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Special educational needs and/or disabilities Training toolkit


Special educational needs and/or disabilities Training toolkit PGCE courses Statutory requirements PGCE session 1 Learning outcomes You will: examine what is meant by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special educational needs and/or disabilities Training toolkit

Special educational needs and/or
disabilitiesTraining toolkit
PGCE courses Statutory requirements PGCE
session 1
Learning outcomes
  • You will
  • examine what is meant by SEN and disabilities
  • reflect on your own attitudes, values and
    beliefs about inclusion
  • identify the key features of an inclusive
    learning environment
  • consider changes in attitudes towards pupils
    with SEN and/or disabilities
  • understand how schools make reasonable
    adjustments for pupils with SEN and/or

Learning outcome
Activity 1
  • You will understand the concept of special
    educational needs

Definition of specialeducational needs
  • Children have special educational needs if they
    have a learning difficulty which calls for
    special educational provision to be made for
    them. Children have a learning difficulty if they
    have a significantly greater difficulty in
    learning than the majority of children of the
    same age or have a disability which prevents or
    hinders them from using educational facilities of
    a kind generally provided for children of the
    same age in schools in their areas.
  • DfES, 2001

Areas of need from the SEN Code of Practice 2001
  • Cognition and learning
  • Communication and interaction
  • Behavioural, emotional and social
  • Sensory and physical

Learning outcomes
Activity 2
  • You will
  • know some definitions of disability
  • understand the differences between social and
    medical models of disability

Definition of disability from Disability
Discrimination Act 1995
  • Disabled pupils are those who have a physical
    or mental impairment which has a substantial and
    long-term adverse effect on the ability to carry
    out normal day-to-day activities.

Definition of disability
  • Physical or mental impairment includes sensory
    and hidden impairments
  • In the DDA substantial means more than minor
    or trivial long-term means it has lasted or
    is likely to last more than 12 months

DDA 2005
  • Introduced a duty on schools requiring them to
  • promote equality of opportunity for disabled
  • have a disability equality scheme
  • Established that certain conditions are
    automatically classed as disabilities

Brief history of inclusion part 1
  • 19th century idiots, imbeciles and
    feeble-mindedkept in hospitals
  • 1970 Education (Handicapped Children) Act took
    severely subnormal children from healthcare into
  • 1981 Education Act introduced the definitions of
    special educational needs and special
    educational provision
  • 1994 Salamanca statement on the rights of
    children with SEN to a mainstream school place
  • 1994 SEN Code of Practice set out procedures for
    assessing pupils SEN and making provision for

Brief history of inclusion part 2
  • 2000 National curriculum inclusion statement
  • 2001 SEN Code of Practice updated and Inclusive
    Schoolings framework for inclusion introduced
  • 2002 Disability discrimination law extended to
  • 2004 Removing barriers to achievement
    embedding inclusive practice into every school
  • 2005 Disability equality duty and schemes

Learning outcomes
Activity 3
  • You will
  • think about the feelings associated with
    inclusionand exclusion
  • identify features of an inclusive learning
  • understand the relevance of the ECM outcomesto

Exclusion and SEN
  • In 2007/08 there were
  • 8,130 permanent exclusions from English schools
  • 383,820 fixed period exclusions
  • Pupils with SEN are eight times more likely to be
    permanently excluded from school than the rest of
    the school population

ECM outcomes
  • Being healthy
  • Staying safe
  • Enjoying and achieving
  • Making a positive contribution
  • Achieving economic well-being

Learning outcomes
Activity 4
  • You will
  • understand the SEN duties set out in the SEN Code
    of Practice 2001
  • know the key elements of an effective education

Key people in school with SEN responsibilities
  • Headteacher
  • All teaching and non-class-based support staff
  • Curriculum leaders
  • Governing body
  • SEN governor

Role of the SENCO
  • Oversees the day-to-day operation of the schools
    SEN policy
  • Coordinates provision for pupils with SEN
  • Liaises with teachers
  • Manages teaching assistants
  • Oversees the records of pupils with SEN
  • Liaises with parents/carers
  • Contributes to in-service training
  • Liaises with outside agencies

A graduated approach
  • School Action
  • School Action Plus
  • Statement of SEN

School Action
  • Interventions that are additional to or different
    from those provided as part of a schools
    normal differentiated curriculum offer and
  • Parents must be informed

School Action Plus
  • Interventions at School Action are not working
  • Advice from external services likely to be sought
  • SENCO and others collaborate on providing
    different approaches and teaching materials

Key elements of effectiveeducation plans
  • Indication of pupils strengths and interests
  • A few clearly worded targets
  • Timescale for reviewing progress
  • Success criteria
  • Strategies for providing additional and
    different approaches

An education plan worksbest when
  • it is well written
  • everyone teaching the pupil knows the targets and
    implements the plans when preparing lessons
  • the pupil and parents/carers are involved in the
    plans preparation and review
  • review of success is carried out with care and
    any necessary changes to provision are made
  • targets and strategies are supported by a
    whole-school approach to curriculum and learning

Statutory assessment
  • Only necessary if the school cannot provide all
    the help a pupil needs
  • Initiated by parents, schools or external
  • Local authority collects evidence to assess
    pupils needs and decide if a statement is
  • If necessary, a statement of SEN is drawn up
  • Statement sets out the pupils needs and the
    provision that must be made to meet them

DCSF Statistical BulletinSpecial Educational
Needs in England 2009
Year Pupils with SEN but no statement Pupils with statements
2006 2007 2008 2009 1,293,250 1,333,430 1,390,670 1,433,940 236,700 229,110 223,610 221,671 All pupils (2009) 8 million
Learning outcomes
Activity 5
  • You will understand
  • the legal requirements that relate to the
    education of disabled pupils
  • the meaning of less favourable treatment and
    reasonable adjustments

Three key elements in disability discrimination
Part 3 Provision of goods and services 1995
Part 4 Education 2001
Part 2 Employment 1995
Which are covered by the schools duties in the
  • a) teaching and learning
  • b) a theatre visit
  • c) lunchtimes
  • d) exclusions
  • Which types of school are covered by the DDA?

Who and what is covered?
  • Disabled pupils and potential pupils
  • All schools, including independent schools
  • Every aspect of school life - admissions,
    education and associated services, exclusions

Two key duties
  • Responsible bodies must
  • not treat disabled pupils less favourably
  • make reasonable adjustments for disabled pupils

Definition lessfavourable treatment
  • Disability discrimination is
  • for a reason related to the pupils disability
  • less favourable treatment than others
  • when it cannot be justified

Reasonable adjustments
  • To ensure there is no substantial disadvantage
  • Comparison with pupils who are not disabled
  • Justification
  • Anticipatory duty

Which of the following might be a reasonable
  • Choosing an accessible venue for a school trip
  • Playing football with a sounding ball
  • Swapping classroom accommodation around
  • Setting up a buddy system
  • Planning lessons so that all pupils make progress
  • Demolishing the school and rebuilding it as a
    single-storey building

Examples from the DRCCode of Practice
  • Is the less favourable treatment for a reason
    related to the pupils disability?
  • Is it justified?

Some of the issues
  • Assumptions about disabled pupils
  • Policies
  • Lack of risk assessments
  • Administration of medicines
  • School trips
  • Isolation from peers
  • Punishment for behaviour related to disability
  • Bullying
  • Access to the curriculum
  • Selection arrangements

Accessibility plans
  • Schools must plan
  • increased access to the curriculum
  • improvements to the physical environment to
    increase access
  • improvements in the provision of informationfor
    disabled pupils

Disability equality schemes
  • Introduced by the DDA in 2005
  • Cover all disabled people who may use the school
    and its facilities
  • Action plan and success criteria required
  • Accessibility plan is frequently incorporated

Learning outcomes
Activity 6
  • You will understand
  • how the reasonable adjustments duty applies in a
    wide variety of contexts
  • that reasonable adjustments are made to overcome
    particular barriers
  • the features of schools that enable teachers to
    make successful reasonable adjustments

Jakes sports day
Barrier Reasonable adjustment
Not knowing what to do Planning with pupil, parent,other agencies, DfES CD ROM
Cant access activity Parallel activities
Fear of risk Risk assess support of teaching assistant
Activities cause fatigue Reorder activities
Learning outcomes
Activity 7
  • You will reflect on
  • your own personal definition of inclusion
  • key learning points from the session

Key learning points
  • SEN arise from an interaction between
    thewithin-child factors and the
    characteristicsof the learning environment
  • The learning environment can enableor
    disable pupils
  • Teachers can minimise the disabling impact of
    within-child factors or barriers in the
    environment by making reasonable adjustments

Key learning points (continued)
  • Adjustments may be to the curriculum, school
    organisation, accommodation or teaching methods
  • Inclusion means creating a school community
    inwhich everyone is valued and all pupils can
    achieve their best
  • It is the responsibility of every teacher to make
    teaching and the learning environment as enabling
    and inclusive as possible

Standards addressed
  • Q1 Having high expectations of children and
    young people
  • Q3a Being aware of the professional duties of
    teachers and the statutory framework within which
    they work
  • Q13 Knowing how to use local and national
    statistical information to evaluate the
    effectiveness of their teaching, to monitor the
    progress of those they teach and to raise levels
    of attainment

Standards addressed (continued)
  • Q18 Understanding how children and young people
  • Q19 Knowing how to make effective personalised
    provision for those they teach and promoting
    equality and inclusion in their teaching
  • Q30 Establishing a purposeful and safe learning
    environment conducive to learning
  • Q32 Working as a team member and identifying
    opportunities for working with colleagues
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