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Global Citizenship

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Title: Global Citizenship Author: Hugh Watson Last modified by: Hugh Watson Created Date: 3/28/2008 7:57:24 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Citizenship


1
Global Citizenship
  • Human Rights and Non-Governmental Organizations

2
Key Terms
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) The
    international document adopted by the United
    Nations in 1948 that proclaims basic human rights
    for all people. Even though it cannot be
    enforced, the UDHR firmly establishes the
    principle of human rights and has inspired other
    human rights agreements.
  • Geneva Conventions Internationally recognized
    rules of conduct during war that protect military
    personnel, prisoners of war and civilians
  • Humanitarianism The belief that everyone
    deserves to be treated with respect and dignity
    and that the wellbeing of all humankind is a
    necessary and worthy goal
  • Genocide The systematic and deliberate attempt
    to kill all members of an ethnic, racial, or
    other cultural group.
  • Nuremburg Trials International trials held in
    the German city of Nuremburg (1945-1949) to try
    Nazis who oversaw the holocaust for war crimes.
    The trials influenced the creation of
    international criminal law and the movement for
    the establishment of an international criminal
    court
  • Conventions Formal agreements between two or
    more countries
  • Protocols Formal agreements between two or more
    countries codes of conduct.

3
Key Terms
  • International Criminal Court (ICC) The worlds
    first international criminal court, which was
    established by the United Nations in 2002 to
    prosecute individuals accused of war crimes and
    crimes against humanity.
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
    Not-for-Profit voluntary organizations that work
    to improve life and social conditions around the
    world (e.g. Oxfam, Greenpeace, Doctors without
    borders). Although they may receive some funding
    from government, NGOs are independent of
    government control.
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of all
    goods and services produced in a country in a
    given year.
  • Sanctions Military or economic measures by which
    one or more countries try to force another
    country to respect international law or human
    rights (e.g. by stopping trade or aid)
  • Terrorism The unlawful use or threatened use of
    extreme violence by individuals and groups to
    create widespread fear to achieve political
    goals.

4
The World after 1945
  • By 1945, most world leaders had a solid
    understanding of the following global events
  • The First World War (1914-1918)
  • The Second World War (1939-45)
  • The Horror of the Holocaust (1933-45)

Winston Churchill, Harry Truman And Joseph Stalin
5
The Creation of the United Nations
  • Understandably, many world leaders were keen to
    ensure that the failures of the past to achieve
    world peace would not be repeated.
  • The central question was How do we prevent
    another world war?
  • The Solution? The creation of an international
    forum for discussion and debate The United
    Nations

The United Nations New York City, USA
6
The Creation of the United Nations
  • On October 24th, 1945, the United Nations was
    created with the signing of the Charter of the
    United Nations.
  • In 1945 there were 51 member states.
  • Today, there are 191.

The United Nations General Assembly
7
The Creation of the United Nations
  • John Humpfrey, a professor of Law at McGill
    University in Montreal helped to draft the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • In this document, it states that all human beings
    have a right to
  • Life, Liberty, security of the person and a
    reasonable standard of living.
  • However, this document is a guideline and cannot
    be enforced by the UN. Why Not?

John Humpfrey
8
Canada and the United Nations
  • Canada has as a very distinguished reputation in
    the world for its record on human rights and its
    involvement in the UN. Consider the following
    facts
  • Canada has supported UN peacekeeping operations
    with over 100,000 personnel over the last 45
    years.
  • Canada has signed every UN convention to
    strengthen human rights since 1948.
  • There is a linkage between human rights and
    global conflicts. If we can improve human rights
    around the world, we can make the world a better
    place in which to live.

Former Canadian Ambassador to The United Nations
Stephen Lewis
9
The Purpose of the United Nations
  • The United Nations (UN) has four purposes
  • To develop and maintain peace and security
  • To develop friendly relations among nations
  • To try and solve international problems and in
    promoting respect for human rights
  • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of the
    worlds nations

George Bush listens to the Proceedings of the UN
10
The Purpose of the United Nations
  • The Specific Purpose is to
  • Develop international laws
  • for the world to follow
  • Promote international
  • security,
  • Promote economic development
  • Promote social progress
  • Promote Human Rights

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon shakes hands
with former Secretary- General Kofi Annan
11
The Structure of the United Nations
  • The United Nations is not a government in the
    sense that it does not make laws for the rest of
    the world to follow.
  • The sovereignty and self-determination of nations
    is recognized and respected.
  • The role of the UN is to provide a forum for
    discussion and to give a sense of what the world
    generally believes to be right.
  • Question Does International Law exist?

The United States makes it point
12
The Structure of the United Nations
  • The General Assembly
  • The Security Council
  • The Economic and Social Council
  • The Trusteeship Council
  • The Secretariat
  • The International Court of Justice (ICC)

The International Court of Justice
13
The General Assembly
  • At the moment, there are 192 members of the
    General Assembly.
  • The role of the General assembly is to debate
    issues of global significance and to recommend
    resolutions to global problems
  • In the General Assembly all nations are equal and
    are provided with one vote
  • The General Assembly is responsible for managing
    the budget of the United Nations.
  • The GA appoints the non-permanent members to the
    Security Council

The General Assembly
14
The Security Council
  • The Security Council has 5 permanent
    members Russia, China, France, Britain and the
    United States.
  • There are also 10 elected members (Located on
    Map)

15
The Security Council
The Security Council
16
The Security Council
  • The Role of the Security Council is the
    following
  • The maintenance of international peace and
    security.
  • The establishment of peacekeeping operations
  • The establishment of international sanctions
  • The authorization for military action

17
The Security Council Veto Power
  • If a permanent member of the Security Council
    Vetoes a UN resolution, then the resolution will
    not pass.
  • A Veto is a vote which cancels the adoption of a
    new provision. Since the beginning of the UN,
    the following members have vetoed
  • China 6 times
  • France 18 times
  • Russia/USSR 122 time
  • The United Kingdom 32 times
  • United States 81 times.

China exercising its Veto Power
18
The International Court of Justice
  • The International Criminal Court was established
    in 2002 in the Hague, Netherlands.
  • The court is responsible for the prosecution of
    individuals charged with war crimes.
  • The United States and China are examples of
    countries that do not recognize the authority of
    the ICC. Why?

The International Court
19
The Economic and Social Council
  • The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the
    United Nations
  • Its role is to assists the General Assembly in
    promoting international economic and social
    cooperation and development.
  • ECOSOC has 54 members
  • All members are elected by the General Assembly
    for a three-year term.

The Economic and Social Council
20
The United Nations Secretariat
  • The United Nations Secretariat
  • Is headed by the United Nations
    Secretary-General.
  • Its role is to provide studies for meetings,
    technical information, and provide facilities
    needed by United Nations bodies for their
    meetings.

21
The International Court of Justice
  • Its main role is to settle legal disputes
    submitted to it by member states of the UN
  • It is also needed to give advisory opinions on
    legal questions submitted to it by international
    organizations and agencies and the UN General
    Assembly.
  • The Courts decisions may be vetoed by the
    permanent members of the Security Council. The
    United States recognizes its authority on an ad
    hoc (case by case) basis

The International Court of Justice
22
Genocide and the International Criminal Court
  • The following is a listing of Genocides that
    have taken place in the world since 1915
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-95)
  • Rwanda (1994) 1 Million deaths
  • Cambodia (1975-79) 2 Million deaths
  • East Timor (1975-79)
  • The Holocaust (1933-45) 6 Million deaths
  • USSR famine in the Ukraine (1932-33)
  • Armenians in Turkey (1915-19) 1.5 Million Deaths

23
Genocide East Timor
24
Genocide Rwanda/Cambodia
25
Genocide and the International Criminal Court
The former Yugoslavia was the Scene of numerous
war crimes.
Canadian Judge Louise Arbour
26
United Nations Branches
  • International Labour Organization (ILO)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • UNESCO United Nations economic, social and
    cultural organization
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • The World Bank

The World Bank Headquarters
27
Peacekeeping
  • When the United Nations was established in 1945,
    the intention was to prevent international
    conflicts from getting out of hand.
  • The Solution?
  • Peacekeeping.
  • Who invented peacekeeping?

28
What is a Global Citizen?
  • A Global Citizen is someone who
  • Understands that all citizens of the world are
    interconnected
  • Understands that global problems terrorism,
    poverty, pollution and natural disasters require
    international co-operation
  • Views events from the perspectives of other
    nations
  • Understands that Canada is not the centre of the
    Universe!

David Suzuki Environmentalist and Global Citizen
29
Peacekeeping
  • Invented by Lester B Pearson in 1957 for his
    intervention in the Suez Canal Crisis.
  • He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
  • Since that time, Canada has been a world leader
    in global peacekeeping efforts.
  • Why are we so good at it?

Lester B Pearson Former Canadian Prime Minister
and Global Citizen!
30
Cyprus Conflict Separation of Turks and Greeks
31
Peacekeeping
  • The Role of Peacekeepers
  • Supervise Elections
  • Set up local police forces
  • Deliver Humanitarian Supplies
  • Mediation of Disputes

General Lewis MacKenzie
UN base destroyed by rocket
32
Peacekeeping
  • There is a big difference between Peacekeeping
    and Peacemaking.
  • From the Bosnian Conflict onwards, the United
    Nations has struggled to implement its
    peacekeeping mandate.
  • In some instances, the efforts of the UN have
    been less than successful

General Romeo Dallaire
33
The Usage of Sanctions
  • Canada tries to improve human rights around the
    world through its involvement with peacekeeping
    initiatives and foreign aid.
  • However, when countries ignore human rights, or
    attack other countries in violation of
    international law, Canada can also impose
    Sanctions an act whereby the Canadian government
    refuses to trade with countries in an effort to
    change their policies.
  • In 1977, Canada imposed sanctions against South
    Africa in an effort to force their government to
    abandon their policy of racial segregation
    (Apartheid)

Are sanctions effective?
34
Non-Governmental Associations (NGOs)
  • Non-Governmental Associations (NGOs) are
    organizations that try to affect international
    policies by working outside the political
    process.
  • Common NGOs are
  • GreenPeace
  • Peta
  • Doctors Without Borders

35
Non-Governmental Associations (NGOs)
36
Questions???
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