The purpose of the define step is to allow the project team to produce, amongst others: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The purpose of the define step is to allow the project team to produce, amongst others: PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 56eaad-NGNlZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The purpose of the define step is to allow the project team to produce, amongst others:

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Handley Last modified by: John Created Date: 12/12/2001 6:19:55 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:60
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 17 June 2020
Slides: 43
Provided by: Hand6
Learn more at: http://www.nathantnavarro.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The purpose of the define step is to allow the project team to produce, amongst others:


1
Phase - Define
  • The purpose of the define step is to allow the
    project team to produce, amongst others
  • A project charter or initiation document
  • High level process maps
  • Stakeholder analysis

Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
PROJECT / TEAM CHARTER Project Scope Business Case Team Selection Rules Develop at start of project, on-going Living document, clearly written, define scope http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_95.htm
HIGH LEVEL PROCESS MAPS Process mapping is a technique for making work visible. Develop at start of project, on-going The team exercise of building the map and seeing the process globally are the factors that are critical for success rather than what the actual map looks like in the end. http//www.ahrq.gov/qual/projectred/swimlane.htm
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Engaging the right people in the right way in your project Develop at start of project, on-going http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_07.htm
2
Phase - Define
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Value Stream Map Visualizing Work Processes Planning Tool http//www.bizbodz.com/Business-Improvement/Lean/Value-Stream-Mapping-How-to-Guide-Part-1.asp http//www.strategosinc.com/value_stream_vs_process_mapping.htm Value Stream Analysis Value-added Flow Chart
CRITICAL CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS KANO ANALYSIS Quantifies VOC After VOC has been captured Transforms VOC to measurable requirements. http//kanomodel.com/
EFFECTIVE TEAM BUILDING Transforms individuals into performing team. Beginning, on-going Critical to project success. Building and Leading High Performance Teams - Teambuilding Inc.com
Project Selection Align projects with Organizational strategy Beginning, on-going http//www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/project_selection_method.htm
3
Phase - Define
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
SIPOC Outline elements of the process Develop at early stage of project Establish inputs and outputs involved in a process http//www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/sipoc-copis/sipoc-diagram/
FUNCTIONAL DEPLOYMENT MAPS Detailed sequence of all steps in process Develop early, revisit often Ensure As Is status is captured Can identify quick wins http//leanyourcompany.com/methods/How-to-construct-a-deployment-flowchart.asp
VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER/ BUSINESS KEY ISSUES Identify customer wants or needs Identify key customer issues Identify business issues During Define phase Customers may be difficult to identify. http//bx.businessweek.com/voice-of-the-customer/
RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed) A responsibility assignment matrix Beginning, on-going http//www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_raci.html http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsibility_assignment_matrix http//www.dmaictools.com/dmaic-define/raci-charts-roles-and-responsibilities-matrix
4
Phase - Define
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Project Priority Calculator Identify those projects that have the highest priority When you cant improve every process at once Project Priority Calculator
Process Flow Chart The Process Flow chart provides a visual representation of the steps in a process Often one of the first activities of a process improvement effort Process Flow Chart
Affinity Diagram The tool is used to consolidate a large amount of information into groupings or clusters of ideas that have a natural affinity A great tool to use when sorting Voice of the customer data under broad 'Issues' categories Affinity Diagram
FMEA A model used to prioritize potential defects based on their severity, expected frequency, and likelihood of detection Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)
5
Phase - Measure
  • Measure is the heart of what makes Lean Six Sigma
    work
  • Evaluate the existing measurement system
  • Improving it is necessary
  • Developing a measurement system if you dont
    already have one
  • Observe the process
  • Gather Data
  • Map the process in more depth

Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Input/Process/Output Indicators Identify what to measure and the relationship between measurements. At beginning of Measure phase http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPO_Model
Data Collection Plan To gather reliable and statistically valid data At beginning of Measure phase http//www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/sampling-data/building-sound-data-collection-plan/
Measurement Plan Defines sample size, frequency, additional data to collect and how we use the data. Before measurement http//www.qihub.scot.nhs.uk/knowledge-centre/quality-improvement-tools/data-collection-plan-form.aspx
6
Phase - Measure
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Measurement System Analysis is to qualify a measurement system for use by quantifying its accuracy, precision, and stability To guide decisions Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Sampling Techniques Use to determine optimum sample size. When there is a large population of data. http//www.experiment-resources.com/statistical-sampling-techniques.html
Measurement System Analysis (Gage R R, MSE) To understand the sources of variation that can influence results. When you dont understand the capability of the measurement system. http//www.moresteam.com/toolbox/measurement-system-analysis.cfm
Histogram Visual display of one variable showing data centre, spread, shape outliers 1.Summarise 2.Understanding 3.Compare to spec http//quarknet.fnal.gov/toolkits/ati/histograms.html http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRyxPp22x9PU
7
Phase - Measure
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Control Charts Plots observations in time sequence against a mean and control limits. Monitor process to control improve. Identify Special Causes. http//asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/control-chart.html http//www.youtube.com/watch?vzvp8qmH3Eos
Run Chart Plots observations in time sequence To identify trends, shifts or cycles over time. http//www.shmula.com/run-chart/3506/ http//www.youtube.com/watch?vK8q6HKrUO7I Trend Chart
8
Phase - Analyze
  • The purpose of the Analyze phase is to make sense
    of all the information and data collected
  • Use data to confirm source of delays, waste, and
    poor quality
  • Biggest challenge is to stick to the data
  • Avoid using experience and opinions about the
    root cause of problems
  • Look for patterns in the data

Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
5-Why Analysis used to move past symptoms and understand the true root cause of a problem. Related to the Cause Effect (Fishbone) diagram, and can be used to complement the analysis necessary to complete a Cause Effect diagram 5-Why Analysis
9
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Design of Experiments The term experiment is defined as the systematic procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known effect. Design of Experiments
Cause and Effect Diagram (ishikawa) Also called Fishbone diagram A tool for analyzing process dispersion. It is also referred to as the Ishikawa diagram, because Kaoru Ishikawa developed it, and the fishbone diagram, because the complete diagram resembles a fish skeleton. The diagram illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom). The cause-and-effect diagram is one of the seven tools of quality. Brainstorming of potential root causes of problems (idea generation) http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_03.htm Fishbone (Ishikawa) Diagram
10
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Pareto Define specific problem to concentrate on its root cause analysis (identify vital few). A graphical tool for ranking causes from most significant to least significant. It is based on the Pareto principle, which was first defined by J.M. Juran in 1950. The principle, named after 19th- century economist Vilfredo Pareto, suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes that is, 80 of the effects come from 20 of the causes. The Pareto chart is one of the seven tools of quality. Identification of vital few causes of particular problem. After data collection from measurement phase http//www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/pareto_chart_tool.htm http//asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/pareto.html Pareto Chart (Manufacturing ex.) Pareto Chart (Service ex.)
CE Matrix A tool which is used to prioritize potential causes by examining their relationship with the CTQs. The highest overall score should be addressed first because they will have the largest impact on the CTQs. http//www.processma.com/resource/cause_and_effect_matrix.htm
11
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Checksheet A simple data-recording device. The check sheet is custom-designed by the user, which allows him or her to readily interpret the results. The check sheet is one of the seven tools of quality. Check sheets are often confused with data sheets and checklists (see individual entries). To gather or collect data. http//www.shmula.com/check-sheets/3932/
Cost/Benefit Analysis A multitude of methods used to determine the financial impacts of the project to the company. In the evaluation and selection of solutions. http//management.about.com/cs/money/a/CostBenefit.htm
12
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Design of Experiments A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters To identify factors and their appropriate settings. http//www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/design_of_experiment.htm
Histogram A graphic summary of variation in a set of data. The pictorial nature of the histogram lets people see patterns that are difficult to see in a simple table of numbers. The histogram is one of the seven tools of quality. When a picture is needed to graphically depict variation in data. http//quarknet.fnal.gov/toolkits/ati/histograms.html http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRyxPp22x9PU
Brainstorming Generate creative solutions to a problem To break out of stale, established patterns of thinking http//www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html
13
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Hypothesis Tests (t-test, ANOVA, Chi Square) A procedure whereby one of two mutually exclusive and exhaustive statements about a population parameter is concluded. Information form a sample is used to infer something about a population from which the sample was drawn. To determine whether true statistical differences exist in two or more sets of data. http//stattrek.com/hypothesis-test/hypothesis-testing.aspx
Non-value-Added Analysis Steps in the production and delivery of a product or service that are considered nonessential to meeting customer's needs and requirements (I.e., steps the customer would not ne willing to pay for). When mapping process. http//www.moresteam.com/toolbox/value-added-flow-chart.cfm
14
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Process Map A graphical representation of the steps in a process. Flowcharts are drawn to better understand processes. The flowchart is one of the seven tools of quality. At beginning of project to learn about the process. http//www.processma.com/resource/process_mapping.htm
Spaghetti Diagram A graphical tool used to depict the physical flow of work or material in a process. http//www.processma.com/resource/spaghetti_diagram.htm
15
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Regression or Regression Analysis A statistical technique for determining the best mathematical expression describing the functional relationship between one response and one or more independent variables. Use after key factors identified to create model for process performance. When you want to know the rrelation between variables http//office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel-help/perform-a-regression-analysis-HA001111963.aspx Regression Analysis
Basic Quality Tools http//www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/design_of_experiment.htm
16
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Scatter Diagram A graphical technique to analyze the relationship between two variables. Two sets of data are plotted on a graph, with the y axis being used for the variable to be predicted and the x axis being used for the variable to make the prediction. The graph will show possible relationships (although two variables might appear to be related, they might not be-those who know most about the variables must make that evaluation). The scatter diagram is one of the seven tools of quality. To show relationships between two or more variables. http//web2.concordia.ca/Quality/tools/25scatter.pdf http//academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/economic/friedman/scatterdiagramexcel.htm
17
Phase - Analyze
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Stratification A process characteristic used to divide data into subgroups to look for changes in process performance that might indicate the factor is a key driver of process performance. When existing data shows no patterns or key factors. http//asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/stratification.html
Scatter Plot or Correlation Diagram Scatter plots show how much one variable is affected by another. The relationship between two variables is called their correlation . http//mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci330ms/youtsey/scatterinfo.html
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical Thinking The fundamental of business iimprovement revolves around studying and improving underlying processes. http//www.processma.com/resource/statistical_thinking.htm Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Six Sigma Conversion Table Converts Defects Per Million Opportunities to a Sigma Level Six Sigma Conversion Table
18
Phase - Improve
  • The purpose of Improve is to make
    recommendations for changes in a process that
    will eliminate the defects, waste, costs, etc
  • Linked to the customer
  • Use creativity
  • Review existing best practices

Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Osboms Brainstorming Idea Generation When existing data shows no patterns or key factors. http//www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/osborne.asp
19
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Affinity Diagram Idea Generation. Use when you have lots of ideas, team paralysis http//www.processma.com/resource/affinity_diagram.htm
Solution Mapping Solution Mapping includes an initial white boarding session and top-level assessment to help clients formalize the purpose, requirements and uncover any hidden implementation barriers to the desired performance and development solution Idea Generation. http//www.google.com/search?qsolutionmappinghlenprmdimvnstbmischtbousourceunivsaXeiM6t9UNC4EMLHqQGa84CYCQsqi2ved0CB0QsAQbiw1441bih656
Lateral Thinking
20
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Mind Mapping Mind mapping is a creative and logical means of note-taking and note-making that literally "maps out" your ideas. Note-taking. http//www.mindmapping.com/
Six Thinking Hats Technique It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. When you need to move outside your habitual thinking style, http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm
Lateral Thinking Is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic Method for problem solving http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_thinking
21
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
5S 5S is the abbreviated reference to five Japanese words that govern workplace organization and housekeeping. The five words are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke Goes hand-in-hand with good safety practices, and is equally applicable to manufacturing and service settings 5S Tool
A3 Report A3 Reports are one-page reports used for documenting the necessary information needed for progress reporting and decision-making When you want to condense the information to a single page and visually communicate to the reader using graphs, charts, and succinct bullet points. A3 Report
Brainstorming Brainstorming is intended to encourage fresh thinking and "crazy" ideas. When you need fresh thinking and "crazy" ideas. Brainstorming
Corrective Action Matrix The Corrective Action Matrix is used by problem-solving teams to keep track of who is doing what - by when To ensure action gets implemented and someone is responsible to make it happen. Corrective Action Matrix
22
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Error proofing Also referred to as Poka-yoke Error-proofing refers to the implementation of fail-safe mechanisms to prevent a process from producing defects. This activity is also know by the Japanese term poka-yoke, from poka (inadvertent errors) and yokeru (to avoid) - pronounced POH-kuh YOH-kay. When it is not acceptable to make even a very small number of defects Error-Proofing
Kaizen Kaizen is the Japanese word for Continuous Improvement - a series of ongoing incremental improvements by teams focusing on eliminating all forms of waste from the operation - typically with little capital Kaizen is a philosophy, not just a process, and it is a crucial component of the Lean Enterprise. Many companies have institutionalized the practice of Kaizen by shop floor teams, and have achieved significant performance advancement through the accumulation of incremental advancements over time. Kaizen
23
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
One Piece Flow Reduced lot sizes go hand-in-hand with quick set-ups. The smaller the lot size, the better the flow through the process. Ideally the lot size is reduced to one. To link processes into cells, eliminating double-handling, and reducing inventory and the space it requires One Piece Flow
Pull Scheduling Pull Scheduling is generally synonymous with Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management - a system of production scheduling that pulls product through the value-stream in a continuous flow rather than pushing it through in batches To eliminate overproduction, and hence in-process inventory - seen a manifestation of waste Pull Scheduling
SMED (quick changeover) As lean production is dependent upon small lot sizes, small lot sizes are dependent upon quick changeovers. If set-ups or changeovers are lengthy, it is mathematically impossible to run small lots of parts with low inventory because large in-process inventories must be maintained to feed production during changeovers. Quick Changeover (SMED)
24
Phase - Improve
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
System Diagrams System Dynamics is the study of the behavior of complex systems - seeking to understand the web of relationships between activities and to identify the linkage between cause and effect. Use system diagrams when you want to visually express the dynamic forces acting upon the components of a process and the interactions between those forces. System Diagrams
TPM TPM was developed in the 1970's as a method of involving machine operators in the preventive maintenance of their machines - a reaction to increasing specialization and centralization of the maintenance function that had created division-of-labor barriers between operators and the maintenance of their machines and equipment When you want to tap the knowledge and skill of the people who work with the equipment on a daily basis, and gives operators a stake in the performance of the equipment Total Productive Maintenance
25
Phase - Improve
Tool Idea Generation When to use Coaching points
Action Plan It helps us turn our dreams into a reality. An action plan is a way to make sure your vision is made concrete http//ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/sub_section_main_1089.aspx
Cost/Benefit Analysis A cost benefit analysis is done to determine how well, or how poorly, a planned action will turn out. http//management.about.com/cs/money/a/CostBenefit.htm
Gaant Chart A type of a bar chart that is used for illustrating project schedules. Gantt charts can be used in any projects that involve effort, resources, milestones, and deliveries. http//www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/gantt_chart_tool.htm
Solution Evaluation Criteria Some idea of the value or merit of a solution to a problem http//www.virtualsalt.com/creative.htm
26
Phase - Improve
Tool Idea Generation When to use Coaching points
Pairwise Ranking Matrix To determine the main preferences, priorities, needs, constraints or problems of a person or a group on a certain subject. http//www.fao.org/Participation/ft_more.jsp?ID3022
Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is a decision-making technique. It helps you make a decision by analyzing the forces for and against a change, and it helps you communicate the reasoning behind your decision. http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm
Story Board A Storyboard provides a quick, visual summary of a teams work. http//business901.com/blog1/lean-six-sigma-storyboard/
27
Phase - Control
  • The purpose of Control is to make sure that any
    gains will last.
  • Document the new, improved procedures
  • Train everyone involved
  • Set up procedures for tracking key vital signs
  • Hand-off ongoing management to the Process Owner
  • Complete Project documentation
  • Put measures in place to prevent back sliding

Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Check Process The CHECK Process was created to give Supervisors and other shop floor personnel a simple tool to evaluate process conformance. Before gathering data and conducting in-depth research to determine the root cause of process instability, it is important to verify that the operation is being performed according to specifications and standards CHECK Process
28
Phase Control
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Control Charts Control Chart indicates whether the process is currently under control (i.e., is stable, with variation only coming from sources common to the process),. Use to predict future performance Control chart
Control Plan The control plan is the centralized document to keep track of the status of all significant process characteristics. Control Plan
Standardized Work The systematic determination and documentation of work element sequence and process for each operation. When you want to achieve a balanced work flow, cycle time equal to Takt time, and high quality,.. work must be standardized at all operations for optimum efficiency and consistency Standardized Work
SPC Primary tool to improve product quality by reducing process variation. Statistical Process Control (SPC)
29
Phase Control 5.1 Pilot Plan
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Pilot Preliminary work as a test or trial Pilot experiments are frequently carried out before large-scale implementation http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilot_experiment
Objective Key Topics To develop and execute a pilot Before starting a pilot http//teaching.uncc.edu/articles-books/best-practice-articles/goals-objectives/writing-objectives-using-blooms-taxonomy
Training plan To make people aware Before starting pilot http//www.google.com/search?qtrainingplanhlenprmdimvnstbmischtbousourceunivsaXeiCN-LUIDHI4biigKrsoDoDQved0CCgQsAQbiw1366bih622
Success Criteria Defining effectiveness of pilot Before and during pilot http//office.microsoft.com/en-us/project-help/define-your-project-goals-and-success-criteria-HA001211137.aspx
30
Phase Control 5.1 Pilot Plan
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Proof of Concept Plan First Version Before starting pilot Example http//www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/policy/pilot-guidance.html
Gantt Chart Aids to planning Before and during pilot http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gantt_chart http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsA67g6zaKOE http//office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel-help/create-a-gantt-chart-in-excel-HA001034605.aspx
Pilot Tips Aids to planning Before and during pilot http//www.pilotproject.com/tips.aspx
31
Phase Control 5.2 Plan Implement
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Potential problem analysis To address potential barriers to solution implementation After executing pilot plan in control Apply Brainstorming techniques
Risk assessment matrix To consider the ways in which the objectives for process may be at risk After executing pilot plan in control http//www.cip.msu.edu/ComFacRAM-HowtoUse.pdf http//www.lbjsc.txstate.edu/caso/soc/manage/forms/contentParagraph/014/document/RiskAssessmentMatrix.pdf
Controls assessment matrix Identify activity designed to protect from the identified high priority risks After risk assessment in control http//www.iwise2.com/controls-assessment-matrix
Communication Plan To communicate change After pilot plan in control Critical for buy in http//www.hieran.com/comet/howto.html
Implementation Planning To precisely define the implementation of a solution. Success relies on quality and thoroughness of implementation plan After communication plan in control http//webaim.org/articles/implementation/plan
32
Phase Control 5.3 Process Integration
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Standardization To identify project expansion opportunities for your solutions Once your best solutions have been identified. Replicate for same process but in different area. Standardize for different but similar processes. http//www.lean.org/workshops/WorkshopDescription.cfm?WorkshopId20 http//www.trainingwithinindustry.net/SW.html
Replication Identifying what you need to consider if you want to replicate After you have identified replication opportunities http//books.google.com/books?idCrqm2AmECD0CpgPA76lpgPA76dqreplicationasleantoolsourceblots46pY2YWzvLsigT48CDFzt4JoyeTZKpbl2VH2VuXIhlensaXeis9mLUJ3BM9DWigK4vYFIved0CEAQ6AEwBQvonepageqreplication20as20lean20toolffalse
33
Phase Control 5.3 Process Integration
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Cost Benefit Analysis Before setting your deployment schedule http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CostE28093benefit_analysis http//management.about.com/cs/money/a/CostBenefit.htm http//www.dummies.com/how-to/content/performing-a-costbenefit-analysis.html
Process Control Systems Critical tool for making improvement continuous, that is after you have gone As part of the detailed implementation plan http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_control http//www.engineeringtoolbox.com/process-control-systems-t_32.html
34
Phase Control 5.4 Specialty Control Charts
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
EWMA (Exponentially weghted moving average) Processes that provide a continuous stream of data For a process with WANDERING shifts that are not special cause Gives weighting to most recent data Can be used -as a dynamic process control -as a forecasting tool -to detect small shifts http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EWMA_chart
35
Phase Control 5.5 Closure and Recognition
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Rewards/Recognition Recognizing /rewarding team efforts As a closure activity 1001 Ways To Reward Employees Book by Bob Nelson http//www.openforum.com/idea-hub/topics/managing/article/51-ways-to-reward-employees-without-money-1 http//www.entrepreneur.com/article/224249 http//www.hrworld.com/features/25-employee-rewards/ http//www.inc.com/guides/2010/04/rewarding-employees-on-a-budget.html
36
  • Statistical Tools

37
Summary of Statistical Tools 1
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Histogram Visual display of one variable showing data center, spread, shape and outliers. Summarize large amounts of data To get a feel for the data To compare actual description to customer specs http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histogram
Multivari Charts Bar chart comparison of sub-groups on one variable. To visually compare sub-groups by individual data points and the mean. In MINITAB 12 only. To identify major source of variation. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-vari_chart http//www.micquality.com/six_sigma_glossary/multi_vari_chart.htm
Box Plots Visual display of the summary of Y data grouped by category of X. Summary display to visualize differences in data center, spread and shape across categories. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_plot http//www.purplemath.com/modules/boxwhisk.htm
Run Charts Plots observation in time sequence To view process performance over time for trends, shifts or cycles. Run chart - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http//www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/Tools/RunChart.aspx
38
Summary of Statistical Tools 2
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Control Charts Plots observations in time sequence against a mean and control limits. To monitor the process in order to control and improve process performance over time for trends, shifts or cycles. To identify special causes. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart http//www.ehow.com/how_5928553_create-control-charts-excel.html
Scatter Diagram (Plot) Plots a response Y versus a predictor X. To understand the possible relationships between two variables. To identify possible root causes which are related to Y. Do not use with special http//mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci330ms/youtsey/scatterinfo.html http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-SeCPLC30_gfeaturefvwrel
39
Summary of Statistical Tools 3
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Behaviorally Anchored Scales A response scale on which specific points are named or described to clarify the differences between points. To translate subjective or qualitative issues into data (discrete or continuous). To reduce variation in the response measured. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorally_anchored_rating_scales http//www.dummies.com/how-to/content/behind-bars-evaluating-employees-with-behaviorally.html
t-Test Determine if there is a difference between two groups. Test if sample average specified value Test if 2 sample means are equal Paired t to reduce variation when comparing two sample averages http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student's_t-test http//www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/ttest1.cfm
Analysis of Variance Determine if there is a difference among many groups. Determine of there is a statistically significant difference among the groups. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis_of_variance http//www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/anova.html
Discrete Data Chi Square Determine if there is a difference for observed frequencies of 2 discrete variables. Determine if there are relationships between two discrete variables. http//math.hws.edu/javamath/ryan/ChiSquare.html http//bio.fsu.edu/winn/3402L/WinnCH7.html
40
Summary of Statistical Tools 4
Tool What the tool is used for When to use Coaching points
Regression (Linear Multiple) Summarizes, describes, predicts and quantifies relationships. Determine if there is evidence of a relationship between Xs and Ys. Model data to develop a mathematical equation to quantify the relationship. Identify root causes. Make predictions using the model. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_regression http//www.statsoft.com/textbook/multiple-regression/
Logistic Regression Summarizes, describes, predicts and quantifies relationships. Determine if there is evidence of a relationship between Xs and Ys. Model data to develop a mathematical equation to quantify the relationship. Identify root causes. Make predictions using the model. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_regression http//luna.cas.usf.edu/mbrannic/files/regression/Logistic.html
Design of Experiments (DOE) Systematic and efficient proactive approach to testing relationships. To establish cause and effect relationship between Ys and Xs. To identify vital few Xs. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_of_experiments http//www.moresteam.com/toolbox/design-of-experiments.cfm
41
7 Basic Tools
  • The designation arose in postwar Japan, inspired
    by the seven famous weapons of Benkei. At that
    time, companies that had set about training their
    workforces in statistical quality control found
    that the complexity of the subject intimidated
    the vast majority of their workers and scaled
    back training to focus primarily on simpler
    methods which suffice for most quality-related
    issues.
  • The Seven Basic Tools stand in contrast to more
    advanced statistical methods such as survey
    sampling, acceptance sampling, statistical
    hypothesis testing, design of experiments,
    multivariate analysis, and various methods
    developed in the field of operations research.
  • The seven tools are
  • Cause-and-effect (also known as the "fish-bone"
    or Ishikawa) diagram
  • Check sheet
  • Control chart
  • Histogram
  • Pareto chart
  • Scatter diagram
  • Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run
    chart)

42
Resources
  • http//www.khanacademy.org/
  • Statistics Handbook
  • http//davidmlane.com/hyperstat/index.html
  • http//www.statsoft.com/textbook/elementary-concep
    ts-in-statistics/?button1
  • http//onlinestatbook.com/version_1.html
  • http//lib.stat.cmu.edu/
  • http//www.strategosinc.com/human_side.htm
  • http//ocw.mit.edu/index.htm (search Lean Six
    Sigma)
  • http//www.moresteam.com/toolbox/index.cfm
  • http//www.moresteam.com/resources/lean.cfm
  • http//www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/quantgal.h
    tm
  • http//www.leansixsigmahpo.com/tools.html
  • http//www.skymark.com/resources/refhome.asp
  • http//www.strategosinc.com/value_stream_vs_proces
    s_mapping.htm
  • http//www.freeleansite.com/
  • http//www.dmaictools.com/
  • http//www.statpac.org/research-library/
  • http//www.accountability.wa.gov/leadership/lean/d
    efault.asp
  • http//www.gembutsu.com/lean_faq.html
About PowerShow.com