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Energy Options


Title: Energy Options Author: c.marshall Last modified by: victoria Created Date: 10/13/2009 3:43:26 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Options

Energy Options
  • What are our future alternatives?

How energy insecurity might increase geopolitical
  • To be energy secure countries aim for the
  • 1) Greater use of domestic sources
  • 2) Diversification reducing reliance on fossil
    fuels and maximising renewables.
  • 3) Obtaining guarantees of imports and stable

No.3 (stability of supply) is the greatest
  • Increasing competition exists between Producers
    and Consumers (mainly for oil and gas)
  • Producers use oil and gas as bargaining tools.
    International partnerships (e.g. OPEC) have
    massive power, controlling supply.
  • Consumers- are at the mercy of the producers!
    Unless alternatives are used.
  • High military tensions in areas of potential
    oil-related stress!

  • In this section of work we are going to start to
    investigate some of the approaches that we can
    adopt to meet future energy needs and increase
    our energy security.
  • The key issues is-
  • What are the options open to communities at local
    level and governments at national level?

Starter activity
  • In pairs or threes discuss and write down the
    range of energy options open to us at all levels
    to meet our future requirements.
  • Eg- Business as usual approach continued
    reliance on fossil fuels.

Meeting future energy needs.
  • The options are
  • Business as usual
  • Nuclear energy
  • Renewable energy emphasis on wind
  • Energy efficient savings

Business as Usual scenario
  • What is this concept ?
  • What will the costs of this approach be to the
  • What are the geopolitical consequences of this
  • One production hotspot in the World identify the
    potential conflicts that exist in the area?

What happens if we keep the status quo?
  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates
    fossil fuels will continue to dominate energy use
    into 2030 (84)- coal use will grow most rapidly
  • Natural gas consumption will double by 2030
  • Oil will have to increase by 1.4 billion barrels
    a day to meet demands
  • Consuming countries will rely more heavily on
    gas/ oil imports from mid east and Russia and as
    Indian and Chinese demands increase further, the
    import amounts will surpass those of today's
    largest importers
  • After 2015 (?) gas and oil demand will outstrip
    supply- world will have to increase alternative
    energy usage and use more efficiently

What would costs be?
  • Sir Nicholas Stern predicts Climate Change will
    cost 5-20 of worlds GDP
  • Whereas limits to greenhouse gas emissions just
  • Already increasing global warming is leading to
    increased numbers of extreme weather events and
    natural disasters which cost money and lives
  • A 2-3 degree rise in temp could lead to reduction
    of global economic output of 3 by reducing crop
  • A 5 degree rise 10 reduction in global output,
    with poorest countries losing more than as they
    lack income to implement coping strategies (such
    as storing water and energy supplies)

New supply areas
  • http//
  • Africa oil

The nuclear option?
  • Opinion is divided over whether nuclear power is
    the answer
  • It provides about 15 of the worlds electricity,
    but only 2 of all energy needs
  • There are over 400 reactors in 30 countries, but
    few currently being built

Advantages Disadvantages
Fuel sources (see map) Low life cycle carbon emissions. Constant power output Takes up little space. Large power output per plant Public distrust. High initial cost. Long build times. High level waste disposal. Fears of terrorism. Nuclear proliferation. Technically challenging
Nuclear Power
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the
    nuclear power debate?
  • Identify two countries that have considered the
    nuclear route produce case study notes on their
  • Lets have a nuclear debate in class!
  • Read p 26 Pearson sheet and P46 Oxford

Two ways of doing this
  1. Carrot and stick measures emission controls,
    carbon trading and green taxation
  2. Develop new and radical technologies that are
    sustainable and bring energy security

Renewable energy
  • We have already covered many of the issues in
    this area make sure you are aware of all the
    issues relating to wind energy and at least one
    other type of renewable eg- geothermal,
    solar,wave power

  • Renewable /alternative forms of energy are
    central to the UKs governments plans for future
    energy provision and reductions in carbon
    emissions and climate change.
  • Local communities have a wide range of reactions
    to these schemes some in favour others very
    much against.
  • NIMBYs are increasingly slowing down the process
    of planning to these new schemes.

Wind power - relocalisation
  • http//
    Floating wind turbines off Norway

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  • P 27 Pearson sheet
  • P47 Oxford

REPORT TITLE-The influence of local
communities is key to the development of new
renewable energy schemes. Discuss the issues
using case study examples.
Structure of report
  • Introduction outline the role that alternative
    types of energy are expected to play in the
    future provision of UKs energy needs
  • Main body assess the reasons why some
    alternative energy schemes are not supported by
    local communities while others are. Use case
    study evidence to help support your ideas.
    Eg-Kent, Westray (Orkney) and in Europe.
  • Conclusion explain what the concept of
    re-localisation is and how it is working in one
    part of the UK.

Resources to help
  • Costing the Earth BBC Radio 4 programme on web
  • Resource sheet
  • Web-sites eg-
  • Handing in date

  • Biofuels have the advantage of being flexible
  • As such they can replace diesel (biodiesel) and
    petrol (bio-ethanol)
  • However, they require food crops as feedstocks
    (sugar cane, maize etc)
  • This means land that could be used for food.
  • In 2007-08 explosive growth of biofuel crop area
    was blamed for pushing up global food prices
  • Biofuels are not carbon neutral, because of the
    energy used in farming, transport and refining.

Future biofuels might not use food crops 1st
generation food crops 2nd generation crop
wastes 3rd generation algae
Energy efficient savings/conservation/ recycling
  • Make sure you understand what is meant by-
  • Carbon credits
  • Carbon trading
  • Green taxation
  • Low carbon homes
  • CHP plants
  • Smart meters
  • Next generation of electric/hybrid cars

UK smart meters
Consumers benefit from being able to manage and
reduce their energy bills, and, crucially, their
household's carbon footprint
  • http//
    UK smart meters

Consumers benefit from being able to manage and
reduce their energy bills, and, crucially, their
household's carbon footprint
  • http//
    Maldives aims to become 1st carbon neutral
    country by 2019

Future cars- Lithium Power Bolivia
  • Automakers are looking into the next generation
    electric or hybrid cars. The main resource for
    the battery would be lithium, already used in
    smaller electronic devices and far more efficient
    and longer-lasting than regular batteries.
  • Almost half the worlds lithium is found in
    Bolivia, and as The Seattle Times notes, Bolivia
    is reluctant to give up lithium resources too
  • Bolivia and the US have had thorny relations as
    the democratically elected socialist and
    indigenous leader, Evo Morales, has nationalized
    oil and gas companies, much to the disappointment
    of the US, and with general support from his
    population as he attempts to slowly develop the
    extremely poor nation.
  • This means that the European Union and Japan have
    been trying to court Bolivia in the hopes they
    can invest in lithium extraction.
  • But as this PBS video highlights, geopolitics are
    again the concern Bolivia fears that others will
    exploit it for rich resources, just as most
    resource-rich nations have been
    plundered/exploited in the past. It may be that
    this time the exploitation may not be as violent
    as during imperial and colonial times, but
    resource-rich/economically-poor nations like
    Bolivia are understandably hesitant to give up a
    valuable resource without local benefits.
  • So it seems that Bolivia is trying hard to
    understand the resource more and possibly develop
    local capacity so that it is not just a raw
    resource provider, but can go further and process
    the resources, with much if not all proceeds
    helping local populations

  • http//
    2008700362_lithium03.html More on Bolivias

s01s24cbq8a7 video
  • http//
    air-powered-car-hybrid-france guardian air car
  • http//
    Indias air car- bbc

213573581 video
  • P48-49 Oxford

Summary - Geopolitics
  • There are a number of sources of tension, both
    present and future, related to energy security
    and the threat of insecurity

Scenario Explanation Consequences
Oil hits 100 Sustained oil price of over 100 per barrel, for several years. Prolonged economic recession and rising fuel poverty in OECD countries
Middle East meltdown Tensions in the Gulf escalate into war between Muslim factions possibly involving Iran, Iraq, Israel, Syria, Turkey and others. Interruption of oil and gas flows rising prices tension between China and USA to secure oil supply
The nuclear option Wholesale shifting towards nuclear to replace fossil fuels, leads to global spread of nuclear power and technology Power stations become soft targets for terrorism enriched uranium and depleted plutonium get into the wrong hands.
Energy superpowers The Gulf States hold 60 of oil reserves and Russia/Qatar/ Iran 60 of gas the world has not shifted to renewables. Energy superpowers begin to name their price and take care of their friends major geopolitical shifts
Arctic attack Canada, Russia, USA and EU begin to exploit the Arctic for oil and gas, but without clear delineation of territorial areas. A war or words over who has the right to exploit what, quickly becomes a new cold war possibly a hot one
Summary - Future challenges
  • What are our energy challenges in 2010? There are
    some that are obvious
  • Reduce dependency on fossil fuels to increase
    energy security
  • Increase renewable energy use as fossil fuels
    become more expensive / peak
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Increase access to energy in developing nations

Mix it up Wind, solar and others can be used to diversify energy sources. This would increase security, but could also reduce greenhouse emissions. Technology for all Aid could be used to help developing nations grow their renewable sectors Intermediate technology is key to this. They need energy, but without greenhouse emissions.
Tax it down Green taxes i.e. taxing fossil fuel use, could encourage efficiency Greenhouse emissions would fall as efficiency rises The dirtiest fuels could be taxed the most. Self generation Homes can generate renewable energy using ground source heat pumps, micro-wind and solar PV / thermal This would diversify the energy mix, reduce emissions and increase self-reliance.
Example exam questions
  1. Suggest how the distribution of major oil
    exporters and importers affects the energy
    security of some nations. (10)
  2. The development of alternative energy sources is
    a possible response to future energy demand.
    Assess the possible costs and benefits of this
    approach. (15)

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