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Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places

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Title: Sport Leisure and Tourism Author: ssb Last modified by: Detlev Zwick Created Date: 9/23/2002 5:27:21 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places


1
Tourism Marketing Producing Places/Consuming
Places
2
Lecture Outline
  • Elements of Tourism Industry
  • Historical Development of Tourism
  • Theories for Understanding (Post)Modern Place
    Marketing
  • Examples Tourism Marketing as Representation

3
Concepts of Tourism
  • A complex phenomenon
  • A human experience
  • A worldwide industry

4
Characteristics of tourism
  • Time
  • Distance
  • Travel
  • Away from home
  • Purpose in non-work related (leisure)

5
Components of the tourism industry
  • Transportation
  • Accommodation
  • Tourist attractions natural, built, created
  • Travel agents
  • Tour operators
  • Travel-related services
  • Government bodies national and international

6
Experience Economy Tourism as consumption
  • Tourism, like leisure, can also be thought of in
    terms of CONSUMPTION!
  • The tourist product e.g., a package holiday

7
Tourism and Leisure
  • Tourism can be considered to be a form of leisure
  • Tourism (as leisure activity) has developed as a
    commercial activity
  • Is now a major earner, makes major contribution
    to the economy

8
Development of tourism
  • Can trace its progressive development
  • from INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL
  • through groups and expeditions
  • to MASS TOURISM
  • to (INDIVIDUALIZED) MASS TOURISM (postmodern
    tourism)

9
Developmental factors
  • Tourism requires people with
  • ABILITY (money and time)
  • MOBILITY (transport) and
  • MOTIVATION (desire, determination)
  • to travel
  • A history of tourism is a history of the
  • development of these three factors

10
Travel in Ancient Societies (Egypt and Greece)
  • Empires grew, and business travel increased
    (administration of the regions)
  • Evidence also of pleasure trips - festivals,
    and Olympic Games
  • Pyramids, tombs and temples were the wonders of
    the ancient world
  • Prompted travel to see them gazed upon

11
Travel in the Roman Empire
  • Travel flourished
  • Trade and military activity encouraged excellent
    roads (some still in existence)
  • Common language and currency
  • Romans sought to escape the cities in summer heat
  • Moved to seaside and hillside villas

12
Travel in the Middle Ages
  • 500 AD - Fall of the Roman Empire - roads
    fell into disrepair
  • Travel became dangerous and difficult
  • Undertaken largely on foot
  • Undertaken for purposes of trade or religion only
    - e.g., pilgrimages
  • Endured rather than enjoyed - travail!
  • Most ordinary people would spend their lives in
    one fixed locality

13
16th 17th Centuries
  • Establishment of The Grand Tour - an
    aristocratic concept
  • Taking a year out
  • Aristocratic young men in the presence of their
    tutors
  • Cultural and political education on a prescribed
    route
  • France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the
    Netherlands
  • Befitting men for life in politics at court

14
17th 18th Centuries Main focus Development of
Health Tourism
  • Health resorts evolved across Europe
  • Based on the supposed health-giving properties of
    the sea and mineral waters
  • Led to the growth of seaside and spa resorts
    still popular today
  • Spa towns - primarily for invalids
  • e.g., Baden-Baden (Germany), Bath (England)
  • Became fashionable resorts for those with
    leisure, money and transport

15
18th 19th Centuries Period of Industrialisation
  • Major effect of industry on leisure and tourism
  • Prior to this period, only the upper classes had
    ability, mobility and motivation to travel
    (horses and carriages)
  • INDUSTRIALISATION created
  • Working class with income
  • Desire to escape from the city
  • Steam transport for travel (trains, boats)

16
18th 19th Centuries Mass Seaside Tourism
  • Began due to
  • Development of steam boats and trains (1832)
    linking urban and coastal areas
  • First for freight, later, passengers
  • Introduction of holidays (intended to improve
    productivity)
  • Public holidays - when whole communities would
    travel en masse to the coast

17
Portugal
18
South-East England
19
East-German Seaside Resort
20
Mass Seaside Tourism
  • Development of a tourism infrastructure
  • Small fishing villages developed into resorts
  • Blackpool, Ruegen, Biarritz
  • Promenades
  • Accommodation

21
Mass Seaside Tourism Package Trips
  • Development of package trips
  • 1841 - Thomas Cooks first package trip

22
Mass Seaside Tourism in England Social
differentiation
  • Social differentiation of resorts depended on
    transport links
  • Resorts linked to the northern industrial base
    were mainly working-class - Blackpool
  • Southern resorts mainly middle-class -
    Bournemouth, Torquay
  • Middle classes also discovered Europe - the
    Alps, the Riviera

23
Early 20th Century
  • 1920s and 30s saw legal holidays acts all over
    Europe - ensured week-long holidays, stimulated
    mass tourism
  • Also, development of holiday camps
  • Development of countryside holidays
  • In 1939
  • 30000 weekly campers on English camp grounds.
  • Even more in Germany (although numbers difficult
    to decipher)

24
Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism
Activity
  • Social change
  • War experience widened perspectives
  • Stimulated desire to travel
  • Increased leisure time and income
  • Growth in car ownership
  • Spread of five-day week
  • Invention of the weekend
  • new unit of free time

25
Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism
Activity
  • Development of hotel chains
  • 1960s and 70s in Europe
  • Tourism Acts
  • Created national tourist boards for domestic and
    overseas tourism promotion
  • The Canadian Tourism Commission was founded in
    1992

26
Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism
Activity
  • Increased foreign travel
  • 1950s - 2 million Europeans took holidays
    abroad
  • 1970s - 10 million abroad
  • France and Spain (Costas) made up 1/3 of the
    market
  • Product - sun, sea and sand

27
Trends in the 1980s and 1990s
  • Move towards more flexible holiday formats
  • Villas, timeshares, self-catering
  • Diverse Travel Formats
  • Specialised Interest Areas
  • Further technological improvements in
    Transportation

28
Trends in the 1980s and 1990s
  • Personalised packages
  • Long-haul destinations for mass package holidays
    (e.g., Florida)
  • Eco-tourism - environmentally aware tourism
  • Growth in cultural and activity tourism
  • Growth in short-break tourism
  • demise of the two-week summer holiday
  • postmodern lifestyles

29
Late 90s and 21st Century
  • Novelty and specialist tourism
  • New destinations, man-made resorts
  • Greater segmentation of the market
  • ABILITY has increased - many have more free
    time, greater disposable income
  • MOBILITY has increased - improved and cheaper
    travel technology
  • MOTIVATION has increased

30
Late 90s and 21st Century Tourist Motivation
  • MOTIVATION to participate in tourism has
  • increased due to
  • Substantial media exposure - has greatly raised
    consumer awareness
  • Perceived need to escape the stress of
    postmodern urban lifestyles
  • Recognition of frequent holidays as a necessity,
    rather than a luxury

31
Postmodern Tourism
  • Postmodern culture, leisure and lifestyles new
    forms of consumer-orientated, commodified leisure
  • Leisure users are defined by their consumption
    patterns

32
Characteristics of Postmodernism and Postmodern
Leisure and Lifestyles
  • Simulation and hyperreality
  • Fragmentation
  • Individualisation
  • Commodification
  • Consumer sovereignty
  • Time compression
  • Style replaces substance

33
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • INDIVIDUALISATION
  • Central leisure institutions disappear
  • Postmodern leisure focuses increasingly on
    individual consumption at the expense of
    traditional social group and community activity
  • Relationships fluid. Networks instead of
    community. Socialities void of emotional
    dependence
  • Leisure example
  • Individualistic sports
  • Independent and single travelling
  • Electronic leisure games (Playstation, Nintendo,
    GameBoy, X-Box)
  • Videos and interactive DVDs
  • Home computing
  • Much home-based leisure home is compartmented
    into individual leisure spaces

34
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • Lifestyle advisers
  • Solitary consumption of fast food replacing
    traditional communal family meal-times
  • Relationships until further notice
  • INDIVIDUALISATION
  • Leisure examples (cont)
  • Children having their own rooms, TVs and PCs
  • Leisure shopping as personal consumption
  • Personal trainers and individualised fitness
    workouts

35
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • FRAGMENTATION
  • The inability to maintain established boundaries,
    categories and relationships
  • Consumption and production
  • Work and home
  • Private and public
  • Vast amounts of leisure choice (20-screen
    multiplex cinemas numerous TV,satellite and
    cable channels)
  • Built-in obsolescence (fast cars, designer
    clothes, consumer electronics and software)
  • Ever more specialized consumer products
  • Leisure examples
  • Shopping as leisure
  • Homeworking, housework, DIY and leisure
  • Arts/entertainment continuum
  • Leisure spaces in the home
  • High, low and popular culture blurring of
    boundaries

36
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • Leisure examples
  • Virtual reality in leisure
  • Man-made tourist attractions and resorts (Center
    Parcs, Sun City)
  • Modern theme parks
  • Disneyland
  • Paintball
  • Gladiators
  • SIMULATION AND HYPERREALITY
  • In postmodern leisure, simulated, man-made,
    contrived and inauthentic experiences predominate
    over the traditional and authentic

37
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • COMMODIFICATION
  • The transformation, packaging and marketing of a
    leisure-related service into a saleable product
  • Arts products, leisure products, sports products,
    tourism products, etc.
  • Leisure examples
  • Tourist package holidays
  • Gym fitness packages
  • Celebrity signings of CDs at concerts
  • The sale of sports packages by cable, satellite
    and internet
  • Shopping as leisure

38
Characteristics of Postmodernism with leisure
examples
  • COMMODIFICATION OF TIME
  • Time in postmodern life is always in short supply
  • Time can be exchanged for money through the
    purchase of labour-saving devices, employing home
    helps, buying convenience foods, etc
  • This frees up time for use for leisure
  • Time can be bought
  • So time itself becomes a commodity

39
BREAK!
40
Postmodern Tourism Staging Authenticity
  • Catering to the postmodern tourist who
  • Seeks rapidly changing art/enter-/edutainment
  • Seeks extraordinary and individualistic
    experiences
  • Who expects experiences to be produced but
    presented as real
  • Has not always time to cross the globe to visit.
  • Who has been socialized into consuming by gazing
    - the tourist gaze is demanding

41
The development of the tourist gaze
  • Tourist landscapes are consumed by the tourist
    who gazes upon them
  • The idea is of
  • seeing as discovering
  • interpreting the seen as aesthetically
    significant
  • and determine its difference to the mundane.

42
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43
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44
The tourist gaze
  • The gaze is defined in terms of difference
  • Perceived strangeness (but only to tourist)
  • Exotic, pleasurable
  • Distinguished by semiotics - signifiers and
    symbolic icons e.g., Eiffel Tower, the
    Pyramids, Taj Mahal
  • rational work and seeks efficiency

45
Authenticity
  • The gaze is a construct
  • How authentic are the images consumed?
  • Tourism as pilgrimage a quest for the authentic
  • Authenticity versus staged authenticity
  • Staged authenticity protects hosts from
    intrusion, yet allows commercial benefits of
    tourism
  • Can any form of tourism be totally inauthentic?

46
Caves at Lascaux
47
Caves at Lascaux
48
Caves at Lascaux
49
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50
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51
Romeo and Juliet in Verona
52
Still there
  • Capello and Montecchi, the families that
    Shakespeare turned into the Capulets and
    Montagues

53
Evidence is overwhelming
  • Shakespeares characters are fictitious.
  • Most scholars believe that Shakespeare simply
    reworked an old drama by an Italian playwright.
  • Lack of factual basis offset by imagination to
    fill in the gaps left by documentation.
  • Entire package tours of tourists insist to see
    the site of the most romantic episodes in all of
    literature the immortal balcony scene.

54
Casa di Guilietta, situated at No. 27 Via Cappello
55
Authenticity?
56
Authenticity?
57
Staged Authenticity?
58
Hawaii
59
1920
60
Today
61
Also Today Hula Contest
62
Staged Authenticity and Pseudo-Events Tourism as
the Production and Consumption of Simulation
63
Producing the Lake District
  • Nothing natural about it says beautiful tourist
    site
  • So how come it is?
  • Answer symbolic construction of difference
    though signs and images and cultural production
    in general.

64
The place myth in three stages
  • Discovery
  • Interpretation (capacity of being in, seeing, and
    experiencing the site)
  • Management of the discourse
  • What activities are allowed or appropriate
  • Physical and perceptual capacity
  • Aesthetic dimensions
  • Cultural hegemony (of taste, of language,
    mobility)
  • Create attractions

65
Established place myths
  • Stonehenge
  • Lake District

66
Place myth under construction
67
Summary
  • History of tourism as the formation of the
    tourist gaze
  • The patterns of tourism consumption TODAY are
    indebted to the forces socializing the tourist
    gaze.
  • The production of place requires symbolic and
    cultural work!
  • Authenticity is a historical and cultural
    construct.
  • Authenticity as attraction superseded by staged
    authenticity as the attraction.
  • Authenticity is a floating (ie., non-essential)
    concept
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