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Classification of Living Things

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Classification of Living Things Scientists estimate that there are between 3 million and 100 million species of organisms on Earth. Taxonomists--biologists who ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Things


1
Classification of Living Things
Scientists estimate that there are between 3
million and 100 million species of organisms on
Earth. Taxonomists--biologists who specialize
in identifying and classifying life on our
planet--have named approximately 1.7 million
species so far. Each year, about 13,000 new
species are added to the list of known organisms.
So, how do scientists classify (organize) all
these millions of species?
2
2 Types of Cells
3 Domains and 4 Kingdoms
EUKARYOTES
organisms with a nuclear membrane
PROKARYOTES
organisms with no nuclear membrane
3
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4
The History of Life on Earth
Multicellular eukaryotes (with nuclear membrane)
evolved about 1 billion years ago.
For 2.6 billion years, life was unicellular.
Life began on Earth 3.6 billion years ago as a
prokaryotic cell (single-celled organism with no
nuclear membrane).
The Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago.
5
Nucleolus
Nuclear membrane
List the similarities and differences between
Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.
6
Lifes History and Diversity
Line length reflects evolutionary distance.
Note the close spacing of the groups plants
(maize), fungi (yeast) and animals (humans).
Weve got a lot more in common with bacteria and
plants than we think!
7
Lifes History
Animals diversified in the ocean about 600
million years ago.
in the ocean
Plants colonized land about 440 million years ago
and were followed shortly by animals.
Humans of any sort are a very recent evolutionary
development ( 7 million years ago).
8
3 Domains and 6 Kingdoms
9
Archaea
The Archaea are one of two groups of prokaryotic
organisms, organisms with no nuclear membrane.
(Bacteria are the other group.)
Archaea are believed to be the earliest form of
life on Earth. Although both archaea and bacteria
are simple life-forms, archaea are very different
from bacteria.
ARCHAEA
Archaea do not require sunlight for
photosynthesis, as plants do, and they do not
need oxygen. Archaea absorb CO2, N2, or H2S and
give off methane gas as a waste product.
Archaea are best known for living in extremely
hostile environments (very hot, very acid, or
very salty), but they can also be found in less
extreme conditions.
10
A Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Prime Habitat for
Archaean Extremophiles
video of black smoker
11
Hot springs in Yellowstone ParkHot Spots for
Archaean Extremophiles
Searching for Archaea in Yellowstones Obsidian
Pool
Prismatic Pool, Yellowstone Park
Archaea in Yellowstone
12
Bacteria the Most Abundant Organisms
Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus yellow spheres)
adhering to nasal cilia.
Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes
Lyme disease.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
E. Coli bacteria
There are more bacteria in your mouth than there
have been people living since the dawn of humans.
13
What Good Are Bacteria?
Bacteria are the primary recyclers of materials
in the environment, particularly nitrogen.
Newsflash!!! Bacteria discovered that can do
photosynthesis!
14
What Good Are Bacteria?
Bacteria are also essential for many processes we
depend on sewage treatment, cheese production,
antibiotic production, and biotechnological
processes like gene cloning and protein
production.
15
Bacteria are used to produce insulin and other
drugs that people need.
16
The Domain Eukarya is divided into 4 Kingdoms
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Classifying Critters activity
17
PROTISTS
Protists are eukaryotes because they all have
a nucleus. Most have mitochondria. Many
have chloroplasts with which they carry on
photosynthesis. Many are unicellular and all
groups (with one exception) contain some
unicellular members. A better name for Protists
would be "Eukaryotes that are neither Animals,
Fungi, nor Plants".
Protists
Visit Protist Park
18
FUNGI
Fungi sometimes look like plants, but theyre not!
Fungi cant do photosynthesis, because they dont
have chloroplasts they get their nutrients from
the organic material they live in.
? Decomposers, like mushrooms, feed on dead
organic material.
? Some fungi feed on living organisms, such as
plants, animals and even other fungi. This causes
diseases and infections in these organisms (like
athletes foot and ringworm in humans).
? Some fungi live as symbiotic partners with
algae. The result lichen (pronounced
like-n). more lichen
Other differences from plants
fungi dont have roots, they have a mycelium.
FUNGI
fungis cell walls are made of chitin, not
cellulose.
19
PLANTS
No vascular system
Vascular system
Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts
Seedless Plants (reproduce by spores)
Seed Plants (reproduce by seeds)
Ferns, Horsetails, Club Mosses
Gymnosperms (naked seeds)
Angiosperms (flowers, seeds enclosed in fruit)
Conifers Cycads Gingkoes
Flowering Plants
20
ANIMALS
Invertebrates (no backbone)
Vertebrates (backbone)

21
Animal Classification
22
As you can see, we mammals (4000 species) are far
outnumbered by the other vertebrates, or
chordates (38,300). And vertebrates (42,300) are
definitely outnumbered by invertebrates (989,700
species). The biggest categories of
invertebrates INSECTS!
23
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24
3 members of the genus Felis (cat).
Taxonomy, or classification, enables scientists
to assign a very specific name to every species,
so that scientists all over the world know
exactly what species is being referred to.
25
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Remember Kids Prefer Candy Over Fresh Green Salad
26
Kingdom  Animalia Phylum   Chordata Class     M
ammalia Order    Carnivora Suborder   Aeluroida
e Family   Felidae Subfamily   Panthernae Genus
  Panthera Species               Tigris         
            Subspecies               Panthera
tigris altaica Siberian or Amur Tiger, Southeast
Russia/China  Panthera tigris tigris
India   Panthera tigris amoyensis Southern
China   Panthera tigris corbetti Indochina
Panthera tigris sumatrae Sumatran Tiger,
Sumatra                 
27
Primates Our Order within the Class Mammalia
Humans Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia Order Primates
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo Species H. Sapiens
28
This is approximately where the last 60 million
years of primate evolution has occurred.
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