Technical Rescue Awareness Program - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Technical Rescue Awareness Program PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 56b820-YTcxZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Technical Rescue Awareness Program

Description:

Title: Technical Rescue Awareness Program Author: I.S. Department City of Naper Last modified by: Robert Karl Bush Created Date: 1/20/2001 5:12:04 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2456
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 210
Provided by: ISDepart
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Technical Rescue Awareness Program


1
Technical Rescue Awareness Program
  • I like to call this TRAP training
  • It is designed with all Firefighters in the State
    of Illinois in mind.

2
Course Effective Date 01January 2001
  • This course will replace, Confined space / Trench
    Awareness 01/2002
  • This course will replace Structural Collapse
    Awareness 01/2002
  • This course will be a prerequisite for all RESCUE
    COURSES 01/2002
  • Any questions?????????

3
A Little about me
  • Robert Bush (BOB)
  • Full time Firefighter Naperville Fire
  • Safety / TSO Roselle Fire
  • Member of the Technical Rescue AD HOC Committee.
  • I have been in the fire service for 13 years

4
  • I am prior service ARMY
  • Certified in numerous areas within the state of
    Illinois, OSFM.
  • If you ever get a chance, please call Mitzi in
    Springfield. She spend many hour typing and
    correcting our mistakes for the past year
  • 815/-

5
1-1 Definitions (See Objectives)
  • (See Objectives)
  • You will need to know all of these.

6
Start Date 01/01/2001 2-1 General
  • This Technical Rescue Awareness course has been
    developed by fellow firefighters within the State
    of Illinois in conjunction with the Office of the
    State Fire Marshals Office. The members of the
    steering committee followed the guidelines of the
    OSFM and NFPA 1670.

7
Technical Rescue Awareness Program
  • This course is meant to provide you a means in
    which to identify and properly react to uncommon,
    dangerous and difficult rescue situations.
    Further training is required for actual rescue
    operations and practices.

8
  • This course does not contain hands on training.
    The AHJ is responsible for training per NFPA
    1670, Operations and Training for Technical
    Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1670 refers to Emergency
    Medical Services (EMS) and Basic Life Support
    (BLS). It is the AHJs responsibility to properly
    instruct members in emergency medical care.

9
Technical Rescue Awareness Program
  • EMS cannot be taught at this level due to the
    vast number of systems within the State of
    Illinois, the lack of uniform policies and
    procedures / guidelines with the separate regions
    in Illinois, and the training requirements as
    established by the Illinois Department of Public
    Health (IDPH).

10
Technical Rescue Awareness
  • This course will cover basic and general
    knowledge on the following topic
    areas Structural Collapse. - Various types of
    building collapses. Rope Rescue - Various rescue
    situations require rope work. Confined Space -
    Rescues in confined spaces, Vats, Sewers, silos,
    etc. Vehicle and Machinery - Roadway extrication
    and Industrial rescue/ extrication. Water. - Ice,
    surf, dive and swift water. Wilderness Search and
    Rescue - Search patterns and situation
    analysis. Trench and Excavation.

11
OSFM Requirements for certification
  • Certified Firefighter II.
  • 100 attendance of the 8 hours awareness course.
  • Passing the state written exam by 70.

12
  • Each AHJ needs to have an action plan and
    policies in place to handle technical rescue
    incidents.
  • The AHJ has complete and total control over all
    resources requested.
  • Given this, they also have the authority to stop
    any rescue attempts if warranted.

13
  • A hazard analysis and risk assessment will
    provide the AHJ with the information needed to
    make an informed decision on the likelihood of an
    incident, where it might occur, and the effects
    on the community.

14
  • AHJ are required to establish written standard
    operating procedures/guidelines consistent with
    one of the following operational levels

15
  • 1. Awareness Basic initial company response.
    Responders at this level have the basic
    information to identify the type of incident and
    start initial company operations.
  • 2. Operations This is a basic technical
    response. Individuals at this level of training
    are able to deal with most non-complex
    situations.
  • 3. Technician Individuals at this level are
    considered expert in the specific field. They
    are trained to deal with complex and difficult
    incidents.

16
  • F. Awareness level personnel are those who may be
    first on the scene through the course of regular
    job duties of a technical rescue incident.
    Generally, they are not considered rescuers as
    such. The AHJ should ensure these people know
    the hazards that are in their jurisdiction.

17
Elements of safety at a technical rescue
  • Personnel accountability system (PAS)- The AHJ
    must be accountable for all members operating at
    an incident.

18
Elements of safety at a technical rescue
  • Evacuation Procedures/guidelines. - Every member
    operating at the incident must know these
    procedures / guidelines. Each sector must know
    what its action will be in the event an
    evacuation order is given.

19
Elements of safety at a technical rescue
  • Personnel Protective Equipment - Each AHJ is
    responsible for determining personnel protective
    equipment.

20
Hazard and Risk assessment (SIZE-UP).
  • The need for continuous size up must never be
    over looked. Every technical rescue, no matter
    what magnitude, can change in a given second. The
    initial assessment and hazard analysis will set
    the groundwork for the entire incident.

21
Size-Up
  • 1. Size-Up, Scope, magnitude, and nature of
    the incident. 2. Location and number of victims.
    3. Risk / Benefit analysis. Will the end
    result justify the means? 4. Pre-plans - will
    address more then one way to get to the area. 5.
    Environmental Factors. Loss of life can be
    expected to rise in time of extreme heat and
    cold.

22
Size-Up
  • 6. Patient Contact. Your safety is paramount.
    Can you see or hear the patients? Hailing, tags
    lines, radios, and con-space systems can be used.
    Does the victim know you are there?

23
HELP
  • Availability / necessary resources. What
    resources do you have available? Incident
    Management System / Incident Command System. In
    order to manage the incident, command and control
    must be established.

24
SECTORS
  • For the technical rescue incident the following
    sectors are a minimum that must be established.
  • 1.Command
  • 2.Safety
  • 3.Rescue
  • 4.Optional sectors

25
SECTORS
  • 1. Command Responsible for the entire incident.
  • 2. Safety Safety sector should be trained to
    the level of the incident.

26
SECTORS
  • 3. Rescue The rescue sector is responsible for
    establishing a rescue plan, informing all sectors
    of the plan, and insuring the plan is carried
    out.

27
SECTORS
  • 4. Optional sectors Logistics, Public
    Information, Staging, Rehab, Suppression, EMS,
    and numerous others as outline in NFPA1561,
    Standard in Fire Department Incident Management.

28
Scene control/Initial Company Operations
  • Control Zones These zones will replicate the
    Hot, Warm and Cold zones established during a
    hazardous materials incident.
  • Witness interviews Who, what, where, why,
    when must be solicited from all individuals in
    the area.

29
SCENE CONTROL
  • Patient Contact Control who talks to the victim
    and what the victim hears.
  • Bystander Interaction Establishing control
    zones will keep all non - essential personnel
    out of harms way

30
SCENE CONTROL
  • Police Assistance
  • The Police departments are an extremely valuable
    resource at your disposal.

31
SCENE CONTROL
  • Machinery / Vehicles With machinery, find
    someone with expertise. What are the actions of a
    full cycle machine? Use of apparatus to block
    traffic, not personnel.

32
SCENE CONTROL
  • Utilities -
  • Have their emergency contact numbers available on
    all apparatus.

33
3-1 Structural Collapse
  • Awareness level functions that occur at a
    Structural Collapse Incident 1. Size up
    2. Triage Criteria

34
Destructive Forces that effect structures
  • 1. Earthquakes 2. Wind 3. Floods 4. Snow and
    Rain 5. Construction Problems 6. Explosions 7. Str
    uctural Decay 8. Fire 9. Transportation
    Accidents

35
Various roles within the Response System
  • 1. Initial Spontaneous response
  • 2. Planned Community response
  • 3. Void Space rescue
  • 4. Technical, Urban Search and Rescue

36
General hazards as they relate to
  • 1. Operation level response a. Light Frame
    ordinary construction b. Un-reinforced and
    reinforced masonry

37
COLLAPSE
38
COLLAPSE
39
2. Technician level response
  • a. Concrete tilt up

40
COLLAPSE
41
COLLAPSE
  • b. Reinforced concrete

42
COLLAPSE
43
Five major types of collapse and victim locations
  • 1. Lean-to
  • 2. V-shape
  • 3. A-shape
  • 4. Pancake
  • 5. Cantilever

44
Collapse Patterns
45
COLLAPSE
  • Secondary collapse 1. Chalk 2. Spray 3. Mechanica
    l devices

46
COLLAPSE
  • External equipment that may be used to locate
    trapped victims 1. Visual 2. Verbal and / or
    Audible

47
SEARCH MARKINGS
  • H. Identify and explain the procedures /
    guidelines for recognition and implementation of
    the Marking Systems 1. Building Marking
    System 2. Structure Marking System 3. FEMA Task
    Force Search and Rescue Marking System

48
SEARCH MARKINGS
49
SEARCH MARKINGS
50
SEARCH MARKINGS
51
SEARCH MARKINGS
52
SEARCH MARKINGS
53
SEARCH MARKINGS
54
SEARCH MARKINGS
55
STREET ID
56
STREET ID
57
SIDES
58
QUADRANTS
59
MULTI- FLOOR
60
4-1 Rope
  • Rope rescue is the providing of aid to those in
    danger of injury or death in an environment where
    the use of rope and related equipment is
    necessary to perform the rescue safely and
    successfully.

61
A. Types of rope rescues
  • 1 .High angle rescue 2. Slope evacuation B. Uses
    for rope rescue High angle rescue Slope
    evacuation Confined space rescue Trench Water
    rescue Wild land search and rescue

62
C. Hazards associated with rope rescue.
  • Falls and Other hazards
  • A. Trip hazards
  • Uneven or wet ground
  • c. Entanglement or
  • pinching hazards ( i.e. hands caught in rope
    equipment)

63
Hazards associated with rope rescue
  • d. Falling objects (i.e. equipment, rocks,
    building components)
  • e. Utilities
  • f. Atmospheric hazards
  • g. Weather

64
Hazards associated with rope rescue
  • h. Untrained responders (misuse and abuse of
    equipment)
  • i. Hostile by-standers / victims
  • j. Hazards specific to the location of the
    rescue.

65
General Safety Considerations for Rope Rescue
  • It is the responsibility of the AHJ to pre-plan
    your response area to identify the location and
    hazards of potential rope rescue incidents and
    prepare for them through training and response
    procedures / guidelines.

66
D. First-Due Company Operations
  • It has been said that the first 5 minutes of an
    operation determines the next 5 hours. That can
    never be understated in rope rescue. First-due
    companies, even though not considered rescuers,
    have many very important tasks to ensure to
    overall success of the entire operation.

67
1. Size-up
  • Size-up must be a continuous process. a. Scope,
    magnitude, and nature of the incident b. Location
    of the incident. c. Risk versus benefit analysis
    (rescue vs. recovery) d. Access to the
    scene. e. Environmental factors f. Available /
    necessary resources. g. Ability to contact
    victim(s) can this be done without endangering
    rescuers and victim(s)

68
2. Secure the general area.
  • a. This area will include an area within 300 ft.
    (or more, per incident command)
  • b. Make the area safe for rescuers
  • Control / limit traffic and sources of vibration
    in the area, this may include shutting down
    vehicles and equipment.
  • Control / limit access to the area by unnecessary
    personnel.
  • Identify all other hazards and remove or reduce
    their impact.

69
Notify a qualified rescue team to perform the
Rescue.
  • These teams should be identified by AHJ or
    department SOP / SOG.

70
5-1 Confined Space
  • A. Permit Required Confined Space Law 1. OSHA
    law is 29CFR 1910.146 2. IDOL (Illinois
    Department of Labor) has adopted this law 3. Law
    identifies two types of spaces

71
Confined Space- contains all of
following-(non-permit)
  • i) Large enough and so configured to bodily enter
  • ii) Limited or restricted means of entry and
    exit
  • iii) Not designed for continuous human occupancy

72
Permit required confined space
  • i) A confined space that contains one of the
    following a) Contains or has the potential to
    contain a hazardous atmosphere (Any atmosphere
    that is oxygen deficient, contains a toxic or
    disease-producing contaminant, or is potentially
    explosive. A hazardous atmosphere could be
    immediately dangerous to life and health)

73
Permit required confined space
  • b) Contains a substance that could engulf the
    entrant c) Contains inwardly converging
    walls/floors that could trap an entrant causing
    asphyxiation d) Contains any other recognized
    serious safety or health hazard

74
Confined Space
  • ii) Additionally the law allows the use of
    alternate entry procedures with Permit Required
    Confined Spaces in which the only hazard posed
    by the permit space is an actual or potential
    hazardous atmosphere, when it can be
    demonstrated that continuous forced air
    ventilation alone is sufficient to maintain that
    permit space is safe for entry.

75
Confined Space
  • B. OSHA statistics regarding confined space
    deaths 1. Studies show 60-80 of deaths are
    would be rescuers 2. Studies also show that up to
    90 of deaths are from atmospheric problems

76
Confined Space
  • C. Reasons for entering confined spaces
  • 1. Inspections/Maintenance
  • 2. Rescue
  • 3. Training

77
Confined Space
  • D. General Hazards associated with confined space
    rescue operations 1. Hazardous
    Atmospheres 2. Falls 3. Other Hazards- as
    determined by the AHJ 4. Lack of specialized
    equipment and training to perform rescue safely,
    i.e. Trying to make entry through small openings
    by removing your SCBA from your back and pushing
    it ahead of you. If you cant fit trough the
    opening with your SCBA on your back you need SABA
    (air-line).

78
Confined Space
  • E. Initial tasks of first in companies 1. Size-up
    as discussed in general awareness a. Determine
    best access to the space b. Make contact with
    patients if safe to do so c. Attempt to determine
    the number of victims

79
Confined Space
  • 2. Secure general area around space Make general
    area safe by the following i) Control/limit
    traffic and sources of vibration including
    shutting down all vehicles and equipment ii) Contr
    ol/limit access to general area by unnecessary
    personnel

80
Confined Space
  • Identify hazards and remove/reduce their
    impact. i) Lock out/Tag out per 29 CFR
    1910.147 Notify qualified rescue team to perform
    rescue. These teams should be identified by AHJ
    or department SOP/SOG

81
Confined Space
  • i) Dont get pushed into someone elses
    emergency. The law requires the owner of the
    permit required confined space to provide for a
    rescue team prior to any entry, this does not
    mean that we by virtue of being the Fire
    Department are obligated to provide this service.
    The owner of the space if he wants to utilize
    the Fire Department as his rescue team, must have
    an agreement with that Fire Department, that they
    will provide this specialized service.

82
Initial rescue actions
  • i) Monitor space for atmosphere
  • ii) Ventilate space to alleviate atmospheric
    problems including heat/cold or other severe
    environmental hazards
  • iii) Retrieve victim by non-entry
    rescue/pre-rigged devices

83
6-1 Vehicle and Machinery
  • Identify the size up that must occur at an
    accident. 1. Environmental conditions are
    controlled by the weather. a. Extreme heat and
    cold
  • b. Rain, sleet and snow darkness

84
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 2 Patient injuries - look for the mechanism of
    injury which can produce trauma to a. Head,
    face, hand and arm injuries from windshield, air
    bag, steering wheel, A and B post, rear view
    mirror, roof, etc.
  • b. Chest, stomach and hip injuries from the
    steering wheel, air bag, door, seat belts, etc..
  • c. Leg and foot injuries from steering wheel,
    dash board, door, etc.

85
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 3. Scene conditions can have a wide range of
    problems a. Vehicle stability
  • b. Hazardous materials
  • c. Electrical problems
  • i) vehicle
  • ii) utilities
  • iii) machinery power

86
Vehicle and Machinery
  • d. Fire
  • e. Crowd Control
  • f. Hydraulic bumpers
  • g. Survey of Scene

87
Vehicle and Machinery
  • B. Identify and notify the resources necessary to
    conduct a safe and effective operations. 1. Polic
    e maintain a. crowd control b. traffic
    control c. preserve scene for i) accident
    reconstruction ii) investigation

88
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 2. Fire department should a. Maintain scene
    safety i) Extinguishing fires ii) Preventing
    fires iii) Handling spills or leaks b. Maintain
    vehicle safety i) Check fuel system ii) Check
    the electrical system

89
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 3. Emergency medical services is responsible
    for a. Assessment of Patient b. Packaging c. Ass
    ess patient disentanglement and
    extrication d. Patient Handling e. Transportation

90
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 4. Extrication personnel is responsible
    for a. Vehicle stabilization b. Create safe
    access for EMS Personnel c. Safe disentanglement
    of the patient d. Assist the EMS personnel

91
Vehicle and Machinery
  • C. Identify the hazards associated with vehicle
    and machinery rescues 1. Air Bags a. Identify
    the air bag system within the vehicle by one of
    the following logos SRS, SLR, Air Bag, Side Air
    Bag, Knee Impact Bag, Head Impact Bag, Head
    curtain Bag, etc. b. Electrical drain
    time 1) Electrical drain time after the battery
    power has been disconnected could range from 30
    seconds to 25 minutes.

92
Vehicle and Machinery
  • c. Safety Distances, 5, 10 and 18 1) For
    safety of the rescue personnel and the patient,
    the distance of 5 for side air bag, 10 for
    drivers air bag and 18 for passenger air bag
    should be maintained away form the bags.

93
Fuel systems
  • 2. Fuel systems a. Gasoline system b. Diesel
    system c. Compressed natural or liquefied
    petroleum gas system d. Electrical
    system 1) Electrical cars are not common but
    maybe seen in industrial areas. The largest
    concern for electrical cars is the presence of
    batteries and acid.

94
Hydraulic Shocks
  • 3. Hydraulic Shocks
  • a. absorbing bumpers
  • b. hatch back
  • c. hood pistons
  • d. hydraulic suspension

95
Batteries and their locations
  1. Batteries and their locations a. Under the hood
    (high) b. Under the hood (low/hidden) c. Under
    the back seat d. In the trunk e. Wheel wells

96
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 4. Seat belt pretensioners have one of three
    locations a. Low and Mid B post b. C post
    Low c. Inner front and rear seat buckler area

97
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 5. Gears, chains and pulleys a. Power
    source b. Rugged equipment c. Chemical hazard

98
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 6. Augers and conveyor belts a. Remote
    area b. Time delay to the patient c. Power
    source d. Rugged equipment e. Chemical hazard

99
D. Initial Company Actions
  • 1. Scene protection-safety of rescuer is first
    priority 2. Initial access into a vehicle or
    machinery 3. Initial stabilization

100
Need for control at the scene of an incident.
  • 1. Traffic needs to be controlled for the safety
    of the rescue personnel. Crowds could restrict
    the rescuers activities at the scene 2. Machine
    can be controlled in two ways

101
Need for control at the scene of an incident
  • CAUTION Beware of stored potential energy or
    full cycle machinery.
  • EXAMPLE Machinery that continues to move after
    power is removed.

102
Need for control at the scene of an incident
  • a. Electrical power can be shut down and locked
    out at the main electrical box b. Mechanical
    power (hydraulic, pneumatic or motor) can be shut
    down and locked out

103
7-1 Water
  • A. Fire service need for Water Rescue
    Awareness 1. Most jurisdictions have some type
    of body of water.
  • 2. Most jurisdictions have the potential for
    flooding.
  • 3. Many water related incidents require expertise
    beyond the normal capability of some fire
    departments.

104
Water
  • a. Personnel and teams trained to the operations
    or technician level.
  • b. Proper personal protective equipment.
  • c. Proper technical rescue equipment.

105
Water
  • B. NFPA recognizes four different water related
    disciplines at the operations and technician
    level dive, ice, surf, and swift water.
  • C. Hazards that are associated with water rescue
    incidents

106
Human nature and the nature of fire service
personnel.
  • a. Fire service personnel are action oriented.
    They want to act now.
  • b. Rescues are attempted without the proper
    training or equipment.

107
2. Environmental hazards may include
  • a. Extreme temperatures i) Cold temperatures
    causing hypothermia, frostbite, and equipment
    malfunctions.
  • ii) Hot temperatures causing hyperthermia and
    overheating in personal protective gear. Under
    water survival time is lost in hot temperatures.

108
Weather, including rain, snow, and high winds.
  1. Hypothermia is accelerated when personnel are
    wet or in the water.
  2. Body heat is lost to still water 25 times as
    fast as to still air of the same temperature.

109
c. Aquatic environment
  • i) Animal life, fish, insect
  • ii) Plant life, seaweed
  • iii) Biohazards, bacterial, viral

110
3. General hazards
  • a. Utilities including electrical, gas, sanitary,
    and communications.
  • b. Hazardous materials.
  • c. Personal hazards including trips, falls, steep
    and slippery terrain, drop offs, holes, hidden
    obstructions that may cause injury or
    entanglement.

111
4. Hazards associated with dive operations
  • a. Baro-trauma including decompression sickness,
    nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, embolism,
    etc.
  • b. Drowning. May be related to lost diver, loss
    of air, anxiety reactions.
  • c. Fatigue, exhaustion, heat stress, dehydration,
    or hypothermia.
  • d. Pre-existing medical conditions, smoking, or
    use of medications.

112
Hazards associated with ice operations
  • a. Cold injuries including frostbite and
    hypothermia.
  • b. Thin ice causing sudden emersion or entrapment
    under the ice.

113
6. Hazards associated with surf operations
  • a. Breaking waves generating extreme forces.
  • b. Undertows, tides, and currents.

114
7. Hazards associated with swift water operations
  • a. Awesome, relentless power of moving water.
  • b. Strainers and debris.
  • c. Holes.
  • d. Obstructions.
  • i) Above the water surface.
  • ii) Below the water surface. (Upstream Vs and
    downstream Vs).

115
CURRENTS AND PATTERNS
  • e. Current patterns. i) Laminar flow.
  • ii) Helical flow (upwelling).
  • iii) Eddies (back current).

116
8. Hazards associated with low head dams, The
Killing/Drowning Machine.
  • a. Illusion (cannot be perceived from upstream
    and do not look particularly dangerous).
  • b. Hydraulic (vertical whirlpool)
  • c. Aeration in the hydraulic (causes cavitation
    to boat propellers).

117
Personal protective equipment during water rescue
incidents.
  • Firefighting helmets, boots, and turnout gear are
    not typically appropriate for water rescue work.
  • Thermal protection including wet suits and dry
    suits.
  • PFDs (personal flotation device) should be worn
    while in or near the water or while in a boat.
  • Tagline or lifeline.
  • Helmet.

118
E. Cold water near drowning.
  • 1. Age of the victim.
  • 2. Temperature of the water. a. Below 70 degrees
    F. b. The patient could be below the
    thermocline.
  • 3. Length of submersion (under 90 minutes still
    in rescue mode).
  • 4. Quality BLS and ALS patient treatment.

119
F. Water rescue response for awareness level
trained personnel.
  • 1. Assessment phase (size-up) a. Scope,
    magnitude, and type of water rescue
    incident. b. Environmental factors and potential
    for changing conditions. i) Change in weather
    conditions. ii) Loss of daylight. iii) Water
    levels and current changing drastically (flash
    flooding).

120
Water rescue
  • Assessment of hazards.
  • Location and number of victims.
  • Risk/benefit analysis (rescue vs. recovery).
  • Access to the scene.

121
2. Initial tasks.
  • a. Gain control of the scene (establish site
    security).
  • b. Establish an Incident Command System.
  • c. Accountability and safety of personnel (This
    starts with proper training and equipment).
  • d. Evaluate the patients condition (they may or
    may not be able to assist in their own rescue).
  • e. Evaluate the resources available and those
    that will be needed.

122
f. Secure and interview witnesses.
  • i) Try to keep witnesses at the scene.
  • ii) Interview witnesses separately.
  • iii) Collect the witness personal information
    (they might need to be interviewed again).

123
g. Establish a last seen point.
  • i) Triangulate with more than one witness.
  • ii) Use of reference object (same size as person,
    vehicle, or plane that went down).
  • iii) A hole in the ice is an excellent last seen
    point. Dont destroy it.

124
h. Evaluate physical evidence.
  • i) Notes, clothes, and footprints.
  • ii) Tire tracks, debris, oil slick, and bubbles.

125
Identifying the need for a water rescue response
beyond the awareness level.
  • 1. The AHJ should have an emergency response
    system established for water related incidents.
    This may include the response of
  • a. Operations and technician level trained
    personnel (divers, ice divers, swift water
    technicians, etc.).
  • b. Police and evidence technicians.
  • c. Specialized equipment (boats, tow trucks,
    extrication equipment, etc.)

126
WATER RESCUE
  • d. EMS response. i) An ambulance for each
    patient and one for dive support. ii) Air
    transport to a level I trauma facility.
  • e. Rehab personnel should be considered early on
    in the incident.
  • f. An operational plan may include Reach, Throw,
    Row and Go.

127
2. Consider requesting divers early in an
incident.
  • a. Victims at the surface may slip under the
    water before a surface rescue can be executed.
  • b. Divers can only last so long before they need
    rehab. Keep the incident operating in rescue
    mode.

128
8-1 Wilderness
  • A. Introduction In 1956, the National Search and
    Rescue Plan was published. This plan established
    the United States Air Force as the executive
    agent for inland search and rescue, covering the
    continental United States, less the major
    navigable waterways.

129
B. Four core elements in Wilderness SAR
operations.
  • 1. Locate the victim
  • 2. Reach the victim
  • 3. Stabilize the victim
  • 4. Evacuate the victim

130
C. Seven (7) components that are used to complete
the elements of a SAR operation.
  • 1. Pre-planning - The Organization and
    Management Guidelines. Includes call-out
    procedures / guidelines and equipment
    . 2. Notification - We have to be notified of a
    problem before we can handle it. 3. Planning
    and Strategy - The process of gathering
    information so that an assessment can be done.
    4. Tactics - Type of response or solution to
    handle the problem.

131
Seven (7) components that are used to complete
the elements of a SAR operation.
  • 5. Operations - The field phase where the
    tactical solutions are carried out.
  • 6. Suspension - Operation is discontinued.
  • 7. Critique - Evaluation of the participants,
    methods and strategies.

132
Resources that can be used for Wilderness Search
and Rescue.
  • 1. Search dogs-cover more area in a shorter
    period of time than humans 2. Trackers 3. Aircraf
    t 4. Ground air search specialist 5. Rope rescue
    specialists 6. Water rescue specialists 7. Trench
    rescue specialist 8. Collapse building search

133
E. Calculating search urgency.
  • Subject Profile
  • Weather Profile
  • Equipment Profile
  • Subject Experience Profile
  • Terrain and Hazards Profile
  • History of Incidents in this area
  • Bastard Search

134
WILDERNESS
  • NOTE The lower the value of each factor and of
    the sum of all factors, the more urgent the
    situation. ( See Relative Urgency Rating Factors
    Sheet)

135
F. Three broad types of responses used dependant
on search urgency.
  • 1. Emergency Response
  • 2. Measured Response
  • 3. Evaluative Response

136
1. Emergency Response
  • Best on information, convinced death or serious
    injury could occur if help does not arrive. Blitz
    or Hasty Team - minimum number of experienced
    rescuers that sent out to locate the victim.
  • This is followed by a support team with
    additional equipment. The margin of safety is
    fairly narrow and a perceptible amount of risk
    involved in the necessary response.

137
2. Measured Response
  • based on when appropriate information on hand is
    insufficient to dictate the exact outline of a
    search and rescue action plan.

138
3. Evaluative Response
  • Occurs when the reported problem is unconfirmed
    or seems likely to resolve itself.

139
Lost person(s) report
  • 1. This goal of interviewing and obtaining
    information from participant(s) or witnesses is
    to devise an effective course of action. 2. Each
    person lost receives a file.

140
WILDERNESS
  • a. Part I - Is information that is critical in
    determining decisions of the initiation phases of
    a search.
  • b. Part II - May be significant later in the
    mission.

141
H. Four general hazards associated with
wilderness SAR operations.
  • 1. Personal Hazards include blisters, scrapes,
    scratches, falls, blows, bruises, dehydration,
    and so forth.
  • 2. Environmental Hazards include insect bites and
    stings, poisonous plants, exposure injuries,
    snow-blindness, altitude illness,lightning,
    sunburn, dangerous wildlife, and so forth.
  • 3. Terrain Hazards include cliffs, avalanches,
    standing water (e.g., ponds, lakes), flat ice
    (e.g., ponds, lakes), moving water, caves, mines,
    wells, high winds, snow, coastal white water
    surf, and so forth.

142
WILDERNESS
  • 4. Man-Made Hazards include booby-trapped stills
    and labs, hazardous materials dumps, trained
    attack dogs and so forth.

143
I. There are four basic means of establishing a
probable search area.
  • 1. The Theoretical Method. The probable search
    area is generated in this method by using tables
    that express the area as a function of distance
    traveled by the lost subject. This necessitates
    a reliable determination of the Point Last Seen
    (PLS). The area's boundary is a circle drawn on
    the map centered on the PLS. The length of its
    radius is the maximum distance the victim could
    have journeyed in that terrain in the time
    elapsed since he was last seen.

144
2. The Statistical Method.
  • Case studies of people in the wilderness
    provide the data for this method.

145
3. The Subjective Method.
  • Historical data, intuition , the location of
    the natural barriers and clues, and consideration
    of the physical and mental limitations of the
    victim are taken into account.

146
4. The Mattson Method.
  • Balances subjective and objective information
    and uses individual personnel to view their
    probable search area independently, then
    combining their percentage of where he/she thinks
    they are to the rest of the group. The total
    percentage from all personnel involved is added
    and the greatest percent is where the search will
    be started.

147
J. Three types of search tactics.
  • 1. Type I (Detection Phase) - Hasty Teams
  • 2. Type II - Open Grid is relatively fast,
    efficient search of locales of high probability
    using methods that produce the highest results
    per hour using search dogs, wide search patterns
    flow by aircraft, and open grid sweep searches
    This is three to seven searchers widely spaced at
    approx.. 300-600 feet.
  • 3. Type III - Close Grid is compromised of
    approx.. thirty searchers walking in a line
    approx.. 15 to 20 feet apart. May be less for
    evidence recovery.

148
K. Initial Tasks of a First-in Company
  • 1. Establish Incident Management System
  • 2. Evaluate Search Urgency
  • 3. Obtain Lost Persons Report
  • 4. Determine Type of Response
  • 5. Determine Available Resources
  • 6. Determine Probable Search Area

149
Relative Urgency Rating Factors
  • Factor Value
  • Numeric Rating
  • Subject Profile

150
Age
  • Very Young 1 Very Old 1 Other 2-3

151
Medical Condition
  • Known or suspected injured or
    ill 1-2 Healthy 3 Known Fatality 3

152
Number of Subjects
  • One Alone 1 More than one (unless separation
    suspected) 2-3

153
Weather Profile
  • Existing hazardous weather 1 Predicted
    hazardous weather (lt8 hours) 1-2 Predicted
    hazardous weather (gt8 hours) 2 No Hazardous
    weather predicted 3

154
Equipment Profile
  • Inadequate for the environment 1 Questiona
    ble for the environment 1-2 Adequate for the
    environment 3

155
Subject Experience Profile
  • Not Experienced, does not know area 1 Not
    experienced, knows area 1-2
  • Experienced, not familiar with the
    area 2 Experienced, knows the area 3

156
Terrain and Hazards Profile
  • Known hazardous terrain or other
    hazards 1 Few or no hazards 2-3 History
    of Incidents in this Area 1-3
  • Bastard Search 2-3 SUM

157
Appropriate Response to Urgency Ratings
  • Factor Sum Response 8-12 Emergency
    Response 13-18 Measure Response 19-24 Evaluated
    Response 25-27 Search Situation or Missing
    Person

158
9-1 Lost Person Check List
  • NOTE File separate report for each person.
    Detailed answers are needed to identify clues
    when found in the field.
  • Place none, NA, or unsure in blanks as
    appropriate.

159
Part I
  • Information critical to immediate decisions and
    the initiation phases of a search. Record all of
    Part I information at the time of first notice of
    a lost or overdue person. Incident
    Number Date Time Report Taken By Name of
    Missing Person Hours Overdue Local
    Address Home Address Nicknames

160
Physical Description
  • Age DOB Race Color Height
    Weight Build Hair Color Hair
    Length Sideburns Facial Hair Straight/Curly/Wa
    vy Balding Eye Color Facial Features
    Shape
    Complexion Any distinguishing marks, scars,
    tattoos General Appearance

161
Clothing
  • Shirt, Sweater Style Color Coat Style Color Rain
    Gear Style Color Pants Style Color Gloves Style
    Color Glasses Style Color Shoes Style Color Ot
    her Clothing

162
Equipment
  • Pack Style Brand Color
  • Tent Style Brand Color
  • Sleeping Bag Style Brand Color
  • Food What Brands Amount
  • Water Canteen Style Amount
  • Flashlight Matches Knife Map

163
WILDERNESS
  • Compass
  • Ropes/Hardware
  • Fishing Equipment
  • Firearms Type Brand Ammo.
  • Camera Brand
  • Money Amount
  • Snow Shoes Type Brand Binding Type
  • Ice Axe Brand Cover
  • Skis Brand Length Color

164
Trip Plans
  • Going to Via Purpose How Long How many in
    group Group Affiliation Transportation Started
    at When Car located at Type of
    Car License Verified Alternate car at Type of
    Car License Verified Pick up/Return
    Time Where

165
Last Seen
  • When Where By whom Present If not present,
    location Phone Going which way How long
    ago Special reason for leaving Unusual comments
    before leaving How long overdue

166
Contacts Person Would Make Upon Reaching
Civilization
  • Home address Phone Anyone home Friend Home
    Address Phone Friend Home Address Phone

167
Health
  • General Condition Physical Handicaps Medical
    Problems Psychological problems Any known
    external factors that could affect subjects
    behavior.

168
Medications
  • Consequences without medication Eyesight
    without glasses

169
Actions Taken So Far
  • By (Friends, Family) Actions
    Taken When

170
Part II
  • Information that may be significant later in the
    incident. Can be obtained after initial actions
    are taken and further information on the subject
    is necessary.

171
Personality Habits
  • Smoke How often Brand Drink Brand Drugs Type H
    obbies, interest Work Outgoing or
    quiet Evidence of leadership Religion Serious Fe
    eling towards adults What does the person value
    most

172
WILDERNESS
  • Who is person closest to in the family Status
    in school/work Any recent letters Give up
    easy or keep going Where was person born and
    raised Any trouble with the law

173
For Children
  • Afraid of what animals Afraid of Dark What
    training regarding to do when lost What are
    persons actions when hurt Talks to strangers
    accepts rides Active type or lethargic

174
For Groups Overdue
  • Any person clashes in the group
  • Any strong leaders
  • What is the competitive spirit of the group
  • What would actions be if separated
  • Any persons especially close
  • What is the experience of the leader and rest of
    group

175
Family
  • (To Prevent Media/Press Complications) Fathers
    Occupation Parents separated/Divorced Families
    desire to employ special assistance Name,
    relationship, address, phone of contact relative
    if in good condition
  • Name, relationship, address, phone of contact
    relative if in poor condition or dead.

176
9-1 Trench and Excavation
  • A. A trench is an excavation that is deeper than
    it is wide and less then 15 feet wide. OSHA has
    published regulations dealing with trenches in 29
    CFR Part 1926. This standard regulates the
    construction and occupation of trenches over 5
    feet deep and shallower trenches with special
    hazards. Illinois Department of Labor (IDOL) has
    adopted 29 CFR 1926 as the state regulation.

177
OSHA
  • OSHA requires that Escape routes, Air quality
    monitoring and other protective measures be
    utilized at all trench excavations.

178
C. Trench Hazards
  • Secondary collapses are by far the most lethal
    hazard in trench rescues. Studies have shown that
    trench walls often collapse in less than 1/10th
    of a second and as many as 65 of all deaths in
    trench cave-ins are of would-be rescuers. This is
    because virtually all of the hazards associated
    with trench rescues are hidden from the untrained
    rescuer. Also, trench rescues are not common
    occurrences.

179
Trench Hazards
  • 2. The four types of collapses are
  • a. Slough-in
  • b. Sidewall-in
  • c. Shear-in
  • d. Spoil-in

180
Trench Hazards
  • 3. Trenches dug too deep or too wide, OSHA
    provides guidelines for the general construction
    of trenches up to 20 feet deep and 15 feet wide.
    Excavations beyond these dimensions require
    special engineering by a Registered Professional
    Engineer (RPE).

181
Trench Hazards
  • 4. It is easy to get fooled into entering an
    unprotected trench to rescue a worker who has
    fallen, or is ill. Just because the fire
    department is there doesn't mean that the trench
    will remain intact while you make the rescue.

182
Trench Hazards
  • 5. Rescues are usually long-term operations. Most
    rescues require as much as 4-10 hours to
    complete. Victims cannot merely be pulled-out
    from under the dirt, therefore, the victim must
    be completely uncovered before he can be removed
    from the trench. Equipment needed may be
    extensive and not commonly available.

183
Trench Hazards
  • 6. Many other factors must be considered which
    will effect trench stability. In some cases the
    following factors must merely be taken into
    consideration, while others require specific
    remedies by OSHA. a. Exposure to the
    elements b. Superimposed loads c. Underground
    utilities d. Unsupported structures (surface
    encumbrances) e. Water i) Undermines trench
    walls causing collapse ii) drowning hazard

184
Trench Hazards
  • D. Soil Classification OSHA classifies soils as
    Class-A through Class-C. Class-A soil is the
    most stable, and will include some form of clay.
    Class-C soil is extremely unstable and will be
    comprised of either granular soils like sand, or
    wet soil of any type.

185
Trench
  • 1. Trenches should be analyzed immediately after
    they are excavated, and should be re-analyzed
    periodically for any changes which have
    occurred.

186
Trench
  • 2. Wet soils of any type are dangerous due to the
    added weight of the water, the loss of friction
    due to the moisture, and the mechanics of the
    movement of the water through the soil.
  • 3. Layered soils. Trench walls will often expose
    layers of different soils.

187
Trench
  • 4. Fissured soil. Fissures (cracks) which are
    visible in the trench walls or in the soil
    surrounding the trench can indicate soil which is
    likely to cave-in shortly.
  • 5. Previously disturbed soils. The most stable
    soils are those which have gone undisturbed for
    thousands of years. Once the earth has been
    disturbed, it is impossible to return it to its
    original stability.

188
Trench
  • Vibration is extremely destructive to trench
    stability. Vibration will speed-up the collapse
    of the walls, and will magnify any other factors,
    which are effecting he trench.
  • 7. A single cubic foot of dirt can weigh as much
    as 145 lbs., and will average about 100 lbs. per
    square foot. A typical small cave-in involves
    about 1.5 cubic yards of dirt, or about 4,000
    lbs.

189
E. PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS.
  • 1. OSHA provides three methods for protecting
    workers in trenches, sloping, shielding, and
    shoring. No worker is to enter a trench greater
    than 5 feet deep unless one of these protections
    is in place.

190
Sloping.
  • Sloping involves cutting back the sides of a
    trench to an angle at which the earth will no
    longer slide. The angle, which is sought, is
    referred to as the "angle of repose" and is
    merely the angle at which the soil will no longer
    slide.

191
Shielding
  • Shielding involves the use of extremely strong
    metal boxes, which have been engineered to
    withstand the pressure of the earth for the size
    trench that is being worked in. Shield will
    protect against moving dirt as long as they are
    properly in place. The shields must be above or
    even with the trench lip, and no more then 2 feet
    off the bottom.

192
Shoring
  • c. Shoring is a method of protecting the worker
    by constructing a support system within the
    trench, which will pressurize the trench walls,
    enough to create "arches" of support, which will
    support the trench walls. These systems are NOT
    strong enough to stop moving dirt. They will only
    hold up dirt supported by the Arch effect.

193
Shoring systems
  • 2. Shoring systems may be constructed with a
    variety of materials and may be constructed in a
    variety of configurations. System contains
    crossbraces and uprights. Additional elements are
    added to strengthen the system, these beam-like
    members are called walers. Most of these
    materials are not available at your local
    lumberyard.

194
Timber
  • 3. OSHA provides charts for timber shoring and
    hydraulic shoring for dry trenches up to 15 feet
    wide and 20 feet deep. Beyond these dimensions,
    or when special conditions exit, the shoring
    system must be designed by a registered
    professional engineer, or the system must be
    constructed in accordance with the manufacturers
    tabulated data.

195
TRENCH
  • 4. In general, the weaker, deeper and wide the
    trench is the stronger and more numerous the
    shoring members must be.

196
TRENCH
  • 5. Additional regulations for worker safety. In
    addition to the regulations for insuring trench
    stability, OSHA also regulates many other
    conditions, which may pose hazards to workers.

197
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 1. The typical first-in company will not have
    trained trench rescue personnel on-board, much
    less the proper equipment to perform a rescue.
    Initial response personnel can still perform
    vital tasks, which will serve to speed-up the
    rescue, protect the victim, or eliminate the need
    for rescue or recovery operations.

198
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 2. Some non-entry options that are available
    are a. Place a ladder into the trench for the
    victims to get out themselves.

199
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 3. Activate a trench rescue response plan as soon
    as a trench rescue request has been received.
    Time is of the essence, as secondary collapses
    are likely to occur shortly after the initial
    collapse, and will likely eliminate the chances
    for a rescue.

200
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 4. As in all emergency responses, an Incident
    Command System or Incident Management System must
    be put into effect.

201
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 5. Do not allow personnel into an unprotected
    trench. Don't let tunnel vision risk your
    personnel. Remember that secondary collapses are
    likely to occur quickly potentially trapping any
    rescuers.

202
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 6. Stop sources of vibration. Vibration
    contributes significantly to the likelihood of
    further collapses. Eliminate sources of
    vibrations by stopping traffic for at least 300
    feet. Do not allow the use of heavy equipment.

203
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 7. Set-up control zones limit access to the
    trench. 8. Set up ground pads to ensure that
    the rescuers are standing on stable
    ground. 9. Move to spoil pile from the trench
    area. (2 feet or more) If any hazards are
    present, do not place any rescuers in harms way
    just to move some dirt.

204
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 10. Try to locate the victim's position.
    Approach the trench from the ends to perform a
    reconnaissance of the victims location and
    condition. As soon as possible, one or more
    ladders should be placed in the trench to provide
    a quick exit should someone accidentally fall
    in.

205
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 11. If the victim is visible, mark his position
    in relation to the trench walls by scoring the
    ground on either side of the trench.
  • 12. If the victim cannot be seen, get the best
    information you can from his co-workers regarding
    his last position. Mark this position.

206
INITIAL COMPANY OPERATIONS
  • 13. Prepare for expected injuries. Many types of
    injuries are found in victims who have been
    trapped in cave-ins. Be prepared to handle the
    following a. Open and closed fractures b. Lung
    injuries c. Head injuries d. Spinal
    injuries e. Injury due to lack of
    oxygen f. Hypothermia g. Crush syndrome

207
10-1 Overview of all rescue situations
  • A. Structural Collapse
  • B. Rope
  • C. Confined Space
  • D. Vehicle and Machinery
  • E. Water
  • F. Wilderness
  • G. Trench and Excavation

208
NOW FOR A SHORT TEST
  • You have completed all the requirements as
    established by the OSFM and the steering
    committee.
  • I congratulate you taking this course to better
    yourself and the entire fire service.
  • Thanks for being here.

209
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com