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TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY

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Title: TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY


1
Workshop
  • TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY

5 July 2011 Programme Sustainable Economic
Development and Employment Promotion (EEP)
2
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agriculture
6
3
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy?
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agricultue
6
4
What is Green Economy
UNEP defines a green economy as one that
results in improved human well-being and
social equity, while significantly reducing
environmental risks and ecological scarcities.
A green economy is gt low carbon gt resource
efficient gt socially inclusive
3
5
What is Green Economy
  • In a green economy, growth in income and
    employment should be driven by public and private
    investments that
  • reduce carbon emissions and pollution,
  • enhance energy and resource efficiency,
  • prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem
    services.

3
6
Global momentum for transition to a green economy
Climate Change
Accelerating carbon emissions indicate a mounting
threat of climate change, with potentially
disastrous human consequences. These crises are
impacting the possibility of sustaining
prosperity worldwide and they are also
compounding persistent social problems, such as
job losses, socioeconomic insecurity, disease,
and social instability.
7
  • The causes of these crises vary, but at a
    fundamental level they all share a common
    feature the gross misallocation of capital.
  • During the last two decades, much capital was
    poured into property, fossil fuels and structured
    financial assets with embedded derivatives.
  • However, relatively little in comparison was
    invested in renewable energy, energy efficiency,
    public transportation, sustainable agriculture,
    ecosystem and biodiversity protection, and land
    and water conservation.

8
  • By depleting the worlds stock of natural
    wealth often irreversibly this pattern of
    development and growth has had detrimental
    impacts on the wellbeing of current generations
    and presents tremendous risks and challenges for
    the future.
  • Today only 20 of commercial fish stocks,
    primarily low priced species, are underexploited
    52 are fully exploited with no further room for
    expansion about 20 are overexploited and 8
    are depleted . Water is becoming scarce and
    water stress is projected to increase with water
    supply satisfying only 60 of world demand in 20
    years.
  • Agriculture saw increasing yields primarily due
    to the use of chemical fertilizers, yet has
    resulted in declining soil quality, land
    degradation and deforestation which resulted in
    13 million hectares of forest lost annually over
    1990-2005.

4
9
Brown Economy
Currently, enabling conditions are heavily
weighted towards, and encourage, the prevailing
brown economy, which depends excessively on
fossil fuels, resource depletion, and
environmental degradation A brown economy
is one which is gt high carbon gt
resource inefficient and gt socially
exclusive. With other words a brown economy is
the one we have practiced the last 150 years all
over the world. Rising and related problems
of congestion, pollution, and poorly provisioned
services affect the productivity and health of
all.
4
10
  • Possibilities of a transition to a Green
    Economy.
  • Investing in natural capital
  • Agriculture, fisheries, water, forestry
  • II Investing in energy and resource efficiency
  • Renewable energy, manufacturing, waste,
    buildings, transport, tourism, cities

11
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agricultue
6
12
  • Greening the energy sector focuses on renewable
    energy supply.
  • Ranges of fossil energies
  • The end ist in sight. Fossil energies are finite.
    The transition to renewable energies is a must.
  • Uranium 30 years
  • Oil 40 years
  • Gas 60 years
  • Coal 200 years
    __________________________
    ___
  • Sun 5.000.000.000 years

13
Part of global energy demand renewable energies
can cover (in)
  • Sun 380
  • Geothermal 100
  • Wind Energy 50
  • Biomass 40
  • Flow Hydropower 15
  • Ocean Energy 5
  • on basis of currently available
    technologies

14
The State of development of alternative energy
sources
  • Greening the energy sector focuses on renewable
    energy supply.
  • In Ukraine, the total annual energy potential of
    technically feasible alternative energy sources
    is about 63 million tons c.e. The using of
    non-traditional energy sources would allow
    Ukraine to replace fossil fuel by 40, including
    Crimea - by 302, in Donetsk region - by 18, in
    Chernivtsi region - by 108.
  • At present the level of using potential of
    renewable energy is very poor. The share of
    non-traditional energy sources in the energy
    balance of the country is 7,2 (6,4 -
    off-balance sources of energy, 0,8 - renewable
    energy sources). According to the Ukrainian
    energy strategy the share of alternative energy
    in total energy balance of the country and to be
    extended to 20 by 2030.

15
Expansion of renewable energies
  • In 2021 power consumption in Bavaria should
    be covered to 50 from renewable energy sources
    (currently 25)
  • Water power 17 share of electricity generation
    until 2021 (currently 13 )
  • Wind power 10 share in electricity generation
    until 2021 (currently 6 from 410 to 1.000
    -1.500 wind turbines)
  • Energy from biomass 9 share in total energy
    consumption in 2021 (currently 7 )
  • Solar energy (photovoltaic) 16 share in power
    consumption until 2021 (3 in 2009)
  • Solar thermal energy and ambient heat 4 share
    of total energy consumption until 2021 (currently
    0.5 )
  • Geothermal energy 1 share of total energy
    consumption until 2021 (currently 0.2 )

16
16
The State of development of alternative energy
sources
  • In 2009 500 million UAH was allowed in the State
    budget for development of alternative energy (the
    objects of the Ministry of Housing) and 1,5
    billion - for the objects of Ministry of Regional
    Development and Construction.
  • State Agency for Energy Efficiency and
    Conservation is engaged in the development road
    map for renewable sources development. This road
    map will allow to plan in which region, in which
    volume and when can be used existing potential of
    all types of renewable energy sources.

17
Ukraine has the potential to develop 5 main
directions of using renewable energy sources
  • wind energy - 20,6 million tons of coal
    equivalent
  • biomass 20,08 million tons of coal equivalent
  • geothermal energy 12 million tons of coal
    equivalent
  • solar energy 6 million tons of coal equivalent
    ,
  • small-scale hydropower 3,06 million tons of
    coal equivalent ,

18
Solar energy
  • Technically achievable annual potential of solar
    energy in Ukraine is 6 million tons of coal
    equivalent (c.e.), its use can save about 5
    billion m3 of natural gas (In 2008 it was
    produced 20.6 billion m3 of natural gas).
  • The potential of Crimea is 0,38 million tons
    c.e., Donetsk region - 0,27 million tons c.e.,
    Chernivtsi region - 0,09 million tons c.e.

19
Solar energy
  • Nowadays there is a limited use of direct solar
    energy in Ukraine. Existing programs for energy
    development envisages increasing use of solar
    energy mainly for local hot water supply in
    summer season. Climatic conditions of Ukraine
    allow also to use solar energy for the heating of
    buildings, creation of year-round centralized
    district heating systems with seasonal heat
    storage.
  • The main barrier for using solar energy is an
    economic one. The Ukrainian economy cant
    mobilize any considerable investments in some
    projects on using solar energy.
  • There is a growth on the national level of
    understanding of the fact that under conditions
    of own resources shortage it is necessary to
    develop the alternative energy sources.

20
Solar energy
  • Several companies are already working in this
    sphere. In Simferopol, solar power plant is
    successfully operating and providing hot-water to
    hotel "Sports" in unheated season (7 months).
  • The Austrian company "Active Solar GmbH"
    implements a pilot project for construction the
    first Crimean solar electric plant in the
    Simferopol rayon.
  • There is a construction of the first pilot
    heliostation in the village Shelkino in the
    eastern part of Crimea.
  • In the Kherson region there are plans to realize
    projects of street lighting of settlements with
    the electricity stored by solar energy.

21
Small hydropower
  • By potential of hydro resources Ukraine is not on
    the leading place among the CIS countries, but
    the extent of developed hydropower economical
    potential is rather high.
  • Annual production of electricity by using
    technically achievable potential of small rivers
    in Ukraine is estimated at 8.3 billion kW. h /
    year, which will provide savings of fossil fuels
    up to 3 million tons c.e or 2.6 billion m3 of
    natural gas. (12,6 of gas production in 2008).
  • The potential of Chernivtsi region is 0,22
    million tons c.e., potential of the Crimea is
    0,05 million tons c.e., the Donetsk region - 0,05
    million tons c.e.

22
Small hydropower
  • In Ukraine 74 projects has green tariff for
    different directions, including 61 - small
    hydropower projects.
  • "Novosvit", Akvanova" and "Sibeks are the most
    successful Ukrainian companies in this area,
    company "Novosvit" has about 14 hydro power
    plants. These companies are quite successfully
    using "green" tariff.
  • The Swiss company Alter Energy Group AG (AEG)
    is interested in the development of small
    hydropower in Ukraine. These projects are
    supported by the EBRD and the International
    Finance Corporation.
  • German company "RWE" is also going to be
    presented on the alternative energy market in
    Ukraine.

23
Biomass
  • At present, the contribution of biomass to
    Ukraines energy supply is about 0.5. Only about
    0.7 million toes (tons of oil equivalent) are
    currently used primarily firewood for domestic
    purposes as well as for fuel in forestry and wood
    processing enterprises.
  • Studies have suggested that biomass sources could
    provide at least six times more to Ukraines
    energy mix and potentially ten times or greater.
  • According to official statistics, the total
    biomass potential in Ukraine is about 50 million
    tons c.e. and technically achievable - 36 million
    tons c.e, economically viable - 27 million tons
    c.e.
  • The potential of Donetsk region is 0,90 million
    tons c.e., the potential of the Crimea is 0,64
    million tons c.e, Chernivtsi region - 0,47
    million tons c.e.

24
  • With some of the best farmland in the world,
    Ukraine has the natural resources to produce a
    variety of energy crops that could be used for
    direct combustion as well as conversion into
    ethanol and biodiesel fuels. When allocated for
    rape 10 of agricultural land the country can
    grow 8,5 million t of rape seeds processing which
    provides about 3 million tons of biofuel
    annually. This can provide up to 60 of the
    country's current annual demand for diesel fuel.
    In addition to expanding the agricultural market
    and economically stimulating rural Ukraine,
    biomass production would reduce reliance on
    energy imports and farmers vulnerability to
    speculative seasonal energy prices while yielding
    fuels that burn cleanlier.

25
Biomass
  • The energy that could be provided by biogas
    derived from the manure of cattle, pigs, and
    poultry simultaneously has been estimated to be
    in the range - 1.1 - 1.6 million toe.
  • Energy analysts have suggested that it is
    possible to construct about 3000 biogas plants in
    Ukraine - each with an average digester volume of
    1000 m3, including 295 biogas plants at hog
    raising plants, 130 biogas plants at poultry
    plants, and 2478 biogas plants at cattle raising
    farms and other food industry enterprises.
  • It is very important that biomass is retrievable
    source every year the same amount of biomass is
    created in agriculture. However, at harvest time
    it can be compressed into pellets which can be
    used during year. For example, there are many
    thermal power plants using coal, and they can be
    easy switch over pellets from biomass.

26
Biomass
  • However, no many biomass plants are yet operating
    in Ukraine to produce power for the electrical
    grid or large district energy systems - a fact
    due in part to the high cost of boilers purchased
    from foreign manufacturers and the still limited
    availability of significantly less expensive,
    domestically produced equipment. One firm
    Zhitomirrempischemash is producing hot water
    wood-fired boilers that cost one-sixth the price
    of similar boilers of foreign producers.
  • During the past five years, a small number of
    modern biomass plants have begun operating such
    as steam wood-fired boiler at the Odek Ukraine
    plywood factory in the town of Orzhiv.
  • The company Zorg Biogas AG operates in this
    sphere in the Ukraine. This company is using
    patented German technology for processing raw
    materials into biogas.

27
Wind energy
  • In Ukraine the annual technically achievable
    energy potential of wind energy is 15 million
    tons c.e., its use can save about 13 billion m3
    of natural gas. (63,7 of gas production in
    2008).
  • Crimea has the biggest potential (3,5 million
    tons c.e.), Donetsk region - 1,60 million tons
    c.e., Chernivtsi region - 0,30 million tons c.e.
  • A strong wind power industry support was given by
    a Ukrainian government Law issued in 1996 in the
    form of Complex Wind Farms Construction Program.

28
Wind energy
  • According to the State program of building wind
    power plants, Crimea is defined as a territory of
    priority development of wind power in Ukraine,
    because the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas,
    the South Coast of Crimea have high wind power
    potential.
  • The Crimean coasts make Ukraine second after
    Norway among countries possessing shallow water
    areas that are suitable for large wind farms. In
    Crimea there are favorable conditions for wind
    use and efficient operation of high-power
    wind-electric plant and autonomous wind-mill
    electric generating units within a year. Today
    70 of all Ukrainian wind energy facilities are
    producing in Crimean peninsula. Kerch and
    Tarkhankut coast are defined as the most
    promising rayons for creation of renewable energy
    facilities. Today in the Crimea, four state-owned
    enterprises produce wind energy. Among operating
    wind power stations are Donuzlav WPS, Saki WPS,
    Novoazovsk WPS and Truskavets WPS.

29
Wind energy
  • According to experts, Donetsk region has
    considerable potential for the development
    alternative energy sources, primarily wind and
    sun. In 2003 the Donetsk Regional State
    Administration together with company "Windenergo"
    developed "The program of replacement capacity of
    thermal electric power plant by wind power
    stations." The program envisages increasing the
    share of electricity produced by wind generators
    up to 20-30 of the total electricity generated
    in the region.
  • Donbass Fuel-Energy Company is developing the
    construction project of wind-electric plant on
    the Azov Sea coast. A contract with German
    company "Wind Guard" for wind monitoring is
    already signed

30
Geothermal energy
  • Ukraine possesses considerable resources of
    geothermal energy, which is an attractive
    resource for using geothermal energy for space
    and water heating and cooling for residential,
    public and industrial purpose.
  • The Carpathian region is the most promising for
    the extraction of high-potential geothermal
    energy resources, followed by Crimea. A promising
    area for geothermal energy development is also
    the Dnieper-Donetsk Basin, which includes
    Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkiv, Luhansk regions.

31
Geothermal energy
  • At present thermal water is used for municipal
    heat supply and in agriculture in the western and
    central part of Crimea (Iljinka Sizovka
    Kotelnikovo Novo-Alexeyevka Yantarnoye).
  • Separate wells are used in the Transcarpathian
    region for supplying thermal water in swimming
    pools or as an additional source of heat for the
    local boiler houses.

32
Nongovernmental organizations have the great
importance for the development of this direction
at the regional level. They can initiate
different project together with municipalities.
  • For example, public organization "Letavitsa
    (Donetsk region) with the support of the Eurasia
    Foundation implemented a project "Bioenergy get
    energy from waste", which was designed
    specifically for rural areas of Donetsk region
    (2007-2008). The project has accumulated a
    database of equipment suppliers, made the
    analysis of the most effective technologies,
    developed several models for energy production
    from alternative sources. The project was
    implemented in Maryinskiy, Starobeshevo and
    Krasnoarmeysky rayons. The project was
    implemented for clubs, libraries, kinder garden
    and feldsher's station. As a result, heating
    costs have been significantly reduced through the
    using of waste, and residents have a significant
    economic impact.

33
GIZ activities
  • Two youth festival Ecoenergy was conducted in
    2009 and 2010 in Sevastopol. These festival
    included an Exhibition, competition on projects
    and presentations The World in which I wish to
    live and In harmony with the nature (2009).
    There also were a practical science seminar Use
    of renewable energy sources and global change of
    a climate eco-ethical master-classes and
    training sessions.
  • The Renewable Energy Study was conducted in
    Crimea. The study was focusing on the solar
    energy potential. The key barriers to the
    development of the industry are the low cost of
    gas and electricity in Ukraine.
  • Cluster Energy-Efficiency was registered in
    December, 2010 and project continues to support
    development of cluster Energy-Efficiency
    (Sevastopol).
  • The CCI Crimea and CCI Sevastopol, the cluster
    initiative Energy Saving and the German Group
    Bosch Thermotechnik have launched a joint
    initiative related to the development of
    heliosystems in the ARC and Sevastopol. The main
    goal of the project is to develop a regional
    market for heliothermal systems jointly with
    local specialists in order to promote the solar
    energy technology among potential users.

34
GIZ activities
  • Development of Regional Innovation Strategy of
    Crimea (this strategy includes activity on
    promotion introduction of energy and resource
    efficient technologies).
  • Round table "Innovative methods of processing of
    agricultural products" was organized in
    Sevastopol. Arne Grengreft presented "Innovative
    methods of processing of agricultural products
    for biofuel production".
  • ? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????
    ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???. ?????
    ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????????
    ??? ?????? ????????????????, ??????????
    ???????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????
    ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????
    ??????? ??????? ? ?????????.

35
Obstacles
  • In Ukraine, as in many developing countries,
    government support to the energy sector is used
    to decrease the price of energy consumption to
    below market levels in the belief that this will
    reduce poverty and spur economic growth. The
    Energy Policy in Ukraine focuses on subsidizing
    domestic prices for electricity and heat. This
    further impedes the development of renewable
    energy market and reduces efficiency of
    environmentally friendly technologies. In
    Ukraine, relatively low energy prices have
    hindered the development of alternative energy
    sources, as the price of finished product and its
    production costs are much higher compared with
    the price of traditional energy.
  • For example, price and production total world
    subsidies for fossil fuels collectively exceeded
    US 650 billion in 2008.

36
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in manufacturing
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agriculture
6
37
Manufacturing
  • ???????????? ???????????? 23 ??????? ????????? ?
    ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
    ????????????? ??????????. ??? ????????
    ????????????? ????????, ?? ???? ?????? ????????
    ?? 35 ???????? ??????????? ??????????????72,
    ????? 20 ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????
    ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????.
  • ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????????
    ?? 10 ??????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????????
    ?????????? ???? ???? ? 2030 ???? ????? ??? ??
    20 ????? ???????, ????????????? ???? ??
    ???????????? ????? ????????????? ? ??
    ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ???????.

38
Manufacturing has a large material impact on
economy and the environment
  • Manufacturing is responsible for around 35 of
    the global electricity use, over 20 of CO2
    emissions and over a quarter of primary resource
    extraction. Along with extractive industries and
    construction, manufacturing currently accounts
    for 23 of global employment. It also accounts
    for up to 17 of air pollution-related health
    damages.
  • Manufacturing is responsible for around 10 of
    the global water use the same applies to water
    use by industry, which is expected to grow to
    over 20 per cent of global total demand by 2030.

39
Manufacturing has a large material impact on
economy and the environment
  • Manufacturing is responsible for around 61 of
    the Ukraine electricity use (35 - average in
    the world) and over a quarter of primary resource
    extraction.
  • Along with construction, manufacturing currently
    accounts for 24 of Ukraine employment. It also
    accounts for up to 58 of air pollution.
  • Gross air pollution damages are equivalent to 4
    of global GDP.
  • Manufacturing is energy and input-intensive - in
    2008 energy intensity of Ukraine's GDP was more
    than 2 times higher than the average energy
    intensity of GDP of developed countries.
  • ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????????????
    ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????
    ??????????? ??????? (54 ????? ? 55 ?????)
    ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????
    ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????

40
  • Manufacturing industries have to pursue
    life-cycle approaches and introduce the concept
    of eco-efficiency which includes
  • reducing the material and energy intensity of
    products,
  • enhancing material recyclability,
  • extending product durability
  • increasing the service intensity of products.

41
Reducing the material and energy intensity of
products
  • Re-design products and/or business models so that
    the same functionality can be delivered with
    fundamentally less use of materials and energy.
    This also requires extending the effective
    life-time of complex products and improving
    quality, by incorporating repair and
    remanufacturing into a closed-cycle system.
  • If the life of all manufactured products were to
    be extended by 10, for example, the volume of
    resources extracted could be cut by a similar
    amount. Repair, reconditioning, remanufacturing
    and recycling are fairly labour-intensive
    activities, requiring relatively little capital
    investment.

42
  • 1.1. Creating close-cycle manufacturing (or
    eko-inductrial parks). This manufacturing system
    maximises the useful life of products and
    minimises the waste and loss of valuable and
    scarce metals.
  • For example, Ista-center (Dnepropetrovsk)
    introduces production technology for lead-acid
    batteries with closed-cycle.
  • Ministry of nature is exploring the possibility
    of building in Ukraine 8 processing plants of
    motor tires.
  • 1.2 Remanufacturing is becoming increasingly
    significant, particularly in areas such as
    motor-vehicle components, aircraft parts,
    compressors, electrical and data communications
    equipment, office furniture, vending machines,
    photocopiers, and laser toner cartridges.
  • Caterpillar is probably the worlds largest
    remanufacturer, with a global turnover of US1
    billion and plants in three countries. About
    70of a typical machine (by weight) can be
    re-used as such, while another 16 is recycled.

43
  • 1.3. The field of electronics recycling is
    promising area for research and development.
    Currently, there is some recycling of television
    sets to recover lead and glass, but e-recyclers
    mostly try to recover silver and gold, without
    recovering other scarce metals.
  • A recycling campaign to collect used mobile
    phones in Japan was launched in November 2009 and
    involved 1,886 stores and supermarkets. Those who
    returned used mobile phones in exchange for
    purchasing a new device were invited to enter a
    lottery to win coupons worth 12 to 600
    depending on the price of the mobile phone they
    bought. The initiative collected 569,464 mobile
    phones containing precious metals amounting to 22
    kg of gold, 140 mg of silver, 10 g of copper and
    4 mg of palladium in just 4 months.

44
  • 2. Substitute green inputs for brown inputs
    wherever possible. For example, introduce biomass
    as a source of chemical feedstock. Emphasize
    process integration and upgrade of process
    auxiliaries such as lighting, boilers, electric
    motors, compressors and pumps.
  • 3. Recycle internal process wastes, including
    waste-water, high temperature heat, back
    pressure, etc. Use materials and energy with less
    environmental impact, e.g. renewable or waste as
    inputs for production processes. Remanufacturing
    operations worldwide save about 10.7 million
    barrels of oil each year, or an amount of
    electricity equal to that generated by five
    nuclear power plants.
  • Co-generation combined heat and power. One of
    the most important (and under-exploited)
    near-term opportunities for improving energy
    efficiency in industrial processes lies in
    recycling high-temperature waste heat from
    processes such as coke ovens, blast furnaces,
    electric furnaces and cement kilns, especially
    for electric power generation using combined heat
    and power.

45
  • 4. Introduce new, cleaner technologies and
    improve the efficiency of existing processes to
    leapfrog and establish new modes of production
    that have a fundamentally higher material- and
    energy efficiency. To start with, major savings
    potential in manufacturing lies in improving the
    resource efficiency of existing processes.
  • Enterprise Zaporizhstal is a leader in
    implementing environmental programs. Enterprise
    carries out the reconstruction and modernization
    of equipment over the past 10 years it was
    reduced dust emissions into the atmosphere by
    41 sewage - up to 30, the company increased
    the level of reuse of process water by 86.
    Minimizing waste and maximum use of them in own
    production is a main task of the company.

46
Greening the value chain
  • Eco- / resource efficiency
  • Increase material / energy efficiency
  • Minimize waste and losses
  • Reuse / recycle by-products or secondary raw
    material
  • reduce costs

47
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  • ?????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??????
  • ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????
  • ??????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????
  • ? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
  • ??? ????????????????. ??? ??? ??????!

48
Energy
Water
Steel
billion
- 30
- 20
- 8
  • Reduction potential in Chinese SMEs through
    PREMA-Application

49
Sustainable management of industrial zones, India
  • Introduction of the eco-industrial parks approach
    (EIP)
  • Transformation of existing parks into EIPs /
    planning of new EIPs
  • Environmental management plans waste
    minimization, clean air / air pollution
    prevention, risk management / hazardous waste,
    etc.

50
  • Public institutions can support the validation
    and harmonization of eco-labeling schemes, and
    establish consumer awareness and education
    programs to ensure consumers are able to make
    informed decisions and recognize newly introduced
    labeling and product information schemes.
  • An example is the provision of management and
    technology assistance to assist SMEs in
    exploiting opportunities for increased resource
    use efficiency and recycling. Another example
    would be PPP for the disassembling and collection
    of e-waste in socially and environmentally
    beneficial ways in developing countries that have
    a comparative advantage in this industry.
  • Public institutions can support research and
    development (RD), revised educational curricula
    and training programs to promote cleaner
    processes and systems, eco-design, products and
    services.

51
GIZ activities
  • DCCI started the project Support to green
    business development (ecological outsourcing).
    This project includes
  • consultation support to environmental activities
    of two enterprises in the form of outsourcing
  • development of a technological instruction on
    provision of the eco-management service in the
    form of outsourcing
  • promotion of the new service via the web portal,
    mail and e-mail as well as personal contacts and
    the development and introduction of a Green desk,
    an information tool on the website of the DCCI.

52
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agriculture
6
53
  • Tourisms potential for creating employment,
    supporting livelihoods and enabling sustainable
    development is considerable in Ukraine.
  • The direct contribution of Travel Tourism to
    GDP is UAH 15,7 bn in 2011 (1,5 of GDP). The
    total contribution of Travel Tourism to GDP
    (including wider effects from investment, the
    supply chain and induced income impacts) is UAH
    84.5bn in 2009 (7,8 of GDP).
  • Tourism accounting for 3,8 of the Ukrainian
    exports of commercial services 282 thousand
    international tourists were recorded and more
    than 2 million Ukrainian tourists were served by
    tourism companies in 2009.

54
  • Travel and tourism are human-resource intensive,
    employing directly 1,2 of total employment
    232 thousand people in 2009. It is estimated that
    one job in the core tourism industry creates
    about one and a half additional or indirect jobs
    in the tourism-related economy. The total
    contribution of Travel Tourism to employment
    (including wider effects from investment, the
    supply chain and induced income impacts) is 1.5
    million jobs in 2009 (7.1 of total employment).
  • In 2009 according to the report of World Economic
    Forum Ukraine took 77 place on the level of
    competitiveness in travel and tourism (in 2007 -
    78 place).
  • Tourists are demanding the greening of tourism.
    It is estimated that global spending on
    ecotourism is increasing about six times the
    industry-wide rate of growth.

55
  • Tourism in a green economy refers to tourism
    activities that can be maintained, or sustained,
    indefinitely in their social, economic, cultural,
    and environmental contexts sustainable
    tourism. Of particular and recognized importance
    are
  • purchasing directly from local businesses,
  • recruiting and training local unskilled and
    semi-skilled staff,
  • entering into neighbourhood partnerships to make
    the local social environment a better place to
    live, work and visit for all
  • the ability to improve the local natural
    environment within its areas of direct and
    indirect influence.

56
  • Greening tourism means putting investments
    leading to energy and water efficiency,
    climate-change mitigation, waste reduction,
    biodiversity and cultural heritage conservation,
    and the strengthening of linkages with local
    communities.
  • In hotels and other accommodation there is
    considerable scope for investment in energy
    efficient features and services, including
    refrigeration, television and video systems, air
    conditioning and heating (particularly reduction
    or elimination of these systems through improved
    design) and laundry. (On average, energy costs
    in hotels represented about 6 of their annual
    turnover, whereas in the best practice
    establishments, this expense factor typically
    represented 1.5-2.8 ).
  • Internal water efficiency and management
    programmes, and investments in water-saving
    technology in rooms, facilities and attractions
    reduce costs.
  • Improved waste management provides opportunities
    for business and society.
  • Conservation and restoration of biodiversity
    provides a highly profitable, low-cost investment
    for maintaining ecosystem services (for example,
    for natural parks)

57
Much of the economic potential for green tourism
is found in SME.
  • Various tourism stakeholders should collaborate
    and share knowledge and tools in order to
    understand the overall picture of environmental
    and socio-cultural impacts of tourism activities.
  • Specific mechanisms and tools to educate small
    and medium sized tourism related enterprises are
    critical and are most effective when they are
    accompanied by actionable items.
  • It is also essential to facilitate their access
    to industry-oriented decision-support tools,
    information, knowledge as well as to capital.
    Partnership approaches to lower the costs and
    risks of funding sustainable tourism investment
    and in kind support to SMEs should be considered
    so as to facilitate the shift toward green
    tourism activities. PPP can spread the costs and
    risks of large green tourism investments. Besides
    reducing administrative fees and offering
    favorable interest rates for green tourism
    projects, in-kind support such as technical,
    marketing or business administration assistance,
    could also help.

58
  • Tourism associations and wider industry platforms
    play an important role in engaging tourism
    businesses in sustainability as well as
    developing practical tools to respond to many
    common challenges. Supported by information
    sharing and access to experts and experienced
    greening pioneers, is a critical step.
  • Economies of scope in the tourism sector could be
    achieved by means of clustering. Clustering can
    strengthen backward and forward linkages in the
    tourism value chain and drive sustainability in
    the whole industry. The tourism cluster must
    become actively engaged in environmental
    management and conservation. Active collaboration
    with the public sector and community
    organizations will strengthen competitive
    position for the entire cluster, including
    economies of scale growth of technological and
    organizational know-how, and higher market share.

59
Examples
  • In Ukraine, the international environmental
    certification of hotels and tourist objects
    "Green Key" started in 2010. This certification
    identifies hotels and tourist objects with
    attitude of care towards nature. To obtain the
    Green Key hotel have to comply with certain
    requirements relating to environmental
    management, monitoring and reducing energy use,
    economic use of water resources, sorting,
    processing and recycling, participate in social
    life in the city. "Radisson Blu Hotel" in Kiev
    and "Radisson Resort Alushta" are the first
    hotels in Ukraine, who applies for an
    eco-certification.

60
GIZ activities
  • Workshop on Cost Optimizing in hotels and
    Sanatoriums was organized in Evpatoria.
    Presentation Energy saving and resource saving
    at the hotel - overview of solutions that save
    money" was prepared by Mr. Samarchev.
  • Developed Tourism Strategy emphasizes necessity
    to transition to sustainable tourism,
    implementation of which will reduce the
    material-, energy-and water- intensity of tourism
    product and save the quality of the environment.
    Alternative options for tourism development in
    Crimea were proposed in this Strategy (including
    option 3 Enhancing recreational specialization
    of Crimea based on the domination of nature
    conservation, the realization of innovation and
    investment policies of recreation and tourism).
    This option envisages to reduce raw materials,
    water and energy intensity of tourism product, to
    use of alternative energy sources (primarily
    solar) transition to waste-free close-cycle
    manufacturing. The result of this model in Crimea
    will be
  • reduction and the subsequent closure of chemical
    plants
  • introduction of resource-and energy-efficient
    technologies in all spheres of production and the
    nonproduction sphere
  • agriculture transition to intensive clean
    technology
  • development of trade and service and eco-friendly
    transportation and communication functions
  • greening of urban areas.

61
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agriculture
6
62
  • More than half of the world population lives in
    urban areas. Cities now account for 75 of energy
    consumption and 75 of carbon emissions.

63
Green cities
  • Compact, relatively densely populated cities with
    mixed-use urban form are more resource-efficient
    than any other settlement pattern with similar
    levels of economic output. Integrated design
    strategies and technologies are available to
    improve urban transport, the construction of
    buildings, and the development of urban energy,
    water, and waste systems in such a way that they
    reduce resource and energy consumption and avoid
    lock-in effects.

64
Green cities
  • The overall vision is to establish a global
    circular economy in which
  • material use and waste generation is minimised,
  • any unavoidable waste recycled or remanufactured,
  • and any remaining waste treated in a manner least
    harmful to the environment and human health or
    even generating new value such as energy
    recovered from waste.

65
  • 1. Redesign systems, especially the
    transportation system and urban infrastructure
    down-stream, to utilize less resource-intensive
    inputs. The first target must be to reduce the
    need for and use of automotive vehicles requiring
    liquid fuels in comparison to rail-based mass
    transportation, bus rapid transit and bicycles.
    Classic green transport strategies in cities
    primarily focus on reducing car use or at least
    slowing its growth.
  • Congestion charge in London, Singapores
    Electronic Road Pricing and Vehicle Quota System,
    Bogotas BRT system has been replicated in
    Istanbul, Lagos, Ahmadabad, Guangzhou, and
    Johannesburg.
  • 2. Urban green building strategies include more
    efficient use of all resources such as energy,
    water and materials. Three principal green
    building strategies can be differentiated
    design, technology, and behaviourrelated.
  • Housing projects on the coast in Puerto Princesa
    City, the Philippines, have been designed to
    reduce energy demand through increased natural
    light, improved ventilation, the cooling effect
    of the roofing material, and strategic planting.

66
  • 3. Cities have the potential to either
    dissipate the distribution of energy or optimise
    their efficiency by reducing energy consumption
    and adopting green energy systems including
    renewable micro-generation, district heating, and
    combined heat and energy plants.
  • In Artemovsk it was implemented a comprehensive
    energy program for energy saving in industrial
    enterprises and public sector facilities
    including in providing municipal services.
  • 4. Parks, protected green space and gardens,
    street trees and landscaping provide vital
    ecosystem services, acting as green lungs
    absorbing and filtering air pollution or as
    acting as filters for waste water. The presence
    of green landscaped areas helps regulate natural
    processes, including the mitigation of local
    temperature extremes.

67
  • 5. Upgrading and replacement of pipes has
    contributed to net savings of 20 of potable
    water in many industrialised cities. A measure to
    maximise utility of fresh water is the cascading
    of water use where the waste water generated by
    one process can be used in another with a lesser
    quality requirement. Rain can be harvested and
    used as drinking and non-drinking water.
  • 6. The food footprint of a city has
    significant impacts on its green credentials,
    especially if one takes into account the energy
    use generated by transporting food from remote
    locations to urban marketplaces.

68
  • 7. Cities have demonstrated considerable
    resilience in finding green solutions that reduce
    overall waste, increase recycling and pioneering
    new forms of environmentally friendly treatment
    of unavoidable waste. In many European cities,
    recycling levels are 50 , while Copenhagen only
    sends 3 of its waste to landfills. Greening
    the waste sector includes
  • the minimisation of waste.
  • where waste cannot be avoided, recovery of
    materials and energy from waste as well as
    remanufacturing and recycling waste into usable
    products.
  • Recycling leads to substantial resource
    savings. For example, for every tone of paper
    recycled, 17 trees and 50 of water can be
    saved. Recycling each tone of aluminum, the
    following resource savings could be accrued 1.3
    tone of bauxite residues, 15 m3 of cooling water,
    0.86 m3 of process water, and 37 barrels of oil.

69
  • Greening the cities can create jobs on a number
    of fronts
  • urban and peri-urban green agriculture
  • public transport
  • renewable energy
  • waste management and recycling and
  • green construction.
  • Green-city solutions will not be realised
    overnight by classic top-down or

70
  • Green-city solutions will not be realized
    overnight by classic top-down or bottom-up
    approaches, but by the actions of a coalition of
    actors from the national, state and local levels,
    from civil society and its multiple subdivisions,
    from the private sector and institutions
    including universities, not-profit organizations
    and interest groups which share a commitment to
    advance the green economy in cities.
  • In poorer cities, it may be prudent to adopt a
    more pragmatic and minimalist approach, which
    primarily commits municipal sectors such as
    water, waste, energy and transport to a limited
    number of strategic goals.
  • Selected planning and regulatory instruments
    urban growth boundaries land-use regulation
    density regulation and bonus special planning
    powers vehicle and traffic regulation parking
    standards car-free developments.
  • Effective planning and governance across
    different administrative levels requires
    high-quality information to raise awareness
    amongst urban residents to promote behaviour
    change.

71
  • Brazil has a long tradition of recycling,
    recovery rates of many materials in this country
    is in line with developed countries.
    Approximately 95 of all aluminum cans and 55 of
    all plastic bottles is recovered. About half of
    all paper and half of the glass are re-used. The
    waste can create value by nearly 2 billion .
  • In the Republic of Korea, Extended Producer
    Responsibility was enforced on packaging (paper,
    glass, iron, aluminium and plastic) and specific
    products (battery, tire, lubricating oil and
    fluorescent lamp) since 2003. The initiative
    resulted in recycling of 7.7 million tones of
    waste between 2003 and 2008, an increasing
    recycling rate by 13.5 and an economic benefit
    of 1.6 billion.

72
  • 4 of Ukrainian territory is occupied by
    different types of waste a waste of chemical
    industry, municipal waste, as well as many other
    types of waste. There is 35 billion tons of waste
    including 2.6 billion tons of highly toxic waste.
    Annually in Ukraine, total household waste
    increases by about 50 million m3 and the industry
    waste -by 175 million m3 , which is accumulated
    on the countryside 10-20 kilometers from the
    cities.
  • The total potential of wasteland gas on Ukrainian
    solid wastes fields is estimated to be 288
    million m3 . Out of 140 biggest wastelands 90
    biggest are the most promising in terms of
    extracting and utilizing of wasteland gas.
  • A pilot project is launched in Luhansk solid
    wastes field where 3 boreholes produce 90 m3 per
    hour with methane share of 60 . The total field
    area allows 30 boreholes to be drilled and
    predicted gas output suggests building an
    electricity generation plant.
  • City authority of Novomoskovsk (Dnipropetrovsk
    region) pins down all stores to use paper
    packaging.

73
  • GIZ activities
  • Seminar Energy efficient technologies
    innovative approach was conducted in Chernivtsi
    region. This seminar was attended by mayors of
    small cities and villages. After this seminar it
    was initiated introduction of separate collection
    of waste in Zastavna and Novoselytsa.
  • Day of agriculture associations was organized
    together with East committee of the German
    economy (BDI) in July, 2010. Company
    Evrostandart participated in this event and
    mentioned about necessity to provide ecological
    certification of territories. After this event
    this topic was included as part of Strategy of
    rural development of Chernivtsi region.
  • Within LED Subproject in 5 pilot cities there
    were make a strategic analysis for further
    development of the city brand and territorial
    marketing, identified competitive advantages of
    their communities. According to results of this
    analysis Gorlovka city has a high interest to
    work out city development strategy concept
    directed on realization the idea Gorlovka is
    green city.

74
Workshop Towards a green economy
Contents
1
What is green economy
2
Main opportunities for greening in energy
3
Green economy in industry
Main opportunities in tourism
4
Main directions for greening cities
5
Green economy in agriculture
6
75
  • Agricultural value added is 7,2 of GDP.
    Conventional/industrial agriculture is energy-
    and inputintensive. Its high productivity relies
    on the extensive use of petrochemical
    fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, fuel, water,
    and continuous new investment.
  • But significant amounts of food produced around
    the world are lost or wasted after harvesting.
    For example in the USA, around 40 of all food
    produced is wasted, resulting in losses of all
    embedded inputs such as energy (equivalent to
    wasting 350 million barrels of oil per year),
    water (equivalent to about 40 trillion litres of
    water every year) and huge volumes of fertilizers
    and pesticides..

76
  • Reducing waste and inefficiency is an important
    part of the green agriculture paradigm (for
    example, reducing food spoilage and loss by
    expanding the use of post-harvest storage and
    processing facilities). 50 reduction of losses
    and wastage in the production and consumption
    chain is a necessary and achievable goal. .

77
  • Agriculture that is based on green-economy vision
    integrates location-specific organic resource
    inputs and natural biological process with
  • soil fertility management. (Restoring and
    enhancing soil fertility through the increased
    use of naturally and sustainably produced
    nutrient inputs. There is a critical need to
    recover and recycle nutrients from organic waste
    streams and use them as productive inputs of
    organic fertilizer. Enormous quantities of
    valuable organic nutrients could be recovered
    from intensive livestock farming food processing
    sites municipal green wastes and human sewage
    wastes in both rural and urban communities).
  • reducing chemical pesticide and herbicide use by
    implementing integrated biological pest and weed
    management practices
  • more efficient and sustainable water use
    (reducing soil erosion and improving the
    efficiency of water use by applying minimum
    tillage and cover crop cultivation techniques
    etc),
  • crop and livestock diversification,
  • biological plant and animal health management,
  • an appropriate level of mechanization and
    building upstream and downstream supply chains
    for businesses and trade

78
Towards a Report of the UNEP Green
Economy Initiative
  • Investing 2 of the global GDP until 2050 in 10
    central sectors - gt successful GE transition
  • In the long run GE generates growth and gains in
    natural resources
  • GE generates jobs
  • GE reduces poverty
  • ! Requirement the recognition of the value of
  • natural resources, adequate
    policies and
  • investments -gtgovernments
    (focus
  • taxes, incentives,
    certificate trade )

www.unep.org/greeneconomy
79
GIZ Advisory Offer for Greening the
Economy Framework Conditions for a Greeen
Economy Strategy development and policy advice
/ Mainstreaming Capacity Development
Institutional capacities, human resources /
capacity building, technology and
innovation Green Economy in key
sectors Sustainable economic development , clean
and resource-efficient production, sustinable
agriculture, sustainable energy green cities
80
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81
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82
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83
Main direction of possible EEP activities
  • Support regional authorities (cities) on
    introduction green technologies
  • In order to support regional authorities (cities)
    on introduction green technologies the following
    activities have to be initiated 
  • Organization of workshops, seminars and round
    tables in Kiev and pilot regions in order to
    highlight and to discuss the main topics related
    to green economy to strengthen the institutional
    capacity of national, regional and local
    authorities
  • Support small cities in Chernivtsi region in
    introduction separate collection of waste and
    other ideas of greening cities
  • Support Krasnoarmeysk in development cooperation
    with youth in direction of green economy
  • Support Gorlovka in development a concept
    Gorlovka green city

84
Main direction of possible EEP activities
  • Strengthen potential on NGOs on green business
    promotion
  • Organization of conferences, workshops, seminars
    for representatives of NGOs and association of
    businesses.
  • Organization of seminars on fundraising with
    emphasis on energy efficient project
  • Support cooperation NGOs with authorities in
    preparation project on energy efficiency
  • Initiate LGA with implementors
  • Organization different events in order to
    increase awareness on green business topic -
    dissemination information on benefits and risks
    of environmentally friendly solutions in
    manufacturing (organization of workshops,
    seminars, round tables and study tours in pilot
    regions in order to highlight and to discuss the
    main topics related to green economy to
    strengthen the institutional capacity of SMEs)
  • Organization competitions, exhibitions and fairs.
    (For example, Donetsk CCI propose to organize
    competition on environmental friendly company)
  • Organization of different event for the exchange
    of know-how in green solution for research
    institutions and companies that provide energy
    and resource efficient solutions for industry

85
Main direction of possible EEP activities
  • Promotion green economy in different sectors
  • Support 1st Agrarian cluster (Chernivtsi) and
    cluster Seafood (Sevastopol) in promotion
    production of bio products and energy efficiency
  • Continue cooperation with Bosch
  • Support development of Cluster on Energy
    efficiency (Crimea)
  • Support activities of cluster See food on
    promotion production of bio products.

86
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    ??????????????

87
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