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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS

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Title: CHAPTER # Author: Stephen Haag Last modified by: Penn State University Created Date: 6/24/1997 9:36:12 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS


1
Chapter 2
  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS
  • Supporting Information Processing

2
IT Is Now a Part of Almost Every Organization
Introduction
2-2
  • Some IT systems simply process transactions
  • Some help managers make decisions
  • Some support the interorganizational flow of
    information
  • Some support team work

3
Lecture Focus
Introduction
2-3
  • Organizations and Their Structures
  • The Nature of Information in an Organization (and
    Decentralized Computing)
  • IT systems in an Organization and the Tasks They
    Perform

4
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5
THE TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
An Organization
2-4
STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT
TACTICAL
OPERATIONAL
NONMANAGEMENT
6
THE TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
An Organization
2-5
  • 1.STRATEGIC MGMT - provides overall direction and
    guidance.
  • 2.TACTICAL MGMT - develops the goals and
    strategies outlined by strategic mgmt.
  • 3.OPERATIONAL MGMT - manages and directs the
    day-to-day operations.
  • 4.NONMANAGEMENT - those people who actually
    perform daily activities.

7
When Considering Information, You Need to
Understand...
Information
2-7
  • The concept of shared information through
    decentralized computing
  • The directional flow of information
  • What information specifically describes
  • The information-processing tasks your
    organization undertakes

8
SHARED INFORMATION AND DECENTRALIZED COMPUTING
Information
2-8
  • As late as the early 1980s, most organizations
    exhibited centralized computing and isolated
    information. That is...
  • Large central mainframe computers that performed
    all tasks.
  • Separate files of information for each
    application or system.
  • So, computing power was centralized while
    information remained isolated.

9
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10
SHARED INFORMATION AND DECENTRALIZED COMPUTING
Information
2-9
  • During the early to mid 1980s, most organizations
    exhibited decentralized computing and isolated
    information. That is...
  • Smaller, more powerful computers that were
    distributed to functional business areas.
  • These computers still maintained separate files
    of information for each application.
  • So, computing power was decentralized while
    information remained isolated.

11
(No Transcript)
12
SHARED INFORMATION AND DECENTRALIZED COMPUTING
Information
2-10
  • Sharing of information utilizing databases.
  • This bringing together of information is
    accomplished by using databases.
  • Databases support the concept of shared
    information.
  • So, computing power is now decentralized and
    information is shared.

13
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14
(No Transcript)
15
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16
Information
2-11
HOW INFORMATION FLOWS
  • Upward Flow of Information - current info
  • Downward Flow of Information - directions/goals
    from higher ups
  • Horizontal Flow of Information - between
    functional business units and work teams.

See Figure 2.5 on page 46
17
(No Transcript)
18
WHAT INFORMATION DESCRIBES
Information
2-12
  • INTERNAL INFORMATION - describes specific
    operational aspects of the organization.
  • EXTERNAL INFORMATION - describes the environment
    surrounding the organization.
  • OBJECTIVE INFORMATION - quantifiably describes
    something that is known.
  • SUBJECTIVE INFORMATION - attempts to describe
    something that is currently unknown.

19
INFORMATION-PROCESSING TASKS
Information
2-13
  • 1.Capturing information - at its point of origin.
  • 2.Conveying information - in its most useful
  • form.
  • 3.Creating information - to obtain new
  • information.
  • 4.Cradling information - for use at a later time.
  • 5.Communicating information - to other
  • people or another location.

20
Ways of Creating Information
Information
2-14
  • 1.TRANSACTION PROCESSING - the processing of
    transactions that occur within an organization.
  • Example computing payroll and sales tax
  • 2.ANALYTICAL PROCESSING - creating information to
    support your decision-making tasks.
  • Example how to allocate investment dollars

21
THE SEVEN IT SYSTEMS IN AN ORGANIZATION
IT Systems
2-15
1.Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) 2.Customer
Integrated Systems (CIS) 3.Management Information
Systems (MIS) 4.Workgroup Support Systems
(WSS) 5.Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) 6.Executive
Information Systems (EIS) 7.Interorganizational
Systems (IOS)
22
TPSs
2-16
TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM (TPS)
  • a system that processes transactions that occur
    within an organization.
  • Capturing information
  • Creating information
  • Cradling information
  • Conveying information (secondary)

23
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24
TPS CHARACTERISTICS
TPSs
2-17
  • Heart of every organization.
  • Provide the primary interface to customers.
  • Found in all functions of an organization.
  • If they fail, the whole organization suffers.

25
CISs
2-18
CUSTOMER INTEGRATED SYSTEM (CIS)
  • an extension of a TPS that places technology in
    the hands of an organizations customers and
    allows them to process their own transactions.
  • Capturing information
  • Creating information
  • Cradling information
  • Communicating information
  • Conveying information (secondary)

26
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27
CIS CHARACTERISTICS
CISs
2-19
  • Are at the very heart of every organization.
  • Are the new primary interface to customers.
  • Represent a further decentralization of computing
    power by placing that power in the hands of
    customers.
  • Will forever change the relationship between
    organization and customer.

28
MISs
2-20
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)
  • a system that provides periodic and predetermined
    reports that summarize information within a
    database.
  • Creating information
  • Conveying information

29
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30
MIS CHARACTERISTICS
MISs
2-21
  • Alert people to the existence of problems or
    opportunities.
  • Report Types
  • PERIODIC - produced at a predetermined time
    interval.
  • SUMMARIZED - aggregate information in some way.
  • EXCEPTION - show only a subset of available
    information.
  • COMPARATIVE - show two or more sets of similar
    information.

31
(No Transcript)
32
WSSs
2-22
WORKGROUP SUPPORT SYSTEM (WSS)
  • a system that is designed specifically to improve
    the performance of teams by supporting the
    sharing and flow of information.
  • Communicating information

33
WSS CHARACTERISTICS
WSSs
2-23
  • Supports the sharing, dissemination, and flow of
    information.
  • Supports both
  • Project teams - that solve a specific problem or
    take advantage of a specific opportunity and then
    disband to move on to other projects.
  • Permanent teams - people from all departments
    that perform a flow of work consistently.
  • Contains groupware.

34
GROUPWARE
WSSs
2-24
the popular term for the software that supports
the collaborative efforts of a team. Groupware
Supports Three Functions (See Figure 2.11 page
58) 1. Team Dynamics 2. Document
Management 3. Applications Development
35
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36
GROUPWARE SUPPORT FOR TEAM DYNAMICS
WSSs
2-25
  • Email
  • ELECTRONIC MEETING SUPPORT - shared scheduling,
    NetMeeting

37
ELECTRONIC MEETING SUPPORT SOFTWARE
WSSs
2-26
  • GROUP SCHEDULING - shared schedules
  • ELECTRONIC MEETING - online virtual meeting
  • VIDEOCONFERENCING - allows face-to-face
  • Electronic WHITEBOARD

38
GROUPWARE SUPPORT FOR DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT
WSSs
2-27
  • GROUP DOCUMENT DATABASE -
  • Contains documents from many teams
  • Supports many levels of security
  • Can store information in a variety of forms

39
(No Transcript)
40
GROUPWARE SUPPORT FOR APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT
WSSs
2-28
  • APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT FACILITIES - a wealth of
    basic building blocks that you can use to create
    applications quickly, so teams can literally get
    to work.
  • Prewritten - commonly performed functions
  • Programming tools - for creating unique
    applications
  • WORK FLOW AUTOMATION SOFTWARE - designed to
    automate the flow of business documents in a
    specific work process or procedure.

41
DSS AI
2-29
DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (DSS) ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  • DSS - designed to support decision making when
    the problem is not structured.
  • AI - the science of making machines imitate human
    thinking and behavior.
  • Creating information
  • Conveying information (secondary)

42
(No Transcript)
43
DSSs AND AI INCLUDE...
DSS AI
2-30
  • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) - a DSS
    designed specifically to work with spatial
    information.
  • GENETIC ALGORITHM - an AI system that mimics the
    evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to
    generate increasingly better solutions to a
    problem.
  • EXPERT SYSTEM - an AI system that applies
    reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion.

44
EISs
2-31
EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM (EIS)
  • a highly interactive MIS combined with decision
    support systems and artificial intelligence for
    helping managers identify and address problems
    and opportunities.
  • Creating information
  • Conveying information

45
(No Transcript)
46
EIS CHARACTERISTICS
EISs
2-32
  • Make use of a data warehouse.
  • Support drill down capabilities.
  • Help identify information responsibility.
  • Use DSS and AI tools.
  • Provide access to a variety of information.

47
IOSs
2-34
INTERORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM (IOS)
  • automates the flow of information between
    organizations to support the planning, design,
    development, production, and delivery of products
    and services.
  • Communicating information

48
IOS CHARACTERISTICS
IOSs
2-35
  • Supports ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) - the
    direct computer-to-computer transfer of
    transaction information contained in standard
    business documents.
  • Allows many organizations to create an economies
    of scale in technology.
  • Provides a way for organizations to team up and
    create new products and services.

49
TO SUMMARIZE
2-36
  • Organizations
  • Consist of various levels of management and
    nonmanagement employees
  • Have depth
  • Shared Information Through Decentralized
    Computing
  • All an organizations information is made
    available to anyone who needs it (shared
    information).
  • Computing power is spread throughout the
    organization (decentralized computing).

50
TO SUMMARIZE
2-37
  • Information in an organization flows upward,
    downward, and horizontally.
  • Information can be internal, external, objective,
    subjective, or some combination of the four.
  • Information-processing tasks include capturing,
    conveying, creating, cradling, and communicating.
  • Transaction processing and analytical processing
    are both ways to create information.

51
TO SUMMARIZE
2-38
CAPTURE CONVEY CREATE CRADLE
COMMU-

NICATE TPS XX
XX XX CIS
XX XX
XX XX MIS
XX XX WSS

XX DSSAI
XX EIS
XX XX IOS

XX
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