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Collaborating for Success: Leadership and Teaming in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and Problem Solving (PS) System

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Title: Collaborating for Success: Leadership and Teaming in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and Problem Solving (PS) System


1
Collaborating for Success Leadership and Teaming
in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and Problem
Solving (PS) System
  • Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based
    Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
    Education
  • Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel
    Development Grant-funded initiative of the
    Illinois State Board of Education. All funding
    is from federal sources.

2
District Leadership Meeting- Woodbine 1-
10-8-09 Building A Sustainable Foundation
Presented by Ruth Poage-Gaines, Regional
Coordinator IASPIRE
3
Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based
Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
Education
  • Project Goal Establish and implement a
    coordinated, regionalized system of personnel
    development that will increase school systems
    capacity to provide early intervening services
    with an emphasis on reading, aligned with the
    general education curriculum, to at-risk students
    and students with disabilities, as measured by
    improved student progress and performance.

4
Illinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based
Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
Education
  • Objectives
  • Deliver research-based professional development
    and technical assistance in Problem-Solving
    Service Delivery Systems, Response-to-Intervention
    (RTI), scientifically based reading instruction,
    and Standards Aligned Classrooms (SAC).
  • Increase the participation of parents in
    decision-making across district sites.
  • Incorporate professional development content into
    higher education general and special education
    preservice graduate level curricula.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of project activities.

5
Objective 1 Research-Based Professional
Development T.A.
  • 4 Regional Illinois ASPIRE Centers
  • Chicago Chicago Public Schools
  • North Northern Suburban Spec. Ed. Dist.
  • Central Peoria ROE 48
  • South Southern Illinois University
  • Collaboratives of LEAs, IHEs, regional providers
    and parent entities
  • Responsible for
  • Training to districts and parents in region
  • General technical assistance (T.A.)
  • On-site T.A. to school data collection/demonstrati
    on sites

6
For More Information www.illinoisaspire.n
et ISBE Kathryn Cox 217-782-5589
kcox_at_isbe.net
  • Illinois ASPIRE North
  • Dr. Mark Shinn
  • 847-275-7200
  • markshinn_at_mac.com
  • Illinois ASPIRE Central
  • Christy Culen
  • 309-657-9337
  • cculen_at_peoriaroe48.net
  • Illinois ASPIRE South
  • Dr. Melissa Bergstrom
  • 618-650-3182
  • mbergstrom_at_siu.edu
  • Illinois ASPIRE Chicago
  • Amy Dahlstrom Klainer
  • 773-553-2209
  • ajdahlstromklain_at_cps.k12.il.us

7
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8
Learner OutcomesYou will be able to
  • Identify the factors shared by schools that are
    successful in increasing student achievement.
  • Identify factors to address in change initiatives
    such as RtI/PS.
  • Describe the consensus stage in the development
    of a PS/RtI system.

9
Learner Outcomes (continued)
  • Assess status of commitment to or readiness for
    implementation of a RtI/PS system in your school
    and develop strategies for increasing commitment.
  • Assess and increase the leadership role of staff
    in the implementation of RTI/PS.

10
Big Ideas about the Role of the Principal and
Leadership in the Development and Implementation
of a RtI/PS System
  • Implementation of RtI/PS involves change
  • Change is a complex process involving attention
    to identifiable critical factors.
  • Schools that successfully implement RtI/PS share
    common characteristics
  • core beliefs
  • role of prevention and intervention
  • collaborative teaming
  • data-based decision-making
  • parental/community engagement
  • leadership

11
Big Ideas (continued)
  • Successful implementation of RtI/PS is based on
    the premise that schools are responsible for the
    learning of all students and the principals role
    is crucial in setting expectations for this
    within the school.
  • Implementation of RtI/PS takes heart, courage,
    knowledge and a willingness to change for the
    better.

12
Big Ideas (continued)
  1. Development of a RtI/PS system requires consensus
    building, infrastructure development and action
    toward implementation.

13
Prerequisite KnowledgeKnow what RtI and PS
are

14
Lets Briefly ReviewWhat is RTI?
15
One Minute Sharing with Partner
16
RTI Response-to- Intervention
or matching
student need to instruction or intervention in
order to increase student achievement
17
RTI is about.
  • having a system of instruction
  • and intervention.
  • intensity of instruction
  • and intervention.
  • using different data
  • measures.
  • using different academic
  • and behavior Interventions.
  • a different system for
  • determining eligibility.

18
Rather than devoting extensive resources to
finding out whether students have disabilities,
we should devote those resources to assessing
students exact instructional needs using models
like Response-to-Intervention. Schools will need
to provide this instruction through collaboration
between general and special education personnel
to ensure that all students continue to have full
access to the general education curriculum..lets
teach the children what they need to know. Harry
and Klinger, Educational Leadership
19
What is Problem Solving?
20
One Minute Sharing with Partner
21
What is PS (Problem Solving)?
  • A team-based, data-based decision-making
    process designed to improve educational and
    behavioral outcomes by asking these questions at
    every level of the tiered prevention/intervention
    system
  • Problem Identification--What Is The Problem? Is
    it Significant?
  • Problem Analysis--Why Is The Problem Occurring?
  • Plan Development--What Are We Going To Do About
    It?
  • Plan Evaluation--Did The Plan Work?

22
Why RtI/PS NowMany of its basic tenets have
been around for some time.
23
Right now in education we operate in a context
ofAccountability!!!!and we see this in this
educational legislation.
24
Contextual Issues Affecting The RtI/PS Process in
General and Special Education
  • ESEA Legislation-No Child Left Behind and AYP
  • IDEA Re-Authorization
  • Focus on academic outcomes
  • General education as baseline metric
  • Labeling as a last resort
  • Increasing general education options
  • Pooling building-based resources
  • Flexible funding patterns
  • RtI Introduced as option for LD eligibility
  • National Emphasis on Reading and
  • Reading First Initiative
  • Evidence-based/Scientifically-based
  • Interventions
  • Heartland, June, 2006 (modified)

25
Quote from ISBESchool Improvement Plan
Directions
  • (In reference to looking at ISAT and local
    assessment data)
  • respond(ing) to three prompts a) What do
    these data tell you? b) What factors are likely
    to have contributed to these results? and c) What
    conclusion for school improvement do you draw?
  • List key factors that are within the
    schools capacity to change or control which
    contribute to low achievement

26
Seven Common Traits Observed in Successful Schools
  • Strong Leadership
  • Positive Belief and Teacher Dedication
  • Data Utilization and Analysis
  • Effective Scheduling
  • Professional Development
  • Scientifically Based Intervention Programs
  • Parent Involvement
  • Crawford, E., Torgesen, J. Teaching All Students
    to Read Practices from Reading First Schools
    with Strong Intervention Outcomes-Complete
    Report, Florida Center for Reading Research
    2004-05.

27
One Minute Sharing with Partner
28
Big Picture Overview Stages Of RtI/PS
Development
  • Consensus Building
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Implementation
  • Heartland, June, 2006

29
Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI
  • Consensus
  • Beliefs are shared and agreed upon
  • Vision statement exists
  • RtI and PS are understood
  • Implementation requirements are understood
  • Leadership is provided by the principal and key
    school staff
  • Infrastructure Development
  • System self-study completed
  • Universal screening and benchmarking system has
    been developed
  • System of prevention/intervention has been
    developed
  • Core Leadership team identified and committed
  • Problem solving team(s) and processes developed
  • Plan for sustainability has been developed
  • Revision of special education eligibility
    processes has been developed
  • Implementation
  • Roll out of RtI/PS begins or continues with
    increasing sophistication
  • Evaluation of student outcomes, system data,
    problem solving process and consumer satisfaction
    exists

30
Stage One
  • Consensus Building

31
What Beliefs Should Be Shared???
  • RtI/PS is a General Education Initiative, not
    primarily a Special Education initiative.
  • Improving the effectiveness of core instruction
    is basic to this process
  • NO Child Left Behind Really Means NO Meeting
    AYP through RtI!
  • Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate
    the impact of instruction
  • Beliefs must be supported by research

32
Beliefs (cont.)
  • There is a shared responsibility for student
    achievement across the entire school community.
  • Parents are vital members of the team to support
    students.

33
Two Minute Reflection
34
Consensus Building Activities What to Do?
  • Discuss how RtI/PS relates to state and district
    goals and initiatives with district leadership
    and gain support for building implementation.
  • Identify school leadership to support RtI/PS.
  • Provide information to school staff.
  • Why RtI/PS?
  • What is it? What is it not?
  • What are the benefits of RtI/PS?
  • What will it take to implement?

35
Consensus Building Activities (cont.)
  • Identify the consensus level among staff for
    implementing RtI/PS.
  • Determine next steps with leadership team.
  • Plan to support this change initiative in the
    school.

36
Definitions of Change
  • To leave one train, bus, etc and board another
  • To put on other clothes
  • To make different to alter to vary
  • Heartland, June, 2006 Websters New World
    Dictionary

37
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41
Faced with the choice between changing ones
mind and proving that there is no need to do so,
almost everybody gets busy on the proof. (John
Kenneth Galbraith)
42
Why do people resist change?Fear of.
  • Failure
  • Success
  • Losing Power
  • Hard Work
  • Having to be different
  • Source The All Star Company

43
Why do people embrace change?Excitement about
  • The unknown
  • The possibility of success
  • Being the best you can be
  • Proving something
  • Being able to be different
  • Source The All Star Company

44
Table Talk
  • Think about your own involvement as an
    educator in a significant change in your
    district, school or classroom. How did you react
    to this change and what factors either made you
    hesitant or enthusiastic about the change?

45
McRELs View of Change
  • A change is defined by the implications it has
    for the people expected to implement it and/or
    those who will be impacted by it.
  • The same change can be perceived
  • differently by different stakeholders
  • McREL

46
Definitions Order of Change
  • First-order of change
  • Second-order of change

47
First or Second Order Change?Do staff perceive
the change as
  • First-order Implications
  • an extension of the past?
  • consistent with prevailing organizational norms?
  • congruent with personal values?
  • easily learned using existing knowledge and
    skills?
  • Second-order Implications
  • a break with the past?
  • inconsistent with prevailing organizational
    norms?
  • incongruent with personal values?
  • requiring new knowledge and skills?
  • McREL

48
Table Talk
  • Discuss whether implementing RtI/PS is going to
    be a first-order or second-order change for your
    school.

49
Personal Impact of Change
  • Its not so much that were afraid of change or
    so in love with the old ways, but its that place
    in between that we fear Its like being on a
    trapeze. Its Linus when his blanket is in the
    dryer. Theres nothing to hold on to.
  • Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Company

50
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


CHANGE
51
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


CONFUSION
52
Mission vs Vision
  • A Mission Statement reminds a school why it
    exists.
  • A Vision Statement paints a picture of what a
    school can become in the future.



  • Blankstein, Failure is Not an Option, p.84

53
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


ANXIETY
54
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


SLOW CHANGE
55
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


FRUSTRATION
56
Managing Complex Change
Vision
Skills


Incentives
Resources
Action Plans


FALSE STARTS
57
Having a Shared Vision Why?
  • Shared vision provides incentive to all involved.
  • Shared vision provides coordination and focus to
    your actions.
  • Shared vision promotes sustainability.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

58
Table Talk
  • Discuss the status of your school in regard to
    the following
  • How well does the vision of our school match
    the beliefs underlying RtI/PS? What can we do to
    improve the match?

59
Role of the Principal
  • Sets vision for problem-solving process
  • Supports development of expectations
  • Responsible for allocation of resources
  • Facilitates priority setting
  • Ensures follow-up
  • Supports program evaluation
  • Monitors staff support/climate

60
The PrincipalContent Knowledge
  • Understanding of
  • Need for research-based core, supplemental and
    intensive instructional strategies and
    interventions
  • Components of a successful professional
    development plan
  • Need for and skills in data-based decision-making
    and the need to share outcome data frequently
  • Need to publicly recognize the relationship
    between staff efforts and student outcomes
  • Need to involve and inform parents of the
    essential elements of RtI/PS and their role in
    the process

61
From Research
  • Leaders are change-makers and these are some
    of the things they do to make change happen.
  • articulate a shared vision
  • plan and provide resources
  • invest in professional development and
    training
  • check or assess progress
  • continue to give assistance
  • create a context conducive to change
  • Southwest Educational Development Laboratory,
    Spring 2000, Issues About Change

62
Research on principals in schools embracing RTI/PS
  • Do principals exhibit research-based leadership
    competencies/attributes in these schools?
  • Yes, they demonstrate instructional leadership,
    support professional development, foster a
    collaborative climate,focus on student
    achievement and understand the change process.
  • Dissertation Dr. Diane Morrison

63
  • However

64
Principals arent the only ones who can exercise
leadership within a school.Teachers do so as
well.
65
What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • A school culture that---
  • focuses on learning, inquiry and reflectice
    practice
  • encourages initiative
  • expects teamwork and shared decision-making
  • values teachers as role models for other
  • has a sense of community that fosters
    professionalism

66
What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • Relationships that
  • recognize and respect teacher leaders with
    subject-area and instructional expertise
  • reflect high trust among teacher peers and
    between teachers and administrators
  • encourage work central to the teaching and
    learning process
  • reflect clearly defined teacher-leader and
    administrator-leader domains, as well as shared
    leadership responsibilities.
  • reflect positive interpersonal relationships

67
What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • Structural supports that
  • provide adequate access to materials
  • provide adequate time and space
  • facilitate professional development
  • What is clearis that traditional forms of
    management must be modified to be more horizontal
    and less hierarchial for teacher leadership to
    flourish.
  • York-Barr,J., Duke, K. (2004) What do we know
    about teacher leadership? Findings from two
    decades of scholarship. Review of Educational
    Research 74(3), 255-316.

68
Table Talk
  • What practices exist in your school right now
    that encourage teacher leadership? How might
    these practices be expanded or improved? How
    would these relate to the implementation of
    RtI/PS in your school?

69
Leadership Team Activities
  • Assess school needs
  • Develop and define expectations
  • Plan staff development
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of efforts
  • Create and maintain an action plan to guide
    ongoing efforts
  • Plan for sustainability (change in team members)
  • Communicate to stakeholders
  • Obtain or allocate other resources
  • Obtain staff buy-in

70
Incentives
  • Think about what motivates teachers.
  • A shared vision?
  • Improved student performance?
  • Data that shows growth?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

71
Final Thought
  • What Can Be Done To Sustain Your Efforts?
  • Sustaining Your Reform Five Lessons from
    Research
  • BenchmarksThe Quarterly Newsletter of the
    National Clearinghouse for Comprehensive School
    Reform
  • Summer, 2002
  • http//www.goodschools.gwu.edu

72
Useful Internet Sites for Information on RtI/PS
  • www.ilispa.org
  • www.scoe.org
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • http//www.calstat.org/specialedgeold.html
  • http//www.rti.ucr.edu
  • http//www.nwrel.org/nwrcc/nclb/rti.php

73
References/Readings
  • Response to InterventionPolicy Considerations
    and Implementation
  • National Association of State Directors of
    Special Education, Inc.
  • December, 2005
  • The Tipping Point How Little Things Can Make
    a Big Difference
  • Malcolm Gladwell
  • 2002
  • The All Star Company People, Performance,
    Profit
  • Nick Marsh
  • 1994
  • The RtI Guide Developing and Implementing a
    Model in Your Schools
  • John E. McCook
  • 2006
  • A Principals Guide to Intensive Reading
    Interventions for Struggling Readers in Reading
    First Schools
  • Joseph Torgeson
  • www.fcrr.org

74
References/Readings
  • Failure is Not an Option Six Principles
    that Guide Student Achievement in High
    Performing Schools
  • Alan M. Blankstein
  • 2004
  • Whole Language High Jinks How to Tell When
    Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction Isnt
  • Louisa Moats
  • Thomas B. Fordham Institute
  • Iverson, Annette M., (2002). Best
    practices in problem solving team structure and
    process, Best Practices in School Psychology IV,
    pp. 657-670.
  • Elmore, Richard, (2000). Building a New
    Structure for School Leadership, Albert Shanker
    Institute, Winter 2000.
  • Harry, Beth and Klinger, Janette, (2007)
    Discarding the Deficit Model, Educational
    Leadership, V.64, 5, pp.16-21.

75
Consensus Activities
What Needs to Be Done? Who Should Be Involved? Who is Responsible? When Should It be Implemented or Completed?
76
Acknowledgements
  • Heartland AEA
  • Pam Radford
  • Mark Shinn
  • IASPIRE
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