ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES


1
ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
  • CHAPTER 19

2
What is Ecology?
  • The study of interactions between organisms and
    the living and non-living components of their
    environment.
  • Root oikos (household), same as economics
  • economy of nature

3
BIOSPHEREthin film of life covering an
otherwise lifeless planet
http//www.planet-earth.org/images/bluemarble.jpg
4
ECOSYSTEMIncludes all of the organisms (biotic)
and the non-living factors (abiotic) of an
environment found in a particular place
5
Biotic factors
  • All living things that affect the organism
  • Shelter (Cover from plants)
  • Competition
  • Predation
  • Parasites
  • Available food supply (plants and animals)
  • Symbiotic relationships (partnerships)

6
Abiotic factors
  • All non-living things that affect the organism
  • Oxygen concentration
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Amount of sunlight
  • Available nitrogen
  • Pollutants

7
COMMUNITYAll of the interacting organisms living
in an area (biotic factors)
danny.oz.au/travel/ new-zealand/p/1266-estuary.jpg

8
POPULATIONAll of the members of a species that
live in one place at one time
http//www.bionet.nsc.ru/booklet/images/imagesLabo
ratories/Kushnir3Big.jpg
http//www.buddycom.com/animal/special/elephant/el
ephwater.jpg
9
ORGANISMSimplest level of organization that
focuses on individual adaptations (variations in
a group that make the individual MORE FIT!)
http//131.183.60.23/brenda/brazil/organisms.jpg
10
BIOSPHERE
ECOSYSTEM
COMMUNITY
POPULATION
ORGANISM
11
Interconnectedness and Disturbance
http//www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/images/big05.gif
12
Ecological Niche (NICH)
  • Where it lives?
  • When is it active?
  • What it eats?

www.vancouver.wsu.edu/.../ holbrook06-2003.html
13
Niche
  • The range of environmental conditions in which an
    organism can survive.
  • There are two kind
  • Fundamental Niche
  • Realized Niche

14
Niche Types
  • Fundamental Niche
  • What the organisms is able to do
  • What it could eat
  • Where it could live
  • When it could be active
  • Realized Niche
  • What the organism actually does
  • Due to competition
  • Due to preference
  • Due to a lack of options
  • Usually Most highly adapted to

15
The Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • What do you think this term means?
  • No two organisms can occupy the same niche
  • One organism will out-compete the other
  • Those organism which are more poorly suited will
    either die or have to find a new niche where they
    can survive

16
Niche Differences
  • Generalists
  • Broad niches
  • Tolerate a wide range
  • of conditions
  • Able to adjust easily to disturbances
  • Jack-of-all-trades
  • Specialists
  • Narrow niches
  • Very specific needs
  • Vulnerable to disturbances
  • Really good at what they do
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ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

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Title: ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES


1
ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
  • CHAPTER 19

2
What is Ecology?
  • The study of interactions between organisms and
    the living and non-living components of their
    environment.
  • Root oikos (household), same as economics
  • economy of nature

3
BIOSPHEREthin film of life covering an
otherwise lifeless planet
http//www.planet-earth.org/images/bluemarble.jpg
4
ECOSYSTEMIncludes all of the organisms (biotic)
and the non-living factors (abiotic) of an
environment found in a particular place
5
Biotic factors
  • All living things that affect the organism
  • Shelter (Cover from plants)
  • Competition
  • Predation
  • Parasites
  • Available food supply (plants and animals)
  • Symbiotic relationships (partnerships)

6
Abiotic factors
  • All non-living things that affect the organism
  • Oxygen concentration
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Amount of sunlight
  • Available nitrogen
  • Pollutants

7
COMMUNITYAll of the interacting organisms living
in an area (biotic factors)
danny.oz.au/travel/ new-zealand/p/1266-estuary.jpg

8
POPULATIONAll of the members of a species that
live in one place at one time
http//www.bionet.nsc.ru/booklet/images/imagesLabo
ratories/Kushnir3Big.jpg
http//www.buddycom.com/animal/special/elephant/el
ephwater.jpg
9
ORGANISMSimplest level of organization that
focuses on individual adaptations (variations in
a group that make the individual MORE FIT!)
http//131.183.60.23/brenda/brazil/organisms.jpg
10
BIOSPHERE
ECOSYSTEM
COMMUNITY
POPULATION
ORGANISM
11
Interconnectedness and Disturbance
http//www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/images/big05.gif
12
Ecological Niche (NICH)
  • Where it lives?
  • When is it active?
  • What it eats?

www.vancouver.wsu.edu/.../ holbrook06-2003.html
13
Niche
  • The range of environmental conditions in which an
    organism can survive.
  • There are two kind
  • Fundamental Niche
  • Realized Niche

14
Niche Types
  • Fundamental Niche
  • What the organisms is able to do
  • What it could eat
  • Where it could live
  • When it could be active
  • Realized Niche
  • What the organism actually does
  • Due to competition
  • Due to preference
  • Due to a lack of options
  • Usually Most highly adapted to

15
The Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • What do you think this term means?
  • No two organisms can occupy the same niche
  • One organism will out-compete the other
  • Those organism which are more poorly suited will
    either die or have to find a new niche where they
    can survive

16
Niche Differences
  • Generalists
  • Broad niches
  • Tolerate a wide range
  • of conditions
  • Able to adjust easily to disturbances
  • Jack-of-all-trades
  • Specialists
  • Narrow niches
  • Very specific needs
  • Vulnerable to disturbances
  • Really good at what they do
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