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Session 2: Environment Statistics and Indicators: Concepts and Methods

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Title: Session 2: Environment Statistics and Indicators: Concepts and Methods


1
Session 2 Environment Statistics and Indicators
Concepts and Methods
  • Workshop on Environment Statistics and Accounts
  • 7 11 March 2011
  • Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2
Outline of Presentation
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
    indicators
  • III. Global indicator sets
  • IV. NEPAD / AEO-2 Indicators

3
I. Introduction
  • The first United Nations Conference on the Human
    Environment (UNCHE) was held in Stockholm, Sweden
    from 5 to 16 June 1972.
  • UNCHE laid the foundation for environmental
    action at an international level.
  • The main recommendations of the Conference
    included governments communicate about
    environmental issues that have international
    implications governments give attention to the
    training of those who plan, develop, and manage
    settlement areas and that agencies work together
    to address many issues, such as access to clean
    water and population growth

4
I. Introduction (contd)
  • United Nations Conference on Environment and
    Development, also known as the Earth Summit, took
    place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2-14,
    1992.
  • Specific recommendations by the Earth Summit
    refer to the development and implementation of
    integrated environment and economic accounting,
    and indicators of sustainable development.
  • It was UNCHE that gave the impetus, both at the
    national and international levels, to the
    development of environment statistics as a new
    field of official statistics.
  • The first initiatives pertaining to the
    development of environment statistics at the
    international level stemmed from two meetings of
    the Economic Commission for Europe in 1973.

5
I. Introduction (contd)
  • A draft programme of international work in
    environment statistics was first submitted to the
    Statistical Commission of the United Nations at
    its eighteenth session in 1974.
  • The Environment Unit within the former Statistics
    Division of the United Nations Economic
    Commission for Africa was operational in the late
    1980s.
  • In the early 1990s the Unit produced its first
    compendium entitled African Compendium of
    Environment Statistics 1991

6
I. Introduction (contd)
  • Environment statistics are now included in the
    African Statistical Yearbook publication.
  • The environment indicators that are included in
    the publication are
  • Carbon dioxide emissions per capita in metric
    tons
  • Percentage of protected area to total surface
    area and
  • Proportion of population using improved
    sanitation facilities.
  • The sources of the data are the Millennium
    Development Goals database at the United Nations
    Statistics Division and the data collected
    through the UNSD/UNEP Questionnaires which have
    been administered every two years

7
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators
  • There are global as well as regional frameworks
    for the development of environment statistics
  • Global frameworks
  • Framework for the development of Environment
    Statistics (FDES) UNSD
  • Commission for Sustainable Development
    frameworks (CSD)
  • (Driving force-State-Response
    Thematic/sub-thematic frameworks, two sets)
  • Regional frameworks
  • Pressure-State-Response framework (OECD)
  • Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response
    (Eurostat and EEA)
  • Theme-Issues-Indicator-Data matrix (NEPAD /
    AEO-2)

8
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
9
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Framework for the development of environment
    statistics covers
  • Statistics on human settlement
  • Statistics of the Natural Environment 
  • I. Scope and characteristics of statistics of the
    natural environment
  • Characteristics of bio-physical data
  • Data variables are based on scientific readings
    from instruments or laboratory analysis
  • Analytical data are produced from ground surveys
    and remote sensing imagery, frequently recorded
    in mapped form

10
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Sampling frameworks are based on spatial
    distributions
  • Longer time intervals are required in order to
    detect significant environmental changes
  • Natural spatial units are used
  • Data are based on physical measuring units
  • There is lack of well developed methods and
    techniques
  • Bio-physical data are largely obtained from
  • Monitoring programmes
  • Natural resource inventories
  • Mapping and survey activities
  • Interpretation of remote sensing imagery
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

11
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • A. Social and Economic activities and Natural
    Resources
  • A.1. Use of Natural Resources and related
    activities
  • A.1.1 Agriculture
  • A.1.2.Forestry
  • A.1.3 Hunting and trapping
  • A.1.4 Fisheries
  • A.1.5 Minerals, mining and quarrying
  • A.1.6 Energy production and consumption
  • A.1.7 Water use for human activities
  • A.1.8 Land use and environmental restructuring

12
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • A.2. Emissions, waste loadings and application of
    bio-chemicals
  • A.2.1 Emissions and waste loadings in
    environmental media
  • A.2.2 Application of bio-chemicals
  • A.3. Natural events
  • B. Environmental impacts of activities and events
  • B.1. Resource depletion and increase
  • B.1.1 Biological resources
  • B.1.2 Cyclical and non-renewable resources
  •  

13
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • B.2. Environmental quality
  • B.2.1 Atmospheric pollution
  • B.2.2 Water quality
  • B.2.3 Soil and land quality
  • B.2.4 Quality of biota and ecosystems
  •  
  • B.3. Human health and environmental disasters
  • B.3.1 Human health and contamination
  • B.3.2 Impacts of environmental disasters

14
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • C. Responses to environmental impacts
  • C.1. Resource management and rehabilitation
  • C.1.1 Protection and conservation of nature
  • C.1.2 Management and conservation of natural
    resources
  • C.1.3 Rehabilitation of degraded environments
  •  
  • C.2. Pollution monitoring and control
  • C.2.1 Pollution research and surveillance
  • C.2.2 Standards, control and enforcement
  • C.2.3 Environmental clean-up and rehabilitation
  • C.2.4 Public pollution control facilities
  •  
  • C.3. Prevention and hazard mitigation of natural
    disasters
  •  
  • C.4. Private sector responses
  • C.4.1 Enterprises
  • C.4.2 Households

15
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • D. Stocks and inventories
  • D.1. Biological resources
  • D.1.1 Agricultural stocks
  • D.1.2 Forestry stocks
  • D.1.3 Fishery stocks
  • D.1.4 Fauna and flora inventories
  •   D.2. Cyclical and non-renewable resources
  • D.2.1 Hydrological systems
  • D.2.2 Climate
  • D.2.3 Lithosphere
  • D.2.4 Mineral resources
  •   D.3. Energy stocks
  • D.3.1 Non-renewable energy resources
  • D.3.2 Renewable energy resources
  •   D.4. Ecosystem inventory

16
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
17
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
18
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
19
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
20
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Indicators of Sustainable Development Third
    edition
  • 14 themes 44 Sub-themes 96 Indicators
  • Atmosphere
  • Climate Change
  • Carbon dioxide emissions (Core indicator)
  • Emissions of greenhouse gases (Other indicator)
  • Ozone Layer Depletion
  • Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Other
    indicator)
  • Air Quality
  • Ambient concentration of air pollutants in urban
    areas (Core indicator)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Area of selected key ecosystems (Other indicator)
  • Fragmentation of habitats (Other indicator)
  • Management effectiveness of protected areas
    (Other indicator)
  • Proportion of terrestrial area protected, total
    and by ecological region (Core indicator)

21
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Species
  • Abundance of invasive alien species (Other
    indicator)
  • Abundance of selected key species (Other
    indicator)
  • Change in threat status of species (Core
    indicator)
  •  
  • Consumption and Production Patterns
  • Energy Use
  • Intensity of energy use, total and by economic
    activity (Other indicator)
  • Annual energy consumption, total and by main user
    category (Core indicator)
  • Share of renewable energy sources in total energy
    use (Other indicator)
  • Waste Generation and Management
  • Generation of hazardous wastes (Core indicator)
  • Management of radioactive waste (Other indicator)
  • Waste treatment and disposal (Core indicator)
  • Generation of waste (Other indicator)

22
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Material Consumption
  • Domestic material consumption (Other indicator)
  • Material intensity of the economy (Core
    indicator)
  • Transportation
  • Modal split of freight transport (Other
    indicator)
  • Modal split of passenger transport (Core
    indicator)
  • Energy intensity of transport (Other indicator)
  •   
  • Demographics
  • Population
  • Population growth rate (Core indicator)
  • Total fertility rate (Other indicator)
  • Dependency ratio (Core indicator)
  • Tourism
  • Ratio of local residents to tourists in major
    tourist regions and destinations (Other
    indicator)

23
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Economic Development
  • Employment
  • Employment-to-population ratio (Core indicator)
  • Labour productivity and unit labour cost (Core
    indicator)
  • Share of women in wage employment in
    non-agricultural sector (Core indicator)
  • Vulnerable employment (Other indicator)
  • Information and communication technologies
  • Mobile cellular telephone subscribers per 100
    population (Other indicator)
  • Internet users per 100 population (Core
    indicator)
  • Fixed telephone lines per 100 population (Other
    indicator)
  • Macroeconomic Performance
  • Gross domestic product per capita (Core
    indicator)
  • Investment share in gross domestic product (Core
    indicator)
  • Adjusted net saving as a percentage of gross
    national income (Core indicators)
  • Gross saving (Core indicators)
  • Inflation rate (Core indicators)

24
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Research and development
  • Gross domestic expenditure on research and
    development as a percent of gross domestic
    product (Other indicator)
  • Sustainable public finance
  • Debt-to-GNI ratio (Core indicator)
  • Tourism
  • Tourism contribution to GDP (Core indicator)
  •  
  • Education
  • Education level
  • Adult secondary (tertiary) schooling attainment
    level (Core indicator)
  • Net enrolment rate in primary education (Core
    indicator)
  • Gross intake ratio to last grade of primary
    education (Core indicator)
  • Life-long learning (Other indicator)
  • Literacy
  • Adult literacy rate (Core indicator)
  •  

25
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Fresh Water
  • Water Quality
  • Biochemical oxygen demand in water bodies (Other
    indicator)
  • Presence of faecal coliforms in freshwater (Core
    indicator )
  • Wastewater treatment (Other indicator)
  • Water Quantity
  • Water use intensity by economic activity (Core
    indicator)
  • Proportion of total water resources used (Core
    indicator)
  • Global economic partnership
  • Trade
  • Average tariff imposed on exports from developing
    countries and IDCs (Other indicator)
  • Share of imports from developing countries and
    LDCs (Other indicator)
  • External financing
  • Current account deficit as percentage of GDP
    (Core indicator)
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI) net inflows and
    net outflows as share of GDP (Other indicator)
  • Remittances as percentage of GNI (Other
    indicator)
  • Net official development assistance given or
    received as a percentage of gross national income
    (Core indicator)

26
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Governance
  • Corruption
  • Percentage of population having paid bribes (Core
    indicator)
  • Crime
  • Number of intentional homicides per 100,000
    population (Core indicator)
  • Health
  • Healthcare Delivery
  • Contraceptive prevalence rate (Other indicator)
  • Percent of population with access to primary
    health care facilities (Core indicator)
  • Immunization against infectious childhood
    diseases (Core indicator)
  • Health status and risks
  • Prevalence of tobacco use (Other indicator)
  • Suicide rate (Other indicator)
  • Morbidity of major diseases such as HIV/AIDS,
    malaria, tuberculosis (Core indicator)
  • Mortality
  • Life expectancy at birth (Core indicator)
  • Under-five mortality rate (Core indicator)
  • Mortality and morbidity
  • Healthy life expectancy at birth (Other
    indicator)

27
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Land
  • Agriculture
  • Arable and permanent cropland area (Core
    indicator )
  • Area under organic farming (Other indicator)
  • Fertilizer use efficiency (Other indicator)
  • Use of agricultural pesticides (Other indicator)
  • Forests
  • Area of forest under sustainable forest
    management (Other indicator)
  • Percent of forest trees damaged by defoliation
    (Other indicator)
  • Proportion of land area covered by forests (Core
    indicator)
  • Land use and status
  • Land degradation (Other indicator)
  • Land use change (Other indicator)
  • Desertification
  • Land affected by desertification (Other
    indicator)
  •  

28
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Natural hazards
  • Disaster Preparedness and Response
  • Human and economic loss due to disasters (Other
    indicator)
  • Vulnerability to natural hazards
  • Percentage of population living in hazard prone
    areas (Core indicator )
  • Ocean, seas and coasts
  • Coastal Zone
  • Bathing water quality (Other indicator)
  • Percentage of total population living in coastal
    areas (Core indicator)
  • Fisheries
  • Proportion of fish stocks within their safe
    biological limits180 (Core indicator)
  • Marine environment
  • Area of coral reef ecosystems and percentage live
    cover (Other indicator)
  • Marine trophic index (Other indicator)
  • Proportion of marine areas protected (Core
    indicator)

29
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • Poverty
  • Income poverty
  • Proportion of population living below national
    poverty line (Core indicator)
  • Proportion of population below 1 a day (Other
    indicator)
  • Inequality
  • Ratio of share in national income of highest to
    lowest quintile (Core indicator)
  • Access to energy
  • Share of households without electricity or other
    modern energy services (Core indicator)
  • Percentage of population using solid fuels for
    cooking (Other indicator)
  • Living conditions
  • Proportion of urban population living in slums
    (Core indicator)
  • Drinking Water
  • Proportion of population using an improved water
    source (Core indicator)
  • Sanitation
  • Proportion of population using improved
    sanitation facilities (Core indicator)

30
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
  • II.6 Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response
    (DPSIR) framework (Eurostat and EEA)
  •  
  • Driving Forces
  • Basic sectoral trends in (ex. energy generation,
    transport, industry, agriculture, tourism)
  •  
  • Pressure
  • Human activities directly affecting the
    environment (ex. carbon dioxide or methane
    emissions)
  •  
  • State
  • Observable changes of the environment, (ex.
    rising global temperatures)
  •  
  • Impact
  • Effects of changed environment, (ex. decrease in
    agricultural production, hurricanes, floods)
  •  
  • Response
  • Responses of society to solve the problem, (ex.
    research on solar energy, energy taxes)

31
II. Frameworks of environmental statistics and
indicators (contd)
32
III. Global indicator sets
  • The most politically important indicator sets for
    Africa
  • 1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • 8 Goals, 21 targets, 60 indicators
  • Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 10
    indicators
  • 2. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
  • Thematic / sub-thematic framework (CSD) 3rd set
  • 14 themes, 44 sub-themes, 50 core indicators, 46
    other indicators
  • 41 indicators that deal with environmental issues
  • NEPAD / AEO-2 Indicators (May, 2005)
  • Thematic areas 11, priority issues 47, lead
    indicators 154

33
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