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Including and Teaching Children with Down Syndrome in Head Start Classrooms

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Including and Teaching Children with Down Syndrome in Head Start Classrooms Susan Sandall Head Start Center for Inclusion ssandall_at_u.washington.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Including and Teaching Children with Down Syndrome in Head Start Classrooms


1
Including and Teaching Children with Down
Syndrome in Head Start Classrooms
  • Susan Sandall
  • Head Start Center for Inclusion
  • ssandall_at_u.washington.edu

2
Head Start Center for Inclusion
  • Goal
  • To increase the competence, confidence, and
    effectiveness of personnel in Head Start programs
    to include children with disabilities
  • Guiding Principles
  • The success of inclusion depends on everyone
    realizing that it involves much more than
    children just being there.
  • Inclusion refers to the full and active
    participation of young children with disabilities
    in everyday settings.

3
What is Down Syndrome?
  • Developmental disability
  • Three copies of the 21st chromosome (rather than
    two)
  • Associated with cognitive disability

4
Remember
  • Individuals with Down syndrome attend school,
    work, participate in family and community
    activities, make decisions, and contribute to
    society in many ways.

5
Early Identification
  • 1 in 733 babies
  • Occurs in people of all races and economic levels
  • Incidence increases with age of mother

6
Down Syndrome Rate Per 1,000 Livebirths by
Maternal Age
100.0
10.0
Rate Per 1,000
1.0
30
35
40
45
15
20
25
Maternal Age
Adapted from Hook E. B.
7
Early Identification
  • 1 in 733 babies
  • Occurs in people of all races and economic levels
  • Incidence increases with age of mother
  • Originally named based on collection of
    symptoms or characteristics

8
Hall's Cardinal Signs (1966)
  1. Flat facial profile
  2. Absent Moro
  3. Hypotonia
  4. Dysplastic ear
  5. Webbing at neck
  6. Oblique palpebral fissures
  7. Hyperflexible joints
  8. Dysplastic pelvis
  9. Dysplastic middle phalanx - 5th finger
  10. Simian crease

9
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10
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11
Early Identification
  • 1 in 733 babies
  • Occurs in people of all races and economic levels
  • Incidence increases with age of mother
  • Originally named based on collection of
    symptoms or characteristics
  • Prenatal diagnosis

12
Three Forms of Down Syndrome
  • Trisomy 21
  • 95
  • Translocation
  • 3-4
  • Mosaic
  • 1-2

13
Associated Medical and Health Concerns
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Sensory deficits
  • Hearing
  • Vision
  • Endocrine abnormalities
  • Orthopedic problems
  • Dental problems
  • Obesity
  • Others

14
  • Many of these medical conditions are treatable,
    so many individuals with Down syndrome lead
    healthy, active lives.
  • Life expectancy for individuals with Down
    syndrome has increased dramatically.

15
Early Intervention
  • Most children with Down syndrome participate in
    infant-toddler (Part C of IDEA) programs and/or
    other special services

16
Part C of IDEA
  • Birth to third birthday
  • IFSP
  • Early education, therapies, other services,
    family support
  • Variety of service delivery options
  • Home visiting
  • Groups (play groups, child care, preschool)

17
Early Childhood
  • Part B of IDEA
  • IEP
  • Early education, therapies, family support
  • Variety of service delivery options and settings
  • Classroom, itinerant services, consultation, dual
    enrollment

18
Meeting the Needs of Children with Down Syndrome
  • Delays and disabilities across developmental
    domains

19
Downs syndrome progress Normal progress
Smile
Sit
Walk
Words
Toilet Training
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
8
9
10
Birth
Age in years
Early development performance of Downs syndrome
children raised at home compared to that of
normal children. The widest point in each diamond
represents the average age for performance, and
the spread of the diamonds represents the range.
20
Meeting the Needs of Children with Down Syndrome
  • Delays and disabilities across developmental
    domains
  • Modifications
  • Direct or deliberate teaching
  • Embedded within ongoing activities and routines

21
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23
Physical Development and Intervention
  • Hypotonia
  • Refine gross motor skills
  • Incorporate social aspects (play games,
    playground equipment)
  • Refine fine motor skills
  • Handwriting and tool use are difficult
  • Importance of direct teaching
  • Caution orthopedic concerns

24
Speech and Language Development and Intervention
  • Functional communication system
  • Verbal speech
  • Sign language (total communication)
  • Picture systems AAC
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary building
  • Reading
  • Two areas of difficulty
  • Syntax
  • Intelligibility
  • Caution hearing loss

25
Cognitive Development and Intervention
  • Mild to moderate delays
  • Importance of direct teaching
  • Divide tasks into small steps
  • Repetition and practice
  • Praise and other forms of reinforcement
  • Visual supports and real objects
  • Prompts (but aim for independence)

26
Self-help Development and Intervention
  • Divide tasks into small steps
  • Repetition and practice
  • Praise and other forms of reinforcement
  • Visual supports and real objects
  • Prompts (but aim for independence)
  • Toilet training
  • Determine readiness, work with family, work with
    special educator

27
Social-Emotional Development
  • Awareness and interest in peers - area of
    strength
  • Delays in physical, language, cognitive skills
    may interfere
  • Low stamina
  • Importance of direct teaching - what skill is
    needed to participate?

28
Challenging Behavior
  • Common behavioral concerns
  • Wandering off
  • Stubborn/oppositional behavior
  • Attention problems

29
Addressing Behavioral Challenges
  • Rule out a medical problem that might be related
    to the behavior (e.g., hearing)
  • Use principles of positive behavior support
  • Identify the function of the behavior and develop
    a plan

30
Schooling and Adulthood
  • Elementary and Secondary School
  • Reading, writing, math
  • Individual differences
  • Inclusion
  • Adulthood
  • Work
  • Meaningful participation
  • Health

31
25 year follow-upHanson, 2003
  • N12 (15 in original sample)
  • Participated in home-based EI for 3 years
    (1974-1977)
  • Weekly visits, behavioral, parents as teachers
  • Semi-structured interviews, parents and children

32
Findings
  • Parent perceptions and experiences (positive
    characteristics, positive aspects of child
    rearing, sorrows difficulties, hopes)
  • Supports and services for families (advocates,
    importance of early intervention)
  • Childrens educational placements
  • Childrens lives in adulthood

33
Importance of
  • Quality educational programs
  • Responsive home environments
  • Good health care
  • Support from family, friends and the community
  • For long and fulfilling lives.
  • (National Down Syndrome Society, 2009)

34
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