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Emergency Preparedness in Early Childhood Education

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Title: Pilgrim community nursery school Author: Tamara Habib Last modified by: L. Paul Lewis Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergency Preparedness in Early Childhood Education


1
Emergency Preparedness in Early Childhood
Education
  • Opening Minds Conference 2013

2
Agenda
2
  • School emergency response planning
  • Emergency management overview
  • The planning process
  • Legal and administrative requirements
  • Overview of emergency response plan
  • Training and exercise
  • Resources
  • Questions and Answers

3
School Emergency Response Planning
3
4
Importance of Planning
4
  • Safety above all
  • Emergencies of all shapes and sizes occur in
    schools every day
  • Significant impact on students, faculty, staff,
    parents, and the community
  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Legal and ethical responsibilities to the
    students, staff, faculty, and parents

5
St. Barnabas UMC Tornado
  • Prior to event, had an emergency response plan
    that included tornado drills
  • 82 students at school when tornado occurred
  • Roof lifted up, sprinkler system breaks, tree is
    uprooted and punctures wall in education wing

6
St. Barnabas UMC Tornado
  • Teachers direct students to interior portions of
    education wing in darkness through flooded
    hallways
  • No injuries reported except for one 5 year old
    complaining of head pain following her braids
    being pulled on by the boy that liked her
  • Instituted reunification plan to connect parents
    with students

7
St. Barnabas UMC Tornado
  • Facility badly damaged 3.6 million in repairs
  • Students finished year at neighboring early
    childhood education program
  • School and church re-opened in September

8
Impact of Newtown Preparation
  • Advanced security system in place
  • Conducted emergency drill in September
  • All exterior doors locked at 930 am
  • Visitors required to report to main office and
    present i.d.
  • Students arriving after 930 must be walked into
    the building

9
Impact of Newtown Response
10
Impact of Newtown Response
  • Parents hear of event and start arriving at Sandy
    Hook, complicating response efforts
  • Sandy Hook Fire Stations becomes gathering place
    for families of victims
  • Nationwide media interviews survivors,
    townspeople
  • New York City provides portable morgue bodies
    not removed until night after shooting

11
Impact of Newtown Recovery
  • Sandy Hook classes not in session for two weeks
    transferred students to new school
  • Nationwide conversation on gun control
  • 8.5 million in monetary donations, warehouse of
    toys, stuffed animals, books, school supplies
  • 100 million lawsuit filed against State of
    Connecticut

12
Lack of Planning
12
  • There is a lack of planning done in school
    systems in the United States
  • Many school systems on the K-12 level have plans
    but they are not comprehensive
  • Many early childhood education institutions have
    no plan at all

13
Why the lack of planning?
13
  • Accountability
  • No system set up to monitor planning efforts
    amongst early childhood education providers
  • Funding
  • Budgets are stretched to capacity
  • Lack of grants for ECE
  • Time
  • Lack of staff time to dedicate to research and
    writing
  • Focus on educational benchmarks
  • Knowledge
  • Expertise is in educational administration, not
    emergency planning

14
Questions?
14
15
The Emergency Management Overview
15
16
Four Phase Cycle
16
17
Mitigation and Prevention
17
  • All actions taken before a disaster to reduce
    its impacts
  • Structural mitigation
  • Projects that reduce economic and social impacts
  • Non-structural activities
  • Procedures and practices that raise awareness of
    hazards

18
Preparedness
18
  • Governments, organizations, and individuals
    develop plans to save lives, minimize disaster
    damage, and enhance disaster response operations
  • Preparedness plans
  • Emergency exercises and training
  • Communications
  • Resources inventory
  • Public information

19
Response
19
  • Phase where action is taken to resolve an
    emergency
  • Emergency management plans are operationalized
  • Activate the plan
  • Deploy resources
  • Activate communications plan
  • Work with first responders
  • Accounting for staff and students
  • Preparing for recovery phase

20
Recovery
20
  • Actions that return staff and students to
    day-to-day operations
  • May overlap with response or continue on for
    months or years
  • Restore utilities, clear pathways, repair damaged
    facilities, provide emotional support services,
    etc.

21
All-Hazards Approach
21
  • Develop protocols to prepare for all hazards
  • Incorporate community partners into planning
    process
  • Increases ability to respond to disaster or
    emergency
  • Standardizes certain processes
  • Operational concept
  • Command structure
  • Communications

22
Incident Command System (ICS)
22
  • Standardized management structure
  • Pre-determined group of individuals charged with
    roles and responsibilities with Plan, regardless
    of emergency type
  • Necessary in order to implement All-Hazards
    Approach

23
ICS Roles
23
  • Incident Commander
  • Overall direction and control over on-scene
    response until relieved by first response or
    response ends
  • Assess situation and orders specific actions
  • Command Staff
  • Safety Officer Identify, assess, and prevent
    safety threats
  • Liaison Point of contact for external parties
    and organizations
  • Public Information Point of contact for public
    and media
  • Action Team
  • Operations Perform tactical tasks
  • Planning Compile and assess incident status
    information
  • Logistics Provide resources and support for all
    functions
  • Finance/Administrative Manage expenditure and
    insurance

24
Questions?
24
25
The Planning Process
25
26
Six Steps
  • Form the collaborative planning team.
  • Understand the situation.
  • Determine goals and objectives.
  • Develop the plan.
  • Prepare, review, and approve the plan.
  • Implement and maintain the plan.

27
1. The Team
  • FEMA Questions for Identifying Stakeholders
  • Who might be responsible for what is intended?
  • Who can make the planning process more effective
    through their participation or less effective by
    their non-participation or outright opposition?
  • Who are the voiceless for whom special
    efforts have been made (e.g., the disability
    community)?
  • Who can contribute financial or technical
    resources?
  • Possible Planning Team Members
  • Local law enforcement
  • Fire Department
  • Emergency medical services
  • Public health
  • Community mental health
  • Local emergency management
  • Child protective services
  • Social services
  • Teachers
  • Board members
  • Building representatives

28
2. Situation Overview
  • Information to Include
  • Major geographic points
  • Typical weather patterns
  • Hazard Analysis
  • Building Infrastructure
  • Number of staff
  • Number of students
  • Persons with special needs
  • or considerations
  • Analyzing the Hazard
  • Severity of impact
  • Catastrophic, Severe, Moderate, Minor
  • Warning Time
  • None, 6-12 hours, 12-24 hours
  • Probability of Occurrence
  • High, Medium, Low

29
Community Hazards
29
  • Severe Thunderstorm
  • Tornado
  • Hail
  • Flooding
  • Severe Winter Storm
  • Infectious Disease Outbreak
  • Earthquake
  • Terrorism
  • Hazardous Materials Release
  • Bomb Threat
  • Active Shooter
  • Intruder
  • Transportation Accident
  • Medical Emergency
  • Child Abduction
  • Structural Fire

30
Special Considerations
30
  • Vulnerable population
  • Age range 2-6 years old
  • Differing cognitive levels
  • Multiple stakeholders
  • Parents
  • First Responders
  • Teachers
  • Administration
  • School schedule
  • Entry and Exit

31
Planning for Children with Special Needs
  • Consideration of those with special needs should
    be done at every step of planning process
  • Working with parents to understand how their
    child reacts under duress
  • Working with first responders to ensure knowledge
    of children with special needs at the school
  • Train staff on procedures involving children with
    special needs
  • Incorporate special needs issues into exercise
    objectives and goals

32
3. Goals and Objectives
  • Determine overall goals and objectives for plan
    what do you want out of an incident response?
  • Determine overall goals and objectives for
    individual hazards using hazard analysis.

33
4. Developing the Plan
  • Will review the basic concepts of an emergency
    operations plan in next section

34
5. Prepare, Review, Approve
  • Who will author the plan? The courses of action
    for each hazard?
  • Team reviews drafts of plan to ensure consistency
    with goals and objectives.
  • Approval is dependent on organization.

35
6. Implement and Maintain
  • Responsibilities for distribution and
    implementation of the plan should be incorporated
    into development of the plan.
  • Includes how teachers, staff, parents, and
    students will be trained on the contents of the
    plan.
  • Timeline for exercising the plan

36
Legal and Administrative Requirements
36
37
Minimum Components of Plans
37
  • Concept of Operations
  • Description of schools overall approach to
    emergency response
  • Statement about how and when emergency plan will
    be implemented
  • Description of how Incident Command System (ICS)
    will be implemented
  • Direction and Control
  • Definition and Assignment of Roles/Responsibilitie
    s in Chain of Command
  • All members of Emergency Teams
  • Designated Backups for each Role and
    Responsibility
  • Description of Planned Response
  • What should happen? When? At whose direction?
  • Specific planning for specific hazards
  • i.e. Severe weather, fire, bomb threats,
    structural failures, bus accidents, failure of
    utilities or loss of service, release of
    hazardous materials (indoors or outdoors),
    presence of an intruder, use of weapon, or taking
    of hostage, public health or medical emergencies,
    earthquake, nuclear power plan accident (if
    within 25 miles)

38
Minimum Components of Plans (cont.)
38
  • Resource Inventory and Accounting
  • Supply and equipment caches
  • i.e. first aid kits, food/water, emergency
    lighting, walkie-talkies, battery-operated
    radios, etc.
  • Method for accounting for whereabouts of students
    and staff
  • Emergency contact lists
  • Process for releasing students into care of
    parents or legal guardians
  • Training and Preparedness
  • Description of training and materials used to
    ensure all students and staff understand warning
    signals and know what to do
  • Information about the school
  • i.e. Hazard analyses, area maps, building layout,
    etc.
  • Records of results from Emergency Drills

39
Emergency Drills
39
  • Minimum Drills Required each school year
  • 3 School Evacuation Drills
  • At least 1 of 3 must include participation of
    local Fire Department
  • 1 Bus Evacuation Drill
  • 1 Severe Weather or Shelter-in-Place Drill
  • Recommended each school year
  • Law Enforcement Drill
  • Include participation of local Law Enforcement
  • May involve reverse-evacuation or lock-downs

40
Annual Review and Reporting
40
  • Annual Review Meeting
  • Review and update Plan and discuss results from
    Drills
  • Diverse Participating Parties
  • i.e. School Board, principals, first response
    organizations, education-related organizations,
    etc.
  • Annual Review Report
  • Summarize recommended changes
  • State which changes will be implemented
  • Send copy of Report to each Participating Party
    and to the Regional Superintendent

41
Common Requirements for Planning
41
  • Developed with aid of community Public Safety
    agencies
  • Based on a hazard analysis addressing multiple
    hazards
  • Include Incident Command System and assigned
    responsibilities, including designated backups
  • Gather essential supplies and assemble kits to
    support response action
  • Include a system of accountability for all
    students and adults in the building
  • Include a reunification system for releasing
    students to legal parents or guardians
  • Include a system for regular review and updating
    of plans

42
Common Requirements for Drills
42
  • Implement notifications that alert all students
    and staff in and around the building of emergency
  • Ensure movement to safe areas in a reasonable
    amount of time
  • Include primary secondary evacuation routes and
    safe areas
  • Account for students with special needs during an
    emergency
  • Ensure communication with first responders during
    response
  • Taught and tested through regularly scheduled
    drills and exercises involving Public Safety
    agencies

43
Liability
43
  • Almost anyone can be sued, for nearly anything,
    at almost any time
  • Qualified Immunity
  • Applies to public schools (local unit of
    government)
  • Actions taken in the course of official action,
    including emergency management
  • NOT actions outside of official action
  • NOT for reckless or willful misconduct
  • Negligence
  • Duty Breach Causation Injury
  • In loco parentis schools take on some of the
    duties of a parent
  • Where legal and administrative requirements
    exist, planning and response is within the scope
    of employment

44
Questions?
44
45
Overview of emergency response plan
45
46
The Basic Plan (CPG 101)
46
  • Introductory Material
  • Introduction to Plan
  • Concept of Operations
  • Direction, Control, and Coordination
  • Information Collection, Analysis, and
    Dissemination
  • Communications
  • Administration, Finance, and Logistics
  • Plan Development and Maintenance
  • Authorities and References

47
Introductory Material
47
  • Cover Page
  • Approval and Implementation Page
  • Gives approval to plan via delegating authority
  • Record of Changes
  • To track any updates or changes to plan
  • Table of Contents

48
Introduction to Plan
48
  • Purpose
  • General statement of what the plan is meant to do
  • Scope
  • States the scope of emergency and disaster
    response and entities and geographic areas to
    which the plan applies
  • Situation Overview
  • Relative probability and impact of hazards
  • Geographic areas likely to be affected by hazards
  • Vulnerable facilities
  • Population distribution and locations
  • individuals with disabilities, or functional
    needs
  • Location of resources in school (first-aid kits,
    fire extinguisher)
  • Planning Assumptions
  • What you assume to be true

49
Concept of Operations
49
  • Schools approach to emergency response
  • National Incident Management System
  • National set of principles that ensure all
    involved in response/recovery understand their
    roles and have the tools needed to be effective
  • Implementation of Incident Command System
  • Nationally recognized system for direction and
    control
  • Initial Response
  • How are first responders notified
  • Who is responsible until first responders arrive,
    who coordinates with first responders

50
Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities
50
  • Lists the tasks to be performed by position and
    organization
  • Possible roles
  • Director/Principle/Building Administrator
  • Incident Commander
  • Teachers/Teacher Aides
  • Administrative Staff
  • Students
  • Parents
  • Board of Directors

51
Direction, Control, and Coordination
51
  • How will you control the incident? State of
    Illinois requires use of Incident Command System
  • Incident Commander
  • Authority to direct operations until incident
    management can be established with local
    authorities
  • Coordination with Board of Directors
  • Coordination with First Responders
  • Coordination with Parents
  • How will you manage and track child pick-up?

52
Communications - Internal
52
  • Between staff and/or faculty members
  • Emergency contact lists
  • Methods of communication
  • When to communicate
  • Procedures for communication

53
Communications - External
53
  • Communications with parents
  • Call down procedures? Text alert? Email alert?
  • Communication with the media
  • Communication with first responders
  • Communication during recovery process
  • External communication tools and methods

54
Administration, Finance, and Logistics
54
  • Agreements and Contracts
  • Equipment, supplies, personnel
  • Record-keeping
  • Administrative controls (fund management)
  • Activity Logs (track major incident decisions)
  • Incident Costs
  • Personnel costs, especially overtime
  • Equipment operations costs
  • Costs for contract services or equipment

55
Plan Development and Maintenance
55
  • Approval and Dissemination of Plan
  • Who is responsible for disseminating plan to
    stakeholders?
  • Plan Review and Updates
  • How often will the plan reviewed? When will it
    be updated?
  • Training and Exercising the Plan
  • Description of training and exercises that have
    taken place or will take place
  • Record and results of all training and exercises

56
Appendices
56
  • Specific procedures per possible hazard
  • Evacuation (fire)
  • Reverse Evacuation (hazards outside of building)
  • Lockdown (intruder, active shooter)
  • Shelter-in-place (severe weather, hazardous
    materials release)
  • Power failure
  • Public health emergency
  • Bomb threat

57
Questions?
57
58
Training and Exercises
58
59
Recommended Training
59
  • FEMA Online Courses
  • IS-100.b - Introduction to Incident Command
    System
  • IS-200.b - ICS for Single Resources and Initial
    Action Incidents
  • IS-362.a - Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for
    Schools
  • IS-700.a - National Incident Management System
    (NIMS), An Introduction
  • IS-800.b - National Response Framework, An
    Introduction
  • Other
  • CPR
  • First Aid

60
Training for Teachers/Parents
60
  • Teachers
  • Conduct a Plan Seminar
  • Review communication procedures
  • Parents
  • Distribute plan and offer overview
  • Ensure communication procedures are understood

61
Exercises (Drills)
61
  • Required
  • Evacuation drills (3)
  • Bus evacuation drill (1)
  • Shelter-in-place drill (1)
  • Recommended
  • Lockdown drill
  • Communications drill
  • Phone tree drill

62
Questions?
62
63
Resources
63
64
Resources
64
  • www.schoolemergencyplanning.com

65
Contact Information
65
  • Tamara Habib
  • 312.972.3762
  • thabib_at_schoolemergencyplanning.com
  • L. Paul Lewis
  • 312.380.1316
  • lplewis_at_schoolemergencyplanning.com

66
Questions?
66
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