Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and Physiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and Physiology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 56e1d5-MDNmM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and Physiology

Description:

Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and Physiology Objectives Discuss importance of human anatomy related to paramedic practice Describe anatomical position ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2541
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 161
Provided by: Barbara532
Learn more at: http://www.uwhealth.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and Physiology


1
Chapter 10 Review of Human Systems Anatomy and
Physiology
2
Objectives
  • Discuss importance of human anatomy related to
    paramedic practice
  • Describe anatomical position
  • Interpret anatomical terms
  • List structures of the axial and appendicular
    skeleton
  • Define division of the abdomen
  • List the three major body cavities and their
    contents

3
Objectives
  • Discuss functions of cellular structures
  • Describe cellular reproduction
  • Differentiate between body tissue types
  • Label and list functions of body organs
  • Label and list functions of special senses

4
Fun Games
  • University of Minnesota
  • Web Anatomy
  • http//msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/webanatomy/
  • Anatomy Arcade
  • http//anatomyarcade.com/
  • McGraw Hill
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072351136/s
    tudent_view0/a_p_arcade.html

5
UW School of Medicine
  • IME Video Library
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/

6
Terminology
  • Anatomical position

7
Terminology
  • Supine
  • On back, face up
  • Prone
  • On stomach, face down
  • Lateral recumbent
  • On side

8
Anatomical Planes
  • Sagittal plane
  • Vertical
  • left and right sides
  • Transverse plane
  • horizontal
  • top and bottom halves
  • Frontal plane
  • coronal
  • front and back

9
Body Regions
  • Appendicular
  • Extremities
  • Axial
  • Head, neck, thorax, abdomen

10
Body Regions
  • Abdominal region
  • KNOW THE ORGANS IN EACH QUADRANT

11
Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic Cavities
12
cell Eukaryotes nucleus
13
Cells
  • Most basic unit of life
  • Composed of protoplasm
  • living contents of cell
  • surrounded by plasma membrane
  • Main parts of human cells
  • Cytoplasmic membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus

14
Cytoplasm and Organelles
  • Cytoplasm
  • gel-like
  • Organelles
  • Functional structures

15
Cells
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Ribosomes
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Centrioles
  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromatin granules

16
  • cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane
  • regulates movement into and out of cell
  • Nucleus
  • protein synthesis (DNA)
  • Nucleoli
  • Ribosome formation
  • Ribosomes
  • synthesize protein
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • rough protein
  • smooth lipid and carb synthesis

17
  • Mitochondria
  • powerhouse
  • Lysosomes
  • Digestive system
  • Golgi apparatus (complex)
  • synthesize carbs, bind with protein
  • packages product as globules of glycoprotein
  • Centrioles
  • cell reproduction
  • Cilia
  • movement (hair-like)
  • flagella
  • movement (tail-like)

18
Cell Functions
  • Movement
  • Conductivity
  • Metabolic absorption
  • Secretion
  • Excretion
  • Respiration
  • Reproduction

19
Cell Reproduction
  • Human cells (except sex cells) reproduce by
    mitosis
  • Division throughout life
  • Epithelial cells
  • Liver cells
  • Bone marrow cells
  • Some divide until near time of birth
  • Nerve cells
  • Skeletal muscle cells
  • Apoptosis Cell death

20
Tissues
  • Epithelial
  • Classified by shape and arrangement of cells
  • continuous sheet of cells
  • Connective
  • Seven subgroups
  • cells with matrix
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  • Nerve
  • Neurons, neuroglia

21
How is your tissue like a house?
22
Organ Systems
  • Organ
  • two or more tissues
  • organized to perform a more complex function than
    one tissue alone can accomplish
  • System
  • Group of organs
  • perform a more complex function than any one
    organ alone can accomplish
  • 11 major organ systems in the human body

23
Body Systems
24
Integumentary System
  • Largest organ system
  • Functions
  • Protection against injury
  • Prevention of dehydration
  • Defense against infection
  • Aid in temperature regulation

25
Integumentary System
  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Hair
  • Nails
  • Glands

26
Integumentary System
  • Superficial Thorax and Abdomen
  • (8.00 minutes)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1250
  • 2.26 Dermal Layers
  • SC tissue
  • Nerves
  • Anatomic Landmarks
  • 6.20 Lymph Nodes

27
Skeletal System
  • Bones
  • short bones
  • longs bones
  • flat bones

28
skeletal system
  • Connective tissues
  • Cartilage
  • Tendons
  • Ligaments

29
Axial Skeleton
  • Skull
  • 28 bones
  • Hyoid bone

30
Axial Skeleton
  • Vertebral column
  • 26 bones
  • 5 regions
  • 7 cervical vertebrae
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae
  • 5 lumbar vertebrae
  • 1 sacral bone
  • 5 fused vertebrae
  • 1 coccygeal bone
  • 5 fused vertebrae

31
Axial SkeletonVertebral Column
32
Thoracic Cage
  • Protects organs
  • Prevents collapse of thorax
  • 12 rib pairs
  • Sternum
  • 3 components

33
  • Abdominal wall, Back Muscles, Spinal Cord
    24.40
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1251
  • Pectoralis muscle
  • Ribs, Intercostals Spaces
  • 10.30 Back and Vertebral columns

34
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Bones of the upper and lower extremities and
    their girdles
  • Pectoral girdle
  • Scapula and clavicle
  • Attaches upper limbs to the axial skeleton

35
Upper Extremity
  • Humerus
  • Radius/ulna
  • Wrist
  • Hand

36
Pelvic Girdle
  • Attaches legs to trunk
  • Coxae
  • Acetabulum

37
Femur
  • Longest bone
  • Articulates with acetabulum
  • Articulates with patella

38
Tibia
  • Larger than fibula
  • Supports most of leg's weight
  • Distal end forms lateral malleolus
  • Medial side of ankle joint

39
Fibula
  • Does not articulate with femur
  • Articulates with tibia
  • Distal end forms lateral malleolus
  • Lateral aspect of ankle joint

40
Foot
  • Tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
  • Talus articulates with tibia and fibula
  • Calcaneus

41
Biomechanics of Body Movement
  • All bones (except hyoid) connect to at least one
    other bone
  • Three major classifications of joints
  • Fibrous joints
  • Cartilaginous joints
  • Synovial joints

42
Fibrous Joints
  • Two bones joined by fibrous tissue
  • Little or no movement
  • Sutures

43
Fibrous Joints
  • Syndesmoses
  • slightly moveable
  • bones united by interosseous membrane
  • Gomphoses
  • binds teeth to bone sockets
  • only joint where bone does not join another bone

44
Cartilaginous Joints
  • Synchondroses
  • Bones joined with hyaline cartilage
  • epiphyseal growth plate in children
  • costal cartilage
  • Symphysis
  • Bones joined with fibrocartilage
  • fusion

45
Synovial Joints
  • Contain synovial fluid
  • Plane or gliding joints
  • Saddle joints
  • Hinge joints
  • Pivot joints
  • Ball-and-socket joints
  • Ellipsoid joints

46
Synovial Joints
47
Types of Movement
  • Flexion
  • Extension

48
Types of Movement
  • Abduction
  • Adduction

49
Types of Movement
  • Medial
  • Lateral

50
Types of Movement
  • Circumduction

51
Types of Movement
  • Pronation
  • Supination

52
Muscular System
  • Primary functions of skeletal muscle
  • Movement
  • Postural maintenance
  • Heat production

53
Physiology of Skeletal Muscle
  • Contractile cells (muscle fibers)
  • Skeletal muscle fiber
  • Thick and thin myofilaments
  • Sarcomere
  • Contractile unit of skeletal muscle
  • Contraction process
  • Myofilaments slide toward each other

54
Neuromuscular Junction
  • Impulse enters muscle fibers through motor neuron
  • Neuromuscular junction (synapse)

55
Skeletal Muscle Movement
  • Muscle contraction pulls bone toward another
    across movable joint
  • Attachment of each muscle at origin and insertion
  • Synergists
  • works in concert with other muscles
  • Antagonists
  • works in opposite direction
  • Prime mover
  • move joint in particular direction
  • agonist with synergist muscle groups

56
Skeletal Muscle Movement
57
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Isometric or isotonic
  • Muscle movement often is a combination of
    isometric and isotonic contraction
  • http//www.spike.com/video-clips/mktv3a/ode-to-jac
    kie-chan

58
Postural Maintenance
  • Muscle tone
  • Keeps back and legs straight
  • Head upright
  • Abdomen flat

59
Heat Production
  • Chemical reaction
  • Breakdown of ATP during muscle contraction
    results in some energy loss as heat
  • Largely responsible for normal body temperature
  • Shivering

60
Nervous System
  • Major regulatory and coordinating system
  • Rapidly transmits information from one body area
    to another

61
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Continuous with each other

62
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • Nerves
  • Ganglia
  • 43 pairs of nerves form PNS
  • 12 pairs from brain
  • 31 pairs from spinal cord
  • Afferent division
  • Efferent division

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vwLrhYzdbbpEfeature
related
63
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Transmits action potentials from CNS to
  • Smooth muscle
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Certain glands

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYFYRosjcVuU
64
Central Nervous System
  • Brain and spinal cord

65
Brain Stem
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsnO68aJTOpM
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vyQetOVB_VZo
  • Medulla, pons, and midbrain
  • Connects spinal cord to brain

66
Medulla
  • Regulates
  • Heart rate
  • Blood vessel diameter
  • Breathing
  • Swallowing
  • Vomiting
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Inferior portion of brain stem
  • Pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts

67
Pons
  • Relays information from cerebrum to cerebellum
  • Sleep center
  • Respiratory center
  • Helps control
  • breathing

68
Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
  • Smallest region of brain stem
  • Involved in
  • Audio pathways in the CNS
  • Visual reflexes
  • Helps regulate coordination of motor activities
    and muscle tone

69
Reticular Formation
  • A group of nuclei scattered throughout the brain
    stem
  • Part of reticular activating system
  • Involved in sleep-wake cycle and in maintaining
    consciousness

70
Diencephalon
  • Between brain stem and cerebrum
  • Thalamus and hypothalamus

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8eJcHefMSiI
71
Thalamus
  • Largest portion of diencephalon
  • Receives sensory input
  • Relays impulses to cerebral cortex
  • Influences mood, general body movements
  • Strong emotions

72
Hypothalamus
  • Major controller
  • Gatekeeper" to
  • cerebrum
  • Active in
  • Emotions
  • Hormonal cycles
  • Sexual activity
  • Temperature regulation

73
Cerebrum
  • Largest portion of brain
  • Right and left hemispheres
  • Each hemisphere divided into lobes

74
Cerebrum
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vhIo6ck75EZcfeature
related
75
Limbic System
  • Portions of cerebrum and diencephalon
  • Influences
  • Emotions (and visceral responses)
  • Motivation
  • Mood
  • Sensations of pain and pleasure

76
Cerebellum
  • Second largest part of brain
  • Major functions
  • Motor coordination
  • Compares impulses from motor cortex with those
    from moving structures
  • Compares intended movement with actual movement
  • Responsible for precise movements

77
Spinal Cord
  • Location and function
  • Dorsal root
  • Ventral root
  • Spinal ganglia
  • Primary reflex center

78
Meninges
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1liTxUxT9xQfeature
related
79
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Collects information from inside body and body
    surface
  • Relays information by afferent fibers to CNS
  • Relays information by efferent fibers from CNS to
    various parts of body

80
Cranial Cavity
  • IME Videos
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1269
  • 2555 minutes

81
Spinal Nerves
  • First pair exits between skull and first cervical
    vertebrae
  • Spinal nerves in sacrum exit the bone
  • 8 pairs exit in cervical region
  • 12 pairs exit in thoracic region
  • 5 pairs in lumbar region
  • 5 pairs in sacral region
  • 1 pair in coccygeal region

82
Dermatomes
  • Spinal nerves (except C1) have specific cutaneous
    sensory distribution
  • Dermatome
  • Skin surface area supplied by single spinal nerve

83
Cranial Nerve Functions
  • Sensory
  • Somatomotor
  • Proprioception
  • Parasympathetic

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1NYFedWKAGIfeature
fvsr
84
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Afferent neurons
  • Efferent neurons
  • Somatomotor neurons

85
Autonomic Nervous System
86
Endocrine System
  • Hormones
  • Dissolved in blood plasma
  • Quickly distributed throughout the body

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHrMi4GikWwQ
87
Circulatory System
  • Blood functions
  • Blood components
  • Plasma (55)
  • Formed elements (45)
  • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
  • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Thrombocytes (platelets)

88
Anatomy of the Heart
  • Muscular pump
  • Two atria
  • Two ventricles
  • Cone shaped
  • Size of a closed fist

89
(No Transcript)
90
(No Transcript)
91
  • Thorax (26.41)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1253
  • Lungs, pleura
  • Heart and pericardium

92
Anatomy of the Heart
  • In mediastinum
  • In pericardial cavity
  • 2/3 of mass lies left of midline of sternum
  • Pericardium
  • Coronary vessels

93
Coronary Vessels
  • Aorta
  • Pulmonary trunk
  • Right and left coronary arteries

94
Heart Chambers and Valves
  • Interatrial septum
  • Interventricular septum
  • Atrioventricular (AV) valves
  • Tricuspid valve
  • Mitral (bicuspid) valve
  • Semilunar valves
  • Aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves

95
Conduction System of the Heart
  • Sinoatrial node
  • Atrioventricular node
  • Bundle of His
  • Purkinje fibers

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vbxKBQqe_Bo0
96
Normal Conduction
  • Sequence of normal impulse conduction
  • SA node
  • Both atria
  • AV node
  • Bundle of His
  • Purkinje fibers
  • Both ventricles

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vriUAFkV7HCUfeature
related
97
Blood Flow through the Heart
98
Peripheral Circulation
  • Flow of blood
  • Ventricles
  • Arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Capillaries
  • Venous system
  • Thinner, less elastic than arteries

99
Capillary Network
  • Blood supply to capillaries
  • by arterioles
  • Blood flows to venules
  • Flow regulated by precapillary sphincters
  • Function
  • Nutrient and waste
  • exchange

100
Arteries and Veins
  • Walls have three layers of elastic tissue (except
    capillaries and venules)
  • Tunica intima
  • (inner layer)
  • Tunica media
  • (middle layer)
  • Tunica adventitia
  • (outer layer)

101
Types of Arteries
  • Conducting arteries
  • Large and elastic
  • Distributing arteries
  • Small to medium size
  • Arterioles
  • Smallest

102
Venules
  • Similar structure to capillaries
  • Collect blood from capillaries
  • Transport blood to small veins
  • Nutrient exchange occurs across venule walls

103
Veins
  • Walls are layer of smooth muscle cells
  • Medium and large veins carry blood to venous
    trunks and then to heart
  • Large veins have valves
  • Allow blood to flow to but not from the heart

104
Arteriovenous Anastomoses
  • AV shunts
  • Allow blood flow from arteries to veins without
    passing through capillaries
  • Natural AV shunts
  • Pathological shunts

105
Pulmonary Circulation
  • Blood from right ventricle is pumped into
    pulmonary trunk
  • Bifurcates into right and left pulmonary arteries
  • Transports blood to respective lungs
  • After exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • Two pulmonary veins exit each lung and enter the
    left atrium

106
Systemic Circulation
  • Blood enters left heart from pulmonary veins
  • Blood passes through left atrium into left
    ventricle and then into aorta
  • From aorta, blood is pumped throughout the body

107
Arteries of Systemic Circulation
  • Aorta
  • Coronary arteries
  • Arteries to the head and neck
  • Arteries of the upper and lower limbs
  • Thoracic aorta and its branches
  • Abdominal aorta and its branches
  • Arteries of the pelvis

108
Veins of Systemic Circulation
  • Coronary veins
  • Veins of the head and neck
  • Veins of the upper and lower limbs
  • Veins of the thorax
  • Veins of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Veins of the hepatic-portal system

109
Lymphatic System
  • Considered part of circulatory system
  • Carries fluid away from tissues
  • Components
  • Functions
  • Maintain fluid balance
  • Absorb fats
  • Role in immune system

110
Posterior Thorax
  • Posterior Thorax (21.07)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1254

111
Airway Anatomy
  • Upper airway
  • Above glottis
  • Lower airway
  • Below glottis

112
Pharynx
  • Nasopharynx
  • Uppermost part of airway
  • Behind nasal cavities
  • Nasal septum
  • Vestibule
  • Olfactory membranes
  • Sinuses

113
Pharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Begins at level of uvula
  • Extends to epiglottis
  • Opens into oral cavity

114
Pharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Tip of epiglottis to glottis and esophagus
  • Mucous membrane lining to protect internal
    surfaces

115
Larynx
  • Three functions
  • Air passageway
  • Prevents solids and liquids from entering
    respiratory tree
  • Speech production

116
Larynx
  • Nine cartilages
  • Thyroid cartilage
  • Cricoid cartilage
  • Only complete cartilaginous ring in larynx
  • Epiglottis
  • Hyoid bone
  • Cricothyroid membrane

117
Larynx
  • Vestibular folds
  • False vocal cords
  • Vocal cords
  • True vocal cords

118
  • Mouth and Pharynx
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1272
  • Start at 13.15
  • 13.15 Pharynx, innervations of cranial nerves
  • 19.30 pharynx nasal, oral, laryngeal
  • 28.30 Submandibular Triangle Hypoglossal
    Cranial nerve
  • 32.30 Nasopharynx
  • Nasal Cavity and Larynx (10.43)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1273
  • 700 Larynx

119
Lower Airway Structures
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Primary bronchi
  • Secondary bronchi
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli
  • Lungs

120
Pulmonary Surfactant
  • Thin film that coats alveoli
  • Prevents alveoli from collapsing

121
Lungs
  • Respiration
  • Attached to heart by pulmonary arteries and veins
  • Separated by mediastinum
  • Bases of lungs rest on diaphragm
  • Apex extends 2.5 cm above clavicles

122
Pleural Cavity
  • Pleural cavity surrounds each lung
  • Two layers (visceral and parietal)
  • Pleural space

123
Digestive System
  • Provides body with water, electrolytes, and
    nutrients
  • Specialized to
  • Ingest food
  • Propel food through GI tract
  • Absorb nutrients
  • Functions
  • Components

124
  • Peritoneal Cavity (24.48)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1255
  • 6.35 tour of abdominal organs
  • 9.58 Testes, ovaries, hernia pathways
  • 20.15 Inguinal triangle
  • Blood supply
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/6875

125
Stomach
  • Storage and mixing area
  • Secretes mucus
  • Gastric gland secretes
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Intrinsic factor
  • Gastrin
  • Pepsinogen

126
Small Intestine
  • Secretes mucus, electrolytes, water
  • Lubricates and protects intestinal walls
  • Mixes, propels chyme
  • Absorbs fluid and nutrients

127
Liver
  • Secretes 600-1000 mL bile per day
  • Dilutes stomach acid
  • Emulsifies fat
  • Role in
  • Iron metabolism
  • Plasma-protein production
  • Detoxification of drugs
  • Glucose metabolism

128
Gallbladder
  • Stores bile
  • Stimulated to contract by
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Secretin
  • Excretes bile into small intestine

129
Pancreas
  • Exocrine gland
  • Pancreatic juice
  • Amylase
  • Sodium bicarbonate
  • Other digestive enzymes
  • Endocrine gland
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon

130
Large Intestine
  • Absorption of water and salts
  • Secretion of mucus
  • Microorganism actions
  • Vitamin K
  • Nutrient release and absorption
  • Conversion of chyme
  • Defecation through anus

131
  • Posterior Abdominal Wall (10.08)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1256

132
Urinary System
  • Helps maintain
  • Homeostasis
  • Constant body fluid volume and composition
  • Control of RBC production
  • Vitamin D metabolism

133
Kidneys
  • On either side of vertebral column
  • Outer cortex and inner medulla
  • Nephron
  • Basic functional unit of kidney

134
Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra
  • Ureters
  • Urinary bladder

Male urinary bladder
135
Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra
  • Urethra
  • In males, extends to end of penis, where it opens
    to outside
  • In females, much shorter urethra
  • Opens into vestibule anterior to vaginal opening

Male urinary bladder
136
Urine Production
  • Filtration
  • Reabsorption
  • Secretion

137
Urine Regulation
  • Controlled by
  • Hormonal mechanisms
  • Autoregulation
  • Sympathetic nervous system stimulation

138
Hormonal Mechanisms
  • Aldosterone
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Atrial natriuretic factor
  • Prostaglandins and kinins

139
Autoregulation
  • Kidneys can regulate stable filtration rate over
    a wide range of blood pressures
  • Large increases in arterial pressure increase
    rate of urine production
  • Decreases in arterial pressure decrease urine
    production

140
Sympathetic Nervous System Stimulation
  • Sympathetic neurons innervate blood vessels of
    the kidney
  • Decreased renal blood flow may result from
  • Severe stress
  • Intense exercise
  • Circulatory shock

141
Male Reproductive System
  • Testes
  • Epididymis
  • Ductus deferens
  • Urethra
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Prostate gland
  • Bulbourethral
  • glands
  • Scrotum
  • Penis

142
Female Reproductive System
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • External genitalia
  • Mammary glands

143
Ovaries
  • Ovaries are attached to broad ligament
    (mesovarium)
  • Other ovarian ligaments
  • Suspensory ligament
  • Ovarian ligament

144
Ovaries
  • Ovarian arteries, veins, and nerves traverse the
    suspensory ligament
  • Enter the ovary through mesovarium
  • Dense outer portion (cortex)
  • Looser inner portion (medulla)
  • Ovarian follicles
  • Each contains an oocyte
  • Distributed throughout cortex

145
Uterine Tubes
  • Ducts for the ovaries
  • Open directly into the peritoneal cavity to
    receive the oocyte

146
Uterus
  • Size and shape of a pear
  • Fundus
  • Cervix

147
External Genitalia (Vulva)
  • Vestibule and surrounding structures
  • Labia minora
  • Clitoris
  • Labia majora
  • Clinical perineum
  • Area between vagina and anus

148
Mammary Glands
  • Milk production
  • Lactiferous duct divides to form smaller ducts
  • Forms secretory sacs that secrete milk during
    nursing

149
Special Senses
  • Provide brain with information about outside
    world
  • Include
  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Sight
  • Hearing and balance

150
Olfactory Sense Organs
  • Receptors lie in upper nasal cavity
  • Impulses are interpreted by brain as odors

151
Taste
  • Taste receptors
  • Taste buds

152
Visual System
  • Eyes
  • Accessory structures
  • Optic nerve, tract, and pathways
  • Second cranial nerve (optic nerve)
  • Third cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve)

153
  • Orbit (11.21)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1270

154
Anatomy of the Eye
  • Sclera
  • Cornea
  • Vascular tunic
  • Iris
  • Retina
  • Compartments of the eye
  • Anterior chamber
  • Posterior chamber

155
Compartments of the Eye
  • Anterior chamber
  • Aqueous humor
  • Helps regulate intraocular pressure
  • Refracts light
  • Provides nutrition
  • Posterior chamber
  • Vitreous humor
  • Helps regulate intraocular pressure
  • Refracts light
  • Holds retina

156
Accessory Structures
  • Conjunctiva
  • Lacrimal gland

157
Hearing and Balance
  • External ear
  • Middle ear
  • Inner ear

158
  • Ear (5.27)
  • http//videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/1271

159
Conclusion
  • The paramedic must thoroughly understand human
    anatomy to organize a patient assessment by body
    region and to communicate effectively with
    medical direction and other members of the health
    care team.

160
Questions?
About PowerShow.com