Fibers
  • Collagenous fibers
  • thick
  • composed of collagen
  • great tensile strength
  • hold structures together
  • abundant in dense CT
  • tendons, ligaments
  • Elastic fibers
  • bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin
  • fibers branch
  • elasticity
  • vocal cords, air passages
  • Reticular fibers
  • very thin collagenous fibers
  • highly branched
  • form supportive networks

16
The Ground Substance of CT
glucosamine
VERY hydrophilic! Very active in controlling
passage of substances through this portion of the
matrix and keeping CT hydrated
GAGs glycosaminoglycans (negatively charged
polysaccharides) a major molecule in ground
substance
Figures from Alberts et al., Essential Cell
Biology, Garland Press, 1998
17
Tendons and Ligaments
Tendons Connect muscle to bone Ligaments
Connect bone to bone Aponeuroses Broad,
fibrous sheets usually attach muscle to muscle
(or bone)
18
CT Framework of the Body
Fascia connects the organs of the dorsal and
ventral cavities with the rest of the body
Provide - Strength - Stability - Organ
position - Conduits
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
19
Muscle Overview
  • General characteristics
  • Elongated cells with special properties
  • Muscle cells (myocytes) muscle fibers
  • Contractile (major property of all muscle)
  • Use actin (thin) and myosin (thick) for
    contraction
  • Three types of muscle tissue
  • Cardiac (involuntary)
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth

20
Review of Muscle Types
NAME OF MUSCLE TISSUE DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE TYPE OF CONTROL LOCATION FUNCTION
SKELETAL MUSCLE long, thin fibers with many nuclei and striations Voluntary attached to bones to move bones
SMOOTH MUSCLE spindle shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus, lacking striations Involuntary walls of visceral hollow organs, irises of eyes, walls of blood vessels to move substances through passageways (i.e. food, urine, semen), constrict blood vessels, etc
CARDIAC MUSCLE a network of striated cells with one centrally located nucleus attached by intercalated discs - Intercalated disks consist of gap junctions and desmosomes Involuntary heart pump blood to lungs and body
21
Nervous Tissue
  • found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral
    nerves
  • conduction of nerve impulses
  • basic cells are neurons
  • sensory reception
  • neuroglial cells are supporting cells

22
Introduction to Inflammation
Restoration of homeostasis after tissue injury or
infections involves two processes 1)
inflammation and 2) repair.
Hallmarks of inflammation Redness, heat, pain,
swelling, and loss of function (Inflammation
-itis)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
23
Functions of the Integumentary System
  • Functions of the integument
  • Protection (from mechanical/chemical/bacterial
    damage, UV radiation)
  • Temperature regulation (extreme heat, extreme
    cold) and Fluid conservation
  • Excretion
  • Vitamin D production
  • Sensation (touch, pressure)

24
Layers of the Epidermis - Overview
25
Thick and Thin Skin
Thin (0.07-0.12 mm) (epidermal thickness)
Thick (0.8-1.4 mm) (epidermal thickness)
Thick skin - palms of hands, soles of feet five
epidermal layers
Thin skin - everywhere else four epidermal
layers (no s. lucidum)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
26
Cells of the Epidermis
  • Epidermis of the skin is classified as a
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  • Cells of the epidermis include
  • Keratinocytes (90)
  • Keratin a tough, fibrous intracellular protein
    (protection)
  • Lamellar granules (waterproofing, extracellular)
  • Melanocytes (8)
  • Produce melanin (protection from UV radiation)
  • Langerhans cells (1-2)
  • Migrate to skin from bone marrow
  • Participate in skins immune response (dendritic
    cells)
  • Merkel cells (lt 1)
  • Least numerous specialized epithelial cells
  • Function in sensation of touch

27
Skin Color
  • Genetic Factors
  • varying amounts and type of melanin
  • varying size/number of melanin granules
  • albinos lack melanin (but not melanocytes!)
  • Physiological Factors
  • dilation of dermal blood vessels (erythema)
  • constriction of dermal blood vessels (less pink,
    pale pallor)
  • level of oxygenation of blood normal pink
    (fair-skinned) low bluish (cyanosis)
  • carotene -gt Vit A (yellow)
  • jaundice (yellow)
  • Environmental Factors
  • sunlight
  • UV light from sunlamps
  • X rays

28
Skin Color and Melanin
Dark-skinned
Fair-skinned
Melanocytes produce melanin - tyrosine ?
melanin - UV radiation up-regulates production
of melanin - Caucasian vs. dark-skinned
number vs. activity layer of epidermis
Figure from Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy
Physiology, Pearson Education, 2004
29
Keratin and Vitamin D
  • Keratin
  • Protection
  • Water resistance
  • Vitamin D3 (sunshine vitamin)
  • After UV irradiation epidermal cells in s.
    spinosum and s. basale convert a
    cholesterol-related steroid to Vit D3
    (cholecalciferol)
  • Vit D3 ? absorption of calcium and phosphorus
    by small intestine

30
Dermis
Papillary layer - areolar connective tissue
(CT) - capillaries and sensory neurons - dermal
papillae - fingerprints (with epi.
ridges) Reticular layer - dense, irregular CT -
collagen fiber bundles extend upward and
downward - also contains elastic fibers and
cells of CT proper - accessory organs of
integumentary system (from epi.) - cleavage or
tension lines - flexure lines
Figure adapted from Martini, Anatomy
Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001
31
Subcutaneous Layer
Basal lamina
- Stabilization of dermis
- INSULATION
- Areolar and adipose tissue
Also called hypodermis. This is the superficial
fascia.
- Effect of hormones
- Reservoir of blood
32
Hair (pilo-)
  • epidermal cells
  • tube-like depression
  • extends into dermis
  • hair root (in dermis)
  • hair shaft (outer 1/3)
  • hair papilla
  • dead epidermal cells

(from epidermis)
  • melanin
  • arrector pili muscle

Nerves in root hair plexus
A hair in the scalp grows for 2-5 years, about
0.33mm/day
33
Hair Follicles
Hair color
Types of hair 1. Lanugo long, blond, fine
(fetal, anorexia nervosa) 2. Vellus short,
blond (children) 3. Terminal course,
pigmented (adults)
Some hair color
Figure adapted from Martini, Anatomy
Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001
34
Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
  • usually associated with hair follicles
  • holocrine glands
  • secrete sebum, a waxy, oily material
  • inhibits growth of bacteria
  • lubricates and protects keratin of hair shaft,
    and conditions skin

Sebaceous follicles not associated with hair.
Discharge directly on to skin. On face, back,
chest, nipples and male sex organs.
  • absent on palms and soles

35
Sweat Glands
  • also called sudoriferous glands

Sweating with wetness diaphoresis
  • apocrine (merocrine secr.) glands - associated
    with hair follicles - thick, odorous secretion
  • eccrine (merocrine secr.) glands - most
    numerous - palms, soles, forehead, neck,
    back - directly on to surface - watery
    secretion - for thermoregulation
  • ceruminous glands

Specialized (apocrine secretion)
  • mammary glands

36
Nails
(Perionychium)
Figure from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology,
McGraw Hill, 2007
Know these terms
Hyponychium
37
Regulation of Body Temperature
Hyperthermia Abnormally high body
temperature May be caused by - environment
(heat, humidity) - illness (fever gt37.20C,
pyrexia) - anesthesia (malignant h.) Corrected
by loss of heat by radiation, convection,
conduction, evaporation Heat exhaustion
(prostration) - Fatigue - Dizziness -
Headache - Muscle cramps - Nausea - May
lead to heat stroke
38
Regulation of Body Temperature
Hypothermia Abnormally low body temperature (at
least 20C below normal body temp) May be caused
by - exposure to cold (primary) - illness
(secondary) - surgical induction
(clinical) Cardiac arrest is likely if
temperature falls below 28oC (82oF) Corrected by
mechanisms to retain body heat (see left)
39
Healing of Cuts
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
1. Bleeding/clotting
2. Scab formation
Tissue repair can occur by either 1)
regeneration healing with tissue that was
originally present 2) fibrosis healing with
scar tissue (carried out by fibroblasts)
40
Healing of Cuts
4. Shedding of scab covering of wound with
epithelium
3. Epidermal cell migration and collagen
production
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
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