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The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution

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Chapter 26 The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution 1865 1896 Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution


1
The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution
Chapter 26
  • 1865 1896
  • Up to our own day American history has been in a
    large degree the history of the colonization of
    the Great West. The existence of an area of free
    land, its continuous recession, and the advance
    of American settlement westward, explain American
    development.
  • - Frederick Jackson Turner

2
A. The Clash of Cultures on the Plains
  • Tell your people that since the Great Father
    promised that we should never be removed we have
    been moved five times. . . I think you had better
    put the Indians on wheels and you can run them
    about wherever you wish. Sioux Commission
  • Fort Laramie Treaty marked beginning of
    reservation system
  • Indians surrendered lands in return for
    sovereignty
  • White settlers brought disease and hunted buffalo
    to near extinction
  • Federal Indian agents often corrupt, selling
    government supplies and substituting moth-eaten
    blankets and spoiled meat.

3
1. Who were the Buffalo Soldiers?
  • At the start of the Civil War, the government
    withdrew the western army to concentrate on
    ending the rebellion.
  • 186,000 black soldiers participated in the Civil
    War
  • Many people feared armed Negro soldiers near
    their communities.
  • They were also afraid of the labor market being
    flooded with a new source of labor.

Because of their courage, the Native Americans
called the black regiments buffalo soldiers.
4
2. Why a Buffalo Soldier?
  • Many African-Americans joined the military for
    the economic benefits
  • When Congress reorganized the peacetime army, it
    formed two segregated regiments of black cavalry,
    the Ninth and Tenth United States Cavalry
  • The troops were sent west to join the army's
    fight with the Indians.

5
B. Receding Native Population
  • 1. Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado, 1864
  • Col. Chivingtons militia killed several hundred
    Cheyenne and Arapaho people, most of whom were
    still sleeping, believing they were under
    immunity.
  • The federal government condemned the incident,
    and attempted to make amends to those who
    survived by giving them money.
  • Women were shot praying for mercy, children had
    their brains dashed out, and braves were
    tortured, scalped, and unspeakably mutilated.

6
1. Cruelty begot cruelty, 1866
  • Sioux war party trying to stop construction of
    Bozeman Trail to Montana goldfields
  • Ambushed Capt. Fettermans unit
  • 81 soldiers and civilians mutilated
  • Govt. abandoned Bozeman Trail in Treaty of Fort
    Laramie, 1868

7
2. Battle of Little Big Horn
  • Also known as Custers Last Stand
  • Gold discovered in sacred Black Hills
  • Sioux encouraged by Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Sioux)
    to defend their land
  • Makes alliance with Crazy Horse (Oglala Sioux)
  • Custer and Seventh Cavalry wiped out trying to
    suppress uprising

8
Nez Perce and Chief Joseph After government
opens Wallowa Valley to mining and settlement,
Chief Joseph leads tribe north to escape forceful
relocation to reservation.
  • It is cold and we have no blankets.  The little
    children are freezing to death.  My people, some
    of them, have run away to the hills and have no
    blankets, no food.  No one knows where they
    are--perhaps freezing to death.  I want to have
    time to look for my children and see how many I
    can find.  Maybe I shall find them among the
    dead.      Hear me, my chiefs.  I am tired.  My
    heart is sick and sad.  From where the sun now
    stands, I will fight no more forever.

9
4. Fire-and-Sword Policy
  • Railroad brought unlimited troops, farmers,
    cattlemen, miners, settlers
  • White peoples diseases
  • Firewater

Chief of the Apache, last Native American to
surrender to US government
10
C. Bellowing Herds of Bison
  • Native Americans depended on buffalo for
  • Clothing
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • We took away their country and their means of
    support, broke up their mode of living, their
    habits of life, introduced disease and decay
    among them, and it was for this and against this
    they made war. Could anyone expect less? - Gen.
    Phil Sheridan

11

D. The End of the Trail
  • Helen Hunt Jacksons book, Century of Dishonor
    (1881) exposed the governments record toward
    Native Americans

12
1. The Ghost Dance
  • Begun in 1888 by Paiute holy man Wovoka.
  • His vision inspired the followers of the
    movement, believing the white man would disappear
    from the Earth after a natural catastrophe and
    that the Indian dead would return bringing with
    them the old way of life that would then last
    forever.
  • Indians had to practice the customs of the Ghost
    Dance movement and to renounce alcohol and
    farming and end mourning, since the resurrection
    would be coming soon.

13
2. Unlike other Dances
  • The Ghost Dance consisted of slow shuffling
    movements following the course of the sun.
  • It would be performed for four or five days and
    was accompanied by singing and chanting, but no
    drumming or other musical instruments. In
    addition, both men and women participated in the
    dance.
  • Word spread quickly and the Ghost Dance was
    accepted by the Utes, Bannocks and Shoshone
    tribes.

14
3. The Ghost Dance Shirt
  • Eventually, the Plains tribes also adopted the
    Ghost Dance movement and the peaceful message of
    hope was spreading and uplifting many Indians.
  • Many tribes added specific customs and rituals to
    the Dance that reflected their tribes
    individuality.
  • The Sioux added two specific elements including
    the use of hypnosis to bring about trances and
    aid in the communication with the dead, and a
    ghost shirt.
  • Made of buckskin or cloth, the shirt was said to
    make the wearer immune to bullets, a weapon of
    death known initially only to the white man.

15
4. Sitting Bull
  • A famous Sioux warrior, adopted the Ghost Dance
    into his way of life.
  • Before dawn on December 15th, 1890, the police
    burst into Sitting Bull's house, ordered him to
    his feet, and pushed him toward the door.
  • Outside, Sitting Bull's followers began to
    gather, vowing to keep them from taking their
    leader.
  • Sitting Bull hesitated, unsure what to do.
  • One of his supporters shot one of the policemen.
  • Sitting Bull was killed.
  • The soldiers now numbered around 500 the Indians
    350, all but 120 of these women and children.

Red Cloud, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, Chief Joseph
16
5. Frightened Indian Agent and the 7th Calvalry
  • His followers fled and joined the band of Kicking
    Bear.
  • Responding to the pleas of a frightened Indian
    agent, Washington dispatched 5,000 troops,
    including the Seventh Cavalry, Custer's old
    command.
  • Donning their ghost shirts and with their beliefs
    firm in their hearts, the followers of the Ghost
    Dance were rounded up at Wounded Knee Creek.

17
6. The Shirts did not stop the Bullets
  • The soldiers entered the camp demanding all
    Indian firearms be relinquished.
  • A scuffle ensued and a firearm discharged.
  • At first, the struggle was fought at close
    quarters, but when the Indians ran to take cover,
    the Hotchkiss artillery opened up on them,
    cutting them down.
  • Among those killed were women and children
    wearing their ghost shirts, which did not stop
    the bullets of the Indian Agencies or the
    Military.

18
7. It Lasted Less Than An Hour
  • Hotchkiss gun used against Indians at Wounded
    Knee. Corporal Weinart received Medal of Honor
    for his actions
  • Over 150 Indians were killed and 50 wounded by
    the end of this brutal, unnecessary violence,
    which lasted less than an hour.
  • In comparison, army casualties were 25 killed and
    39 wounded. Forsyth was later charged with
    killing the innocents, but exonerated.

19
There were dead people all over, mostly women and
children, in a ravine near a stream called
Chankpe-opi Wakpala, Wounded Knee Creek. The
people were frozen, lying there in all kinds of
postures, their motion frozen too. The soldiers,
who were stacking up bodies like firewood, did
not like us passing by. They told us to leave
there, double-quick or else.
8. There were dead people all over . . . .
20
9. Why?
  • Old Unc said "We'd better do what they say right
    now, or we'll lie there too." So we went on
    toward Pine Ridge, but I had seen. I had seen the
    dead mother with a dead baby sucking at her
    breast. The little baby had on a tiny beaded cap
    with the design of the American flag."

21
10. Kill the Indian and Save the Man Motto,
Carlisle Indian School
  • Dawes Act gave family heads 160 acres if they
    would behave like good white settlers
  • US citizenship granted in 1924
  • Carlisle Indian School separated children from
    their tribes to teach them white values and
    customs

22
11. Do You Have What It Takes to Be a
Pioneer? Turners Thesis
  • Stresses the importance of the continually
    advancing frontier on American culture
  • He described it as "the meeting point between
    savagery and civilization"
  • This advancing line "begins with the Indian and
    the hunter it goes on with the disintegration of
    savagery by the entrance of the trader... the
    pastoral stage in ranch life the exploitation of
    the soil by the raising of corn and wheat in
    sparsely settled farm communities the denser
    farm settlement and finally the manufacturing
    organization with the city and the factory
    system."

http//www.pbs.org/wnet/frontierhouse/multimedia/i
nteractive.html
23
E. Mining From Dishpan to Ore Breaker
  • Called gold-grubbers or Forty-niners
  • Comstock Lode largest silver deposit ever
    discovered
  • Encouraged westward movement
  • Financed
  • Civil War
  • Building railroads
  • Silver will become a campaign issue

24
Beef Bonanzas and The Long Drive
  • Movement to cities creates demand for cattle
  • Texas cowboys drove herds over plains to
    railheads
  • Abilene, Dodge City, Ogallala
  • Transcontinental Railroads brought homesteaders,
    sheepherders and barbed wire
  • Era of the cowboy began

25
1. The Era of the Cowboy
  • Long Drive ended after packing houses and
    refrigerator cars
  • Transcontinental railroad ended long drive
  • Live cattle shipped to stockyards
  • Beef barons Swift Armour in Chicago

26
G. The Farmers Frontier
  • Homestead Act of 1862 gave settlers 160 acres
  • Must remain 5 years and build house
  • Required dry farming shallow cultivation
  • Russian wheat
  • Barbed wire Joseph Glidden
  • Irrigation and Windmills
  • Sod houses, dirt floors, no running water, no
    toilets

27
H. The Far West Comes of Age
  • Oklahoma, given to Indians forever, opened to
    settlement in 1889
  • Federal troops shot horses of Boomers who
    illegally entered early
  • Settlers known as Sooners

28
I. The Fading Frontier
  • 1890 US announced the frontier was closed
  • Farming became an industry cash crops
  • Farmers compete with locusts, drought, floods,
    railroad freight rates, the economy

29
1. Pilgrims of the Plains
  • Mail order began under Aaron Montgomery Ward
    first catalogue

30
J. The Farm Becomes a Factory
  • New post Civil War high prices persuaded
    farmers to grow cash crops and use profits to
    buy supplies
  • Mechanization of agriculture makes America the
    breadbasket and the butcher of the world

31
K. Deflation Dooms the Debtor
  • Problems
  • Deflated currency due to static money supply
  • Increased production with machines reduced need
    for farm labor
  • Increased capital costs
  • Just lowered price of farm products

32
L. Unhappy Farmers
  • We will have water near the house for washing and
    watering stock, but for drinking and cooking I
    will have to haul a little over 1/4 of a mile
    till I get time to dig a well.        --Uriah to
    Mattie, April 27, 1873

Fifty miles to water, A hundred miles to
wood, To hell with this damned country, Im going
home for good
33
The Farmers Take Their Stand or Who were the
Grangers?
  • National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
  • Organized in 1867 by Oliver Kelley, Minnesota
    farmer
  • Goal was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers
    and encourage self-improvement
  • Established cooperative stores and grain
    elevators
  • Lobbied for regulation of railway rates

34
N. Prelude to Populism The Peoples Party
  • Farmers Alliance founded in 1870
  • Created new political party Populists
  • Platform
  • Nationalizing railroads, telephones, telegraph
  • Graduated income tax
  • Free and unlimited coinage of silver
  • Secured several Congressional seats in election
    of 1892

William Peffer, first Populist US Senator
35
O. Coxeys Army and the Pullman Strike
  • Group of unemployed American workers, led by the
    reformer Jacob Coxey
  • To protest a four-year economic depression, the
    worst in United States history to that time.
  • Expression "Enough food to feed Coxey's Army"
    originates from this march.

36
1. The Wizard of Oz?
  • The purpose was to protest the unemployment
    caused by the Panic of 1893 and to lobby for the
    government to create jobs building roads and
    other public works improvements.

37
2. First poor peoples march on DC
  • The march originated with 100 men in Ohio
  • Groups from around the country joined the march
  • Coxey and other leaders were arrested for
    walking on the grass of the US Capitol, and the
    rest of the men scattered.

38
3. Columbian Exposition Chicago, 1893
  • The US Postal Service produced its first picture
    postcards.
  • Cracker Jacks were introduced.
  • Aunt Jemima Syrup was introduced.
  • US Mint offers first commemorative coins a
    quarter, half dollar, and dollar.
  • Cream of Wheat was introduced.
  • Shredded Wheat was introduced.
  • Pabst Beer was introduced.
  • Juicy Fruit gum was introduced.
  • Diet carbonated soda was introduced.
  • The hamburger was introduced to the United
    States.
  • The carnival concept was born.

39
4. World's Columbian Exhibition Innovations and
Legacy
  • The first elevated electric railway ever built.
  • Gray's Teleautograph-A device that electrically
    reproduced handwriting at a distance.
  • Thomas Edison's kinetograph was a precursor to
    the movie projector.
  • George Ferris built the first Ferris Wheel.
  • The United States produced its first
    commemorative stamp set.

40
The White City http//www.randomhouse.com/crown/de
vilinthewhitecity
  • Largest single common artistic undertaking ever.
  • The world's first Ferris Wheel, invented by
    George W. Ferris, was on the Midway.
  • The 250-foot high steel structure had 36 cars
    carrying 60 persons each.

41
6. Dr. H. H. Holmes
  • "I was born with the devil in me. I could not
    help the fact that I was a murderer, no more than
    the poet can help the inspiration to sing." Dr.
    H. H. Holmes, confession, 1896

42
7. Young women come to the fair
  • Through fraud and shady business dealings, Holmes
    became successful and was soon looking for
    property to expand his empire.
  • The opportunity arrived when the undeveloped land
    across the street from the pharmacy went on sale.
  • Holmes immediately began to plan his "castle" a
    strange, ragged building with strange vaults,
    secret rooms, and a wooden chute that descended
    from the second floor all the way to the
    basement.
  • Not even the workers he hired to build it
    understood the full design of the building.
  • While Burnham and Root busied themselves with the
    preparation of their enchanting White City on the
    lake, Holmes was completing the construction of
    his castle at 63rd and Wallace.
  • The upcoming fair presented itself to Holmes as
    the perfect opportunity.
  • His dark castle would become a hotel for the
    fair.

43
8. Chicago Not a Happy Town
  • Pullman strike of 1894
  • Organized by Eugene V. Debs with American Railway
    Union
  • Company cut wages by 1/3, but kept company house
    rents the same
  • Pres. Cleveland ordered federal troops crush the
    strike for interfering the transit of US mail

44
P. Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan Election of
1896 The Gold Standard, Bimetallism, or 'Free
Silver'?
  • After the Civil War, Greenbacks were recalled
    until they could be backed 100 with gold.
  • This is known as the gold standard.
  • This caused inflation which hurt workers and
    borrowers

The Silver Candle, political cartoon
45
1. Whats the Deal with the Silver?
  • Farmers hoped that free silver might cause
    inflation and end depression

William Jennings Bryan Of Nebraska
46

2. Divides the Democrats
  • Democrats nominated Bryan on platform of
    unlimited coinage of silver
  • With gold ratio of 16 to 1

47
3. Cross of Gold speech
  • Bryans speech at Democratic convention
  • We will answer their demands for a gold standard
    by saying to them You shall not press down upon
    the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall
    not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.
  • US stopped using silver and sold surplus in 1970

48
4. Democratic Party Divided
A great exhibition, but rather trying on the one
in the middle Chicago Record, July, 1896
49
5. Election of 1896
  • William McKinley of Ohio Republican
  • Encouraged by Marcus Hanna, who believed business
    of government was aiding business
  • Democrats divided into
  • Silver Democrats
  • Gold Democrats
  • Prohibition Party also ran candidate

50
Class Conflict Plowholders Versus Bondholders
  • Disappointment at the Polls
  • New era of American politics
  • Last effort to win White House with farm voters
  • Less voter participation
  • Weakening of party organizations
  • Less importance of issues

51
R. Republican Stand-pattism Enthroned
  • McKinley won
  • High tariff passed to reward industrialists who
    had contributed to campaign
  • Needed to cover government deficits
  • End of Depression of 1893
  • New gold discoveries in Klondike kept US on gold
    standard
  • Ended silver demands

52
1. Assassination of President McKinley
  • Iit was poor medical technique not bullet which
    caused McKinley's death.
  • The wound was closed without disinfecting
  • McKinley died September 14, 1901 of gangrene.
  • Czolgosz was electrocuted on October 29 and
    "someone" then poured sulphuric acid on his face,
    while Czolgosz lay in his coffin, prior to a
    hasty burial.
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