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Promoting Well-Being: Strategies for Community Change

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Strategies for Community Change Dr. Isaac Prilleltensky Dean, School of Education University of Miami isaacp_at_miami.edu www.education.miami.edu/isaac – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Promoting Well-Being: Strategies for Community Change


1
Promoting Well-Being Strategies for Community
Change
  • Dr. Isaac Prilleltensky
  • Dean, School of Education
  • University of Miami
  • isaacp_at_miami.edu
  • www.education.miami.edu/isaac
  • Dr. Ora Prilleltensky
  • Department of Educational and Psychological
    Studies
  • University of Miami
  • ora_at_miami.edu

2
The Grameen Bank
3
Overview of Presentation
  • Well-Being
  • Signs and Sources
  • Personal
  • Organizational
  • Community
  • Strategies
  • SPEC approaches
  • ROWS assessments
  • I VALUE IT techniques

4
Part I
  • Signs and Sources
  • of Well-Being

5
What is Well-being?
  • Well-being is a positive state of affairs,
    brought about by the simultaneous satisfaction of
    personal, organizational, and collective needs of
    individuals and communities

6
Research on Well-being
  • There cannot be well-being but in the combined
    presence of personal, organizational and
    community well-being

organizational
W
personal
community
7
Signs of Personal Well-Being
  • Hope and optimism
  • Sense of control and self-determination
  • Environmental mastery and self-efficacy
  • Growth and meaningful engagement
  • Love, intimacy, and social support

8
Risk of Death by Employment and Level of Control
Marmot, Whitehall Studies
9
EFFECTS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT
  • Less likely to have heart attacks
  • More likely to survive cancer
  • More likely to resist common cold virus
  • Lower mortality
  • Less degree of stress
  • More positive outlook on life
  • Resilience

10
Sources of Personal Well-being
  • Biological and constitutional factors
  • Early parenting experiences
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Supportive relationships in multiple contexts and
    settings
  • Opportunities for growth, engagement and
    self-determination

11
Signs of Organizational Well-Being
  • Efficient structures
  • Clear roles
  • Monitoring mechanisms
  • Planning and accountability
  • Growth opportunities
  • Fulfillment of needs
  • Identity and meaning
  • Collaboration
  • Democratic participation

12
Signs of Organizational Well-Being ERA
Environments
13
Signs of Organizational Well-Being Effective
Environments
  • Efficient
  • Task-oriented
  • Well-organized
  • Accountable
  • Responsible
  • Communicate well
  • Anticipate challenges
  • Enabling structures
  • Program evaluation

14
Signs of Organizational Well-Being Reflective
Environments
  • Learning opportunities
  • Organizational learning
  • Challenge old notions
  • Take risks
  • Ask big questions
  • Promote innovation
  • Stimulating

15
Signs of Organizational Well-Being Affective
Environments
  • Climate of acceptance
  • Appreciation
  • Affirmation
  • Respect
  • Safe place
  • Sense of control
  • Conviviality
  • Voice and choice

16
Sources of Organizational Well-Being Values,
interests, power (VIP)
  • Competing tendencies within people and groups

Values
Power
Interests
17
         
In every act, in every interaction, in every
social action, we hold each other accountable to
promote   Peoples dignity, safety, hope and
growth Relationships based on caring, compassion
and respect Societies based on justice, communion
and equality   We are all better when these
values are in balance   To put these values into
action, we will   Share our power Be proactive
and not just reactive Transform the conditions
that create problems for youth Encourage youth
and families to promote a caring
community Nurture visions that make the
impossible, possible   We commit to uphold these
values with   Youth and their Families Our
Employees Our Organization Our Community   This
is a living document. We invite you to discuss
it, to critique it, to live it
18
Signs of Community Well-being
  • Social justice and equality
  • Liberation from oppressive forces
  • Quality education
  • Adequate health and social services
  • Economic prosperity
  • Adequate housing
  • Clean and safe environment
  • Support for community structures

19
Sources of Community Well-being
  • Poverty
  • Power
  • Participation

20
Social capital and community well-being
Low SC LA, MS, GA Med SC CA, MO, OK Hi SC ND,
SD, VT, MN
21
Male Life Expectancy by Inequality
22
Life expectancy at age 15 - males
23
Cake of Well-being
Easy temperament Physical health Adequate birth
weight
Good parenting Mutual Support Good mental health
Child
Parental Family
Child care Good schools Adequate
housing Cohesion Access to health care
Community
Employment Justice Safety nets Quality education
Societal
24
Mountain of Risk
Poor temperament Poor health Birth weight
Teen parenting Family size Stressors Poor
parenting Addictions Poor mental health
Child
Parental Family
No child care Poor housing Lack of cohesion Crime
Community
Poverty Injustice Violence Discrimination
Societal
25
Part II
  • Strategies for Well-Being

26
9/7/1854Removing the Handle
27
Getting To The Bottom Of It.
  • No mass disorder, afflicting humankind, has ever
    been eliminated, or brought under control, by
    treating the affected individual
  • HIV/AIDS, poverty, child abuse, powerlessness are
    not eliminated one person at a time.

28
Changing how we work The SPECS of Well-Being
  • From
  • Deficits-based
  • Reactive
  • Arrogance
  • Individual blame
  • To
  • Strengths-based
  • Primary Prevention
  • Empowerment
  • Community Change

29
Strategies Time and Place
Collective
X
Reactive
Proactive
Individual
30
Strategies Time and Place
Collective
Quadrant IV Examples Food banks, shelters for
homeless people, charities, prison industrial
complex
Quadrant I Examples Community development,
affordable housing policy, recreational
opportunities, high quality schools and health
services
Proactive
Reactive
Quadrant II Examples Skill building, emotional
literacy, fitness programs, personal improvement
plans, resistance to peer pressure in drug and
alcohol use
Quadrant III Examples Crisis work, therapy,
medications, symptom containment, case management
Individual
31
Too Little, Too Late
CONTINUUM OF SERVICES
Wellness Promotion
Treatment
Prevention
1
99
BUDGET ALLOCATION
32
Prevention Saves Money
33
Mismatch between spending and opportunity
Decline of brain flexibility
in young age
Increase of public spending
in old age
Age
34
Strategies Abilities and Participation
Strengths
X
Detachment
Empowerment
Deficits
35
Strategies Ability and Participation
Strength
Quadrant I Examples Voice and choice in
celebrating and building competencies,
recognition of personal and collective resilience
Quadrant IV Examples Just say no! You can do it!
Cheerleading approaches, Make nice approaches
Empowerment
Detachment
Quadrant III Examples Labeling and diagnosis,
patienthood and clienthood, citizens in
passive role
Quadrant II Examples Voice and choice in deficit
reduction approaches, participation in decisions
how to treat affective disorders or physical
disorders
Deficit
36
ASSESSING FOR WELL-BEING
  • Why do we need it?
  • How do we do it?

37
THIS IS NOT ALGEBRA, BUT
  • B f(PE).

38
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory
  • Microsystem
  • Mesosystem
  • Exosystem
  • Macrosystem

39
Context Minimization Error
  • Tendency to ignore the impact of enduring
    neighborhood and community contexts on human
    behavior. The error has adverse consequences for
    understanding psychological processes and efforts
    at social change (Shinn and Toohey, 2003, p.
    428).

40
TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENTS
  • Minimize environmental barriers (Risks)
  • Neglect environmental resources (Opportunities)
  • Highlight personal deficits (Weaknesses)
  • Underemphasize personal assets (Strengths)

41
ROWS for Well-Being
  • Risks
  • Opportunities
  • Weaknesses
  • Strengths

42
Strategies I VALUE IT
  • I VALUE IT
  • Inclusive host
  • Visionary
  • Asset seeker
  • Listener and sense maker
  • Unique solution finder
  • Evaluator
  • Implementer
  • Trendsetter

43
Strategies ABCs for Change Agents
  • ABCs of Change
  • Affective - what your feel
  • Behavioral - what you do
  • Cognitive - what you think

44
Key Question
  • How do you engage people -affectively,
    behaviorally, and cognitively-in the process of
    promoting SPEC?

45
Strategies for Personal Change
  • SPEC
  • ROWS
  • I VALUE IT
  • Stages of Change

46
The ABC of challenging interactions
  • Client ABC
  • Helper ABC

47
STAGES OF CHANGE
  • Pre-contemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance

48
PRECONTEMPLATION
  • No intention to change behavior
  • May be unaware of the problem
  • May want to change circumstances and other people
    but not own behavior
  • Usually resist change
  • Need to own problem in order to move ahead
  • Will progress toward change if given proper tools
    at proper time

49
CONTEMPLATION
  • Acknowledge problem and begin to think about
    overcoming it
  • May be far from making a commitment to action
  • Evaluate options but must avoid the trap of
    chronic contemplation
  • To move forward must take small steps of
    preliminary action

50
PREPARATION
  • Planning to take action within the near future
  • Includes some small behavioral changes
  • Need to set goals and priorities
  • Need to commit to a specific action plan

51
ACTION
  • Modification of behavior, experiences and/or
    environment to overcome problem
  • Requires overt behavioral change
  • Considerable commitment of time and energy
  • Change is most visible and receives the most
    external support
  • Key action-oriented change processes are required

52
MAINTENANACE
  • Work to prevent relapse and consolidate gains
  • Maintenance is a continuation of change
  • Can last a lifetime for some behaviors
  • Relapse is the rule rather than the exception for
    problems such as addiction

53
TERMINATION
  • When there is no longer temptation to return to
    troubling behaviors
  • Termination of treatment and termination of a
    problem are not coincidental

54
IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS
  • Particular processes of change should be
    emphasized during particular stages of change.
  • Knowing a clients stage along the change process
    can provide us with important information as to
    what to do to help that client move along the
    continuum.
  • Treatments that are quite effective in one stage
    can be ineffective or even detrimental in another
    stage

55
I VALUE IT
Strategies/ABC AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL COGNITIVE
Inclusive host
Visionary
Asset seeker
Listener and sense maker
Unique solution finder
Evaluator
Implementer
Trendsetter
56
The Case of Sister Margaret
  • Personal well-Being
  • Organizational Well-being
  • Community Well-being

57
Strategies for Organizational Change
  • SPECS
  • I VALUE IT
  • ROWS

58
New SPECs Three-year action research project
Oasis Center
Bethlehem Center
UNHS
59
Outcomes of NEW SPECS PROJECT
  • New mission statements
  • New outreach programs
  • More youth and client involvement
  • Assessment of projects in light of SPEC
  • More prevention efforts
  • Empowered counselors
  • Blending of therapy with social change

60
Assessing the SPECiness of 166 programs
Strength-Based Programs
61
Prevention vs. Treatment
62
Empowerment By Number of Programs
63
Changing Community Conditions By Number of
Programs
64
Little funding for community change
65
Strategies for Community Change
  • SPEC-type programs to promote family well-being
    and prevent child maltreatment
  • Promotion-prevention-early intervention continuum
  • Focusing the intervention at different
    ecological levels
  • Length and intensity of intervention
  • Value-based partnerships

66
Effect Sizes for Proactive and Reactive
Interventions on Family Outcomes at Post
Intervention and Follow-up
Source MacLeod Nelson (2000)
67
Multi-component Programs BBBF
  • Better Beginnings, Better Futures is a
    multi-component prevention program in 8
    low-income Ontario communities (Peters et al.,
    2000)
  • There are child-focused, family-focused, and
    community-focused programs in each community
  • The program uses two types of comparison groups
    to evaluate prevention program effectiveness (a
    baseline-focal cohort comparison and a
    longitudinal comparison community design)

68
Impacts on Child Maltreatment Number of Open
CAS Cases in Highfield Community over Time
Source Peters et al. (2002)
69
Effect Sizes for Preschool Interventions on Child
and Family Outcomes at K-8 by Length and
Intensity of the Intervention for Children
Source Nelson, Westhues, MacLeod (2002)
70
Effect Sizes for Intensive Family Preservation
Programs on Out of Home Placement Rates
Source MacLeod Nelson (2000)
71
Can SPEC Programs Promote Family Well-Being and
Prevent Child Maltreatment? YES!
  • There is evidence of four best practice
    dimensions that are quite important for promoting
    the well-being of families and preventing the
    maltreatment of children
  • promotion programs that target
  • multiple levels,
  • are of long duration and intensity,
  • and blend the strengths of professionals and
    community members

72
Community Well-Being in Kerala
Personal Empowerment
Social Movements
Government Action
Processes
Community Wellness
Relational Wellness
Personal Wellness
Social support Sense of cohesion
Tenancy laws Nutrition in school Distribution
Of resources Land reform
Lower Infant mortality Higher Literacy Better
Nutrition Longer life expectancy
Outcomes
73
Its like Venice..
74
Venices Lesson
  • The psychotherapist, social worker (teacher) or
    social reformer, concerned only with his own
    clients (and students) and their grievance
    against society, perhaps takes a view comparable
    to the private citizen of Venice who concerns
    himself only with the safety of his own dwelling
    and his own ability to get about the city. But if
    the entire republic is slowly being submerged,
    individual citizens cannot afford to ignore their
    collective fate, because, in the end, they all
    drown together if nothing is done (Badcock,
    1982)

75
Can we do it? Can we Promote SPEC for Children
and Families?
  • Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful,
    committed citizens can change the world. Indeed,
    it is the only thing that ever has.
  • Margaret Mead
  • 1901-1978
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