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Medieval Culture and Achievements

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Title: Slide 1 Author: nSight User Last modified by: STONEMAN DOUGLAS HIGH SCHOOL Created Date: 3/6/2009 8:00:10 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Culture and Achievements


1
Medieval Culture and Achievements
2
Objectives
  • Explain the emergence of universities and their
    importance to medieval life.
  • Understand how newly translated writings from
    the past and from other regions influenced
    medieval thought.
  • Describe the literature, architecture, and art of
    the High and late Middle Ages.

3
Terms and People
  • scholasticism medieval school of thought that
    used logic and reason to support Christian
    beliefs
  • Thomas Aquinas scholastic who wrote the Summa
    theologica and concluded that faith and reason
    exist in harmony
  • vernacular the everyday language of ordinary
    people
  • Dante Alighieri Italian poet who wrote the
    Divine Comedy

4
Terms and People (continued)
  • Geoffrey Chaucer English writer of The
    Canterbury Tales
  • Gothic style a style of architecture that used
    flying buttresses to support higher, thinner
    walls and left space for stained-glass windows
  • flying buttresses stone supports that stood
    outside a Gothic church
  • illumination the artistic decoration of books

5
What achievements in learning, literature, and
the arts characterized the High and late Middle
Ages?
Universities began springing up in Europe in the
1100s. They brought prestige and profit to their
cities. As economic and political conditions
improved, learning and culture began to flourish.
6

Monarchs needed literate, educated men to run
their growing bureaucracies. To supply them,
schools appeared, and some became universities.
By the 1100s, the European food supply had grown
more reliable, and trade had increased.
7
The earliest universities were founded at Salerno
and Bologna in Italy, in Paris, and at Oxford.
Students lives were far from comfortable. They
rose early and worked hard to memorize Latin
texts.
500 A.M. Prayers, then five hours of class
1000 A.M. First meal, then seven hours of class
500 P.M. Light supper, study until bed
8
A typical program of study included grammar,
logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy,
and music. Students could pursue further study
in law, medicine, or theology.
9
Women were not allowed to attend universities.
  • Some women did receive educations in convents.
  • Christine de Pisan, a noblewoman of the 1300s,
    got an excellent education from her family and
    supported herself through writing. She promoted
    womens rights and accomplishments.

10
Prior to the 1100s, Muslim scholars had
translated and spread the work of Aristotle and
other Greeks.
  • These were eventually translated into Latin and
    reached Western Europe.
  • The ancient texts, which championed reason over
    faith, challenged Christian scholars.

11
To resolve the conflict between reason and faith,
Christian scholars developed scholasticism, which
used reason to support Christian beliefs.
The most famous scholastic was Thomas Aquinas,
who wrote the Summa theologica. He concluded that
faith and reason existed in harmony and that God
ruled over an ordered, logical universe.
12
Scientific works from ancient Greece and Rome
also reached Europe at this time.
  • Europeans adopted Hindu-Arabic numerals, which
    were easier to use than Roman numerals.
  • Europeans studied Greek geometry and medicine, as
    well as works by Arab scientists.
  • Science made slow progress, however, because
    people believed knowledge had to fit with
    Christian teachings.

13

Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy is an epic poem
that describes a journey through hell, purgatory,
and heaven.
New writings began to appear in the vernacular
language.
In Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales, a group
of pilgrims of varied jobs and social classes
tell stories while traveling to the tomb of
Thomas Becket.
14
Builders developed the Gothic style of
architecture in the 1100s. Flying buttresses
allowed for higher, thinner walls. Gothic
cathedrals soared to incredible heights.
Gothic cathedrals, such as Notre Dame in Paris,
contain beautiful stained-glass windows.
15
Other arts flourished during this time.
  • Gothic religious paintings in churches and in
    wealthy homes were not realistic but symbolized
    religious ideas.
  • Monks and other artisans decorated books with
    intricate designs and pictures, an art known as
    illumination.
  • Artists created woven wall hangings called
    tapestries to keep the cold out of castles.
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